Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Anoplolepis gracilipes
(yellow crazy ant)

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Datasheet

Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anoplolepis gracilipes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • yellow crazy ant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. gracilipes, commonly known as the yellow crazy ant (so called because of its colour and frenetic movements), has invaded native ecosystems and caused environmental damage in numerous locations worldwide, inc...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adult at sugar bait.
TitleAdult
CaptionAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adult at sugar bait.
Copyright©Eli Sarnat/PIAkey: Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adult at sugar bait.
AdultAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adult at sugar bait.©Eli Sarnat/PIAkey: Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adult at sugar bait.
TitleAdult
CaptionAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adult at sugar bait.
Copyright©Eli Sarnat/PIAkey: Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adult at sugar bait.
AdultAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adult at sugar bait.©Eli Sarnat/PIAkey: Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults at sugar bait. Note mm scale.
TitleAdult
CaptionAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults at sugar bait. Note mm scale.
Copyright©Eli Sarnat/PIAkey: Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults at sugar bait. Note mm scale.
AdultAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults at sugar bait. Note mm scale.©Eli Sarnat/PIAkey: Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults. Poon Saan, Christmas Island, Australia. April 2011.
TitleAdults
CaptionAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults. Poon Saan, Christmas Island, Australia. April 2011.
Copyright©John Tann/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults. Poon Saan, Christmas Island, Australia. April 2011.
AdultsAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults. Poon Saan, Christmas Island, Australia. April 2011.©John Tann/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults, swarming on a red-tailed tropic bird (Phaethon rubricauda). November 2013.
TitleThreatened species
CaptionAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults, swarming on a red-tailed tropic bird (Phaethon rubricauda). November 2013.
Copyright©Stefan Kropidlowski/USFWS/via flickr - CC BY-NC 2.0
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults, swarming on a red-tailed tropic bird (Phaethon rubricauda). November 2013.
Threatened speciesAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); adults, swarming on a red-tailed tropic bird (Phaethon rubricauda). November 2013.©Stefan Kropidlowski/USFWS/via flickr - CC BY-NC 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anoplolepis gracilipes Smith F. 1857

Preferred Common Name

  • yellow crazy ant

Other Scientific Names

  • Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon)
  • Anoplolepis longipes Emery 1925
  • Anoplolepis trifaciata Smith F. 1858
  • Formica gracilipes Smith F. 1857
  • Formica longipes
  • Formica longipes Jerdon 1851
  • Plagiolepis longipes
  • Plagiolepis longipes Emery 1887

International Common Names

  • English: crazy ant; long-legged ant; Maldive ant; yellow crazy ant

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gelbe Spinnerameise
  • Indonesia: gramang ant; sireum kilang
  • Japan: ashinaga-ki-ari
  • USA: long-legged ant

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. gracilipes, commonly known as the yellow crazy ant (so called because of its colour and frenetic movements), has invaded native ecosystems and caused environmental damage in numerous locations worldwide, including Hawaii (Gillespie and Reimer, 1993), the Seychelles (Haines et al., 1994) and Zanzibar (Wetterer, 2005). This species has been nominated by ISSG as one of the 100 ‘world’s worst’ invaders (ISSG, 2013).

Crazy ants prey on, or interfere in the reproduction of, a variety of arthropods, reptiles, birds and mammals. A. gracilipes also harms beneficial insects, resulting in negative impacts for the plants on which their interactions occur. In Zanzibar this species displaces the native weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, an effective predator of the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi (Way, 1953, in Holway et al. 2002). In Malaysia and Indonesia, A. gracilipes eliminates the native ants Oecophylla smaragdina and Dolichoderus spp. that protect cocoa plants against the mirid bug Helopeltis spp. (Way and Koo, 1989, in Holway et al., 2002).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Formicidae
  •                             Genus: Anoplolepis
  •                                 Species: Anoplolepis gracilipes

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Note that it should not to be confused with the similarly-named crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis) and that most literature on A. gracilipes is under its synonym A. longipes.

