Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Uromyces appendiculatus
(bean rust)

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Datasheet

Uromyces appendiculatus (bean rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Uromyces appendiculatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bean rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSymptoms on bean leaf
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Symptoms on bean leaf©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger (1816)

Preferred Common Name

  • bean rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Aecidium phaseolorum (DC.) Wallr. (1833)
  • Caoma appendiculatum Schltdl. (1824)
  • Caoma phaseoli (Pers.) Nees (1816)
  • Coeomurus phaseolorum (R. Hedw. ex DC.) Gray (1821)
  • Erysibe appendiculata (Pers.) Wallr. (1833)
  • Puccinia phaseoli Rabenh.
  • Puccinia phaseoli-trilobi Schwein. (1834)
  • Puccinia phaseolorum R. Hedw. ex DC. (1805)
  • Uredo appendiculata Pers. (1796)
  • Uredo appendiculata var. phaseoli Pers. (1801)
  • Uredo dolichi Berk. & Broome (1875)
  • Uredo phaseoli (Pers.) F. Strauss (1811)
  • Uredo phaseolorum DC. (1808)
  • Uromyces aberrans Dietel (1901)
  • Uromyces fatouae Henn. (1902)
  • Uromyces obscurus Dietel & Holw. (1897)
  • Uromyces phaseoli (Pers.) G. Winter
  • Uromyces phaseolorum (DC.) de Bary
  • Uromyces vignae-luteolae Henn. (1907)

International Common Names

  • English: brown bean rust; rust of beans; rust: bean
  • Spanish: chahuixtle del frijol; roya de la judia; roya del frijol
  • French: rouille brune du haricot; rouille de l'haricot; rouille du haricot

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Rost: Bohne

EPPO code

  • UROMAP (Uromyces appendiculatus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Uromyces
  •                                 Species: Uromyces appendiculatus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
GabonPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Khouader et al. (2013)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BhutanPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-YunnanPresentYang and Yen (1993)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
-Andhra PradeshPresentSrinivasulu et al. (2001)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
OmanPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
PakistanPresentMalka Saba et al. (2011)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SingaporePresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1981); Yik (1988); AVA (2001)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
UzbekistanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1981)

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
EstoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-CorsicaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
LatviaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MaltaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
-AzoresPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-Balearic IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1981)

North America

BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
DominicaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
MartiniquePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
Netherlands AntillesPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Vega et al. (2009)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
-ColoradoPresentMcMillan et al. (2003)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-MinnesotaPresentGroth and Ozmon (2002)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
GuamPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Norfolk IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
-AmazonasPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-GoiasPresentSantos and Rios (2000)
-Minas GeraisPresentSouza et al. (2007)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentSantos and Rios (2000)
-Santa CatarinaPresentSantos and Rios (2000)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Herb IMI (Undated)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ParaguayPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / yellowed or dead

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus mycoides Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen
Cladosporium tenuissimum Mycoparasite
Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Pathogen
Erwinia ananas uredovora Pathogen
Lecanicillium lecanii Mycoparasite

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Becerra Leor EN, Lopez Salinas E, Acosta G JA, 1994. Genetic resistance and chemical control of bean rust in the humid tropics of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, 12:35-42

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

Centurion MAPC, Kimati H, 1994. Biological control of the bean rust with antagonistic bacteria. Summa Phytopathologica, 20(3/4):179-183; 14 ref

Centurion MAPda C, Kimati H, Pereira GT, 1994. Mechanisms of action of antagonists selected for the biological control of bean rust (Uromyces phaseoli (Reben.) Wint.). Científica (Jaboticabal), 22(2):163-175; 31 ref

Cherian S, Anilkumar TB, Sulladmath VV, 1996. Evaluation of slow rusting in cowpea germplasm. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 30(4):374-379; 11 ref

Code JL, Irwin JAG, Barnes A, 1985. Comparative etiological and epidemiological studies on rust diseases of Phaseolus vulgaris and Macroptilium atropurpureum. Australian Journal of Botany, 33(2):147-157

