Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ustilago avenae
(loose smut of oats)

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Datasheet

Ustilago avenae (loose smut of oats)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ustilago avenae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • loose smut of oats
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
  •         Class: Ustilaginomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Oat panicles full of smut spores on right. Uninfected oat on left.
TitleSymptoms on oat
CaptionOat panicles full of smut spores on right. Uninfected oat on left.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Oat panicles full of smut spores on right. Uninfected oat on left.
Symptoms on oatOat panicles full of smut spores on right. Uninfected oat on left.©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ustilago avenae (Pers.) Rostr.

Preferred Common Name

  • loose smut of oats

Other Scientific Names

  • Erysibe vera holci-avenacei Wallroth
  • Reticularia segetum Bulliard
  • Uredo avenae Corda
  • Uredo carbo DC
  • Uredo segetum Bulliard
  • Ustilago avenae (Pers.) Rostrup, Overs
  • Ustilago holci-avenacei (Wallr.) Cif.
  • Ustilago hordei f.sp. avenae Boerema & Verhoeven
  • Ustilago nigra Tapke
  • Ustilago perennans Rostrup
  • Ustilago segetum (Bull.) Rousel var. avenae (Pers.) Brunaud
  • Ustilago segetum (Pers.) Ditmar
  • Ustilago segetum var. avenae (Pers.) Rostrup
  • Ustilago segetum var. avenae f.sp. nigra Ainsworth & Sampson
  • Ustilgao nigra Tapke

International Common Names

  • Spanish: carbon desnudo de la avena
  • French: charbon nu de l'avoine

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Flug-: Hafer Brand; Nackt-: Hafer Brand

EPPO code

  • USTIAV (Ustilago segetum var. avenae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
  •                 Class: Ustilaginomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Ustilaginomycetidae
  •                         Order: Ustilaginales
  •                             Family: Ustilaginaceae
  •                                 Genus: Ustilago
  •                                     Species: Ustilago avenae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1993)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
AzerbaijanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-GansuPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-HebeiPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-HeilongjiangPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-HenanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-JiangsuPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-JilinPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-LiaoningPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-ShaanxiPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-ShanxiPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-DelhiPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
KyrgyzstanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
MongoliaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
TurkmenistanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
EstoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
Faroe IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-CorsicaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-CretePresentUK, CAB International (1993)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
LatviaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated); UK, CAB International (1993)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-SiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Southern RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1993);
-Northern IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-ScotlandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)

North America

BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-AlaskaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-IdahoPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-MinnesotaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-South DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-WyomingPresentUK, CAB International (1993)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / black fungal spores
Leaves / fungal growth
Whole plant / early senescence

References

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Ainsworth GC, Sampson K, 1950. The British Smut Fungi. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

CMI, 1993. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map No. 238. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Fischer GW, 1936. The longevity of smut spores in herbarium specimens. Phytopathology, 26:1118-1127

Forsberg G, Johnsson L, Lagerholm J, 2005. Effects of aerated steam seed treatment on cereal seed-borne diseases and crop yield. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 112(3):247-256

Gair R, Jenkins JEE, Lester E, 1987. Cereal pests and diseases. Cereal pests and diseases., Ed. 4:268 pp

Gaur A, Siddiqui MR, Sharma O, 1996. Studies on isolation distance for loose smut of wheat. Seed Research (New Delhi), 23(2):108-112

Gerhardson B, H÷keberg M, Johnsson L, 1998. Disease control by a formulation of a living bacterium. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1998: Volume 3: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 16-19 November 1998., 901-906; 5 ref

Johnsson L, Magyarosi T, Svensson C, 1996. The biology of smut fungi (Ustilago spp.) and seed dressing experiments against loose smut on oats. 37th Swedish Crop Protection Conference Uppsala, Sweden, 26-27 January, 1996. Uppsala, Sweden: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences), 243-256

Jones DG, Clifford BC, 1983. Cereal Diseases, their Pathology and Control. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons

Koch E, Löffler I, 2009. Partial characterization of the antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces antimycoticus FZB53. Journal of Phytopathology, 157(4):235-242. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph

Manners JG, 1971. Cereals: rusts and smuts. In: Western JH, ed. Diseases of Crop Plants. London, UK: The MacMillan Press Ltd., 226-253

Neergaard P, 1977. Seed Pathology. Volume 1. London, UK: Macmillan Press Ltd., 839 pp

Neergaard P, 1988. Tilletia caries (DC.) Tul. In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Lelliott RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA, eds. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 465-466

Neergaard P, 1988. Ustilago avenae (Pers.) Rostrup. In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Lelliott RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA, eds. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 468

Olofsson B, 1972. Investigation into smut disease on cereals. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 36(5/6):70-79

Paveley ND, Rennie WJ, Reeves JC, Wray MW, Sawson DD, Clark WS, Cockerell V, Mitchell AG, 1996. Cereal seed treament and seed treatment strategies. Research Review No. 34. London, UK: Home-Grown Cereals Authority

Punithalingam E, Waterson JM, 1970. Descriptions of pathogenic fungi and Bacteria No. 279. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Sabel'nikova V, 1977. The effectiveness of Vitavax and Benlate in the control of smuts of oats. Trudy Khar'kovskogo SKHI, No.232:64-68

Sperlingsson K, 1994. Loose smut of oats - an increasing problem? Meddelande fran Statens Utsadeskontroll, 69:55-60

Stepanovskikh AS, 1976. Characteristics of the cultivation method and resistance of barley to smut. Zashchita Rastenii, No.10:12

Thomas PL, 1978. Barley smuts in Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan, 1975-77. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 58(4):92-94

Thomas PL, 1989. Barley smuts in the Prairie Provinces of Canada, 1983-88. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(2):133-136

Thomas PL, Menzies JG, 1997. Cereal smuts in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 1989-95. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11:133-136

Tyulina LR, Mal'tseva AI, 1983. Control of barley black smut. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 8:26

Whitehead R, 1999. The UK pesticide guide 1999. The UK pesticide guide 1999., xi + 736 pp

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

UK, CAB International, 1993. Ustilago segetum var. avenae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 238.

Distribution Maps

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