Duniway JM, Durbin RD, 1971. Some effects of Uromyces phaseoli on the transpiration rate and stomatal response of Bean leaves. Phytopathology, 61(1):114-119

Fininsa C, 1996. Effect of intercropping bean with maize on bean common bacterial blight and rust diseases. International Journal of Pest Management, 42:51-54

Gonzalez M, Garcia E, 1996. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus). Agronomia Mesoamericana, 7:86-89

Gonzalez M, Garcia E, 1996. Evaluation of losses due to the rust on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in four sowing times in Cuba. Agronomia Mesoamericana, 7:95-98

Grafton KF, Venette JR, Chang KC, 1997. Registration of 'Maverick' pinto bean. Crop Science, 37(5):1672; 3 ref

Groth JV, Ozmon EA, 2002. Nonrandom distribution of virulences within two field collections of Uromyces appendiculatus. Phytopathology, 92(7):755-761

Imhoff MW, Leonard KJ, Main CE, 1982. Analysis of disease progress curves, gradients, and incidence-severity relationships for field and phytotron bean rust epidemics. Phytopathology, 72(1):72-80

Imhoff MW, Main CE, Leonard KJ, 1981. Effect of temperature, dew period, and age of leaves, spores, and source pustules on germination of bean rust urediospores. Phytopathology, 71(6):577-583

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience

Kale JK, Anahosur KH, 1993. Influence of sowing date on the development of cowpea rust. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(3):268-273; 9 ref

Kale JK, Anahosur KH, 1996. Chemical control of cowpea rust. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9(1):179-181; 5 ref

Kelly JD, Hosfield GL, Varner GV, Uebersax MA, Afanador LK, Taylor J, 1995. Registration of 'Newport' navy bean. Crop Science, 35(6):1710-1711; 1 ref

Khouader M, Benkirane R, Touhami AO, Douira A, 2013. Study of some Pucciniales related to cultivated plants in Morocco. (Étude de quelques Pucciniales liés aux plantes cultivées au Maroc.) Journal of Applied Biosciences, 72:5869-5882. http://m.elewa.org/JABS/2013/72/9.pdf

Liebenberg MM, Pretorius ZA, 2010. Common bean rust: pathology and control. Horticultural Reviews, 37:1-99

Lindgren DT, Eskridge KM, Steadman JR, Schaaf DM, 1995. A model for dry bean yield loss due to rust. HortTechnology, 5(1):35-37

Malka Saba, Khalid AN, Najam-ul-Sehar Afshan, 2011. Species of the genus Uromyces (Basidiomycota: Pucciniales) from Leepa Valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ and K), Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(73):16480-16483. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2011/21Nov/Saba%20et%20al.pdf

McMillan MS, Schwartz HF, Otto KL, 2003. Sexual stage development of Uromyces appendiculatus and its potential use for disease resistance screening of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Disease, 87(9):1133-1138

Mizubuti ESG, Maffia LA, Muchovej JJ, Romeiro RS, Batista UG, 1995. Selection of isolates of Bacillus subtilis with potential for the control of dry bean rust. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 20(4):540-544; 22 ref

Panse A, Davis JHC, Fischbeck G, 1997. Yield formation in mixtures of rust resistant and susceptible plants of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 178(2):111-116; 18 ref

Pedroza SA, Téliz OD, Torre ARde la, Campbell CL, 1994. Varieties and cultural practices as management tools for multiple diseases on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Puebla, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 12(2):146-154; 19 ref

Pohronezny K, Francis J, Fong WG, 1987. Strategies for chemical control of snap bean rust in Florida and their compatibility with Canadian residue tolerances. Plant Disease, 71(7):639-642

Romero A, Carri=n G, 1995. Pathogenicity of Verticillium lecanii on bean rust under greenhouse conditions. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 30(1):30-34; 29 ref

Rosas JC, Varela OI, Beaver JS, 1997. Registration of 'Tfo Canela-75' small red bean (race Mesoamerica). Crop Science, 37(4):1391; 2 ref

Ryerson DE, Heath MC, 1996. Inheritance of resistance to the cowpea rust fungus in cowpea cultivar Calico Crowder. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(4):384-391; 13 ref

Santos SC, Rios GP, 2000. Identification of physiological races of Uromyces appendiculatus in the States of Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. (Identificação de raças fisiológicas de Uromyces appendiculatus nos Estados de Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 25(4):607-611

Souza TLPO, Ragagnin VA, Sanglard DA, Moreira MA, Barros EG, 2007. Identification of races of selected isolates of Uromyces appendiculatus from Minas Gerais (Brazil) based on the new international classification system. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 32(2):104-109. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v32n2/02.pdf

Srinivasulu B, Rao MPP, Satyanarayana A, 2001. Evaluation of fungicides against urdbean rust in rice fallows. Indian Journal of Pulses Research, 14(2):158-159

Staveley JR, 1984b. Pathogenic specialization in Uromyces phaseoli in the United States and rust resistance in beans. Plant Disease, 68:95-99

Stavely JR, 1984. Genetics of resistance to Uromyces phaseoli in a Phaseolus vulgaris line resistant to most races of the pathogen. Phytopathology, 74(3):339-344

UK CAB International, 1981. Uromyces appendiculatus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 290

Vega B, Beaver JS, Jensen CEde, Steadman JR, 2009. First report of bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus Race 19-63 in Puerto Rico. Plant Health Progress, No.March:PHP-2009-0325-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=7910&photo=4434

Yang, J., Yen, W. C., 1993. Occurrence characteristics of winter vegetable diseases and its control measures in Yuanmou. Journal of Yunnan Agriculture University, 17, 9.

Yik CP, 1988. Plant disease research and service, Primary Production Department. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 16(2, Supplement):30-37

Distribution References

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. In: Land Grant Technical Report No. 44, Pago Pago, American Samoa, American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Groth J V, Ozmon E A, 2002. Nonrandom distribution of virulences within two field collections of Uromyces appendiculatus. Phytopathology. 92 (7), 755-761. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.7.755

Herb IMI, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Khouader M, Benkirane R, Touhami A O, Douira A, 2013. Study of some Pucciniales related to cultivated plants in Morocco. (Étude de quelques Pucciniales liés aux plantes cultivées au Maroc.). Journal of Applied Biosciences. 5869-5882. http://m.elewa.org/JABS/2013/72/9.pdf

Malka Saba, Khalid A N, Najam-ul-Sehar Afshan, 2011. Species of the genus Uromyces (Basidiomycota: Pucciniales) from Leepa Valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ and K), Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10 (73), 16480-16483. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2011/21Nov/Saba%20et%20al.pdf

McMillan M S, Schwartz H F, Otto K L, 2003. Sexual stage development of Uromyces appendiculatus and its potential use for disease resistance screening of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Disease. 87 (9), 1133-1138. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.9.1133

Santos S C, Rios G P, 2000. Identification of physiological races of Uromyces appendiculatus in the States of Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. (Identificação de raças fisiológicas de Uromyces appendiculatus nos Estados de Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 25 (4), 607-611.

Souza T L P O, Ragagnin V A, Sanglard D A, Moreira M A, Barros E G, 2007. Identification of races of selected isolates of Uromyces appendiculatus from Minas Gerais (Brazil) based on the new international classification system. Fitopatologia Brasileira. 32 (2), 104-109. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v32n2/02.pdf DOI:10.1590/S0100-41582007000200002

Srinivasulu B, Rao M P P, Satyanarayana A, 2001. Evaluation of fungicides against urdbean rust in rice fallows. Indian Journal of Pulses Research. 14 (2), 158-159.

UK, CAB International, 1981. Uromyces appendiculatus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 290.

Vega B, Beaver J S, Jensen C E de, Steadman J R, 2009. First report of bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus Race 19-63 in Puerto Rico. Plant Health Progress. PHP-2009-0325-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=7910&photo=4434

Yang J, Yen W C, 1993. Occurrence characteristics of winter vegetable diseases and its control measures in Yuanmou. Journal of Yunnan Agriculture University. 9.

Yik C P, 1988. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries. 16 (2, Supplement) 30-37.

Distribution Maps

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