Description

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A. gracilipes is one of the largest invasive ants, at around 4-5 mm long (Harris et al., 2005; Sarnat, 2008). The ant, also known as the long-legged ant, is notable for its remarkably long legs and antennae. The antennae have 11 segments and the antennal scape length is more than 1.5 times the head length, a key diagnostic feature (Sarnat, 2008; Csurhes, 2012). A. gracilipes workers are monomorphic, displaying no physical differentiation (Holway et al., 2002; AntWweb, 2013). It has a yellow-brownish or reddish brown body colour, and is weakly sclerotized. Workers have a long slender gracile body, with the gaster usually darker than the head and thorax. The eyes are large and bulge well beyond the outline of the head in full face view. The mesosoma is long and slender. The prontum in particular is extended anteriorly, giving the appearance of a long ‘neck’ (AntWeb, 2013).

Distribution

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Native Range

The native range of A. gracilipes is unclear. Wilson and Taylor (1967) noted that it originated from Africa and had invaded the old world tropics. Holway et al. (2002) wrote that it may have originated from Africa or Asia, but described it as a poorly-studied species. Wetterer (2005) described A. gracilipes as likely to be from Asia, and perhaps even native to Christmas Island; however, Abbott et al. (2005) suggested that this was unlikely as: the centre of diversity for the genus is Africa, A. gracilipes is the only species distributed beyond that continent, and because the distribution of A. gracilipes in Africa appears restricted possibly to north eastern Africa. A more recent study by Chen (2008) using ecological niche modelling suggested that A. gracilipes originated from south Asia, expanded into Europe and then into Afrotropical regions, after which it formed its current distribution.

Known Introduced Range

A. gracilipes has been found widely throughout the moist tropical lowlands of Asia, the Indian ocean and the Pacific Ocean (Harris et al., 2005). Under the current climatic envelope, the suitable distribution range may include the latitudinal area from 35 S and 35 N worldwide (Chen, 2008). It has been introduced into parts of Africa, including South Africa and Tanzania (Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar); Central and South America including Brazil, Panama and Mexico; and Australia in Northern Territory (Wetterer, 2005) and Queensland (Csurhes, 2012). In tropical Asia, A. gracilipes has been recorded from most countries: Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam (Wetterer, 2005). It has been introduced onto some Caribbean Islands (McGlynn, 1999), some Indian Ocean Islands (including the Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius, La Réunion, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Rodrigues and the Christmas Islands) and some Pacific Islands, including Japan (Amama Oshima, Bonin, Okinawa and Minami-Daito islands), Polynesia (Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Hawaii, Line Islands, Marquesas Islands, Niue, Samoa, Society Islands, Tonga. Tuamotu Islands, Tuvalu and Wallis and Futuna), Micronesia (Caroline Islands, Gilbert Islands, Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands, Palau, Rotuma and Santa Cruz Islands), Melanesia (Fiji, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Vanuatu and Galapagos archipelago) (Lewis et al., 1976, Haines and Haines 1978a, Veeresh and Gubbaiah 1984, in O’Dowd et al. 1999; Holway et al., 2002; Abbott et al.,2005;Wetterer, 2005; Matsui et al., 2009).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Brunei DarussalamPresentNative1975ISSG, 2011
CambodiaPresentNative1928ISSG, 2011
ChinaPresentNative1859ISSG, 2011
-FujianPresentIntroducedbefore 1927ISSG, 2011Xiamen City
-Hong KongPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-TibetPresentIntroduced1935ISSG, 2011Zayul
-YunnanPresentIntroduced1994ISSG, 2011Liuku
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentEarliest record 1934 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Cocos IslandsPresentIntroduced<1999ISSG, 2011
IndiaPresentNative<1851ISSG, 2011
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentEarliest record <1903ISSG, 2011
-AssamPresentIntroduced1944ISSG, 2011Jorhat
-GoaPresentIntroducedafter 1980ISSG, 2011
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedAfter 1980ISSG, 2011
-KeralaPresentIntroducedafter 1980ISSG, 2011
-West BengalPresentIntroduced<1925ISSG, 2011Darjeeling
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Irian JayaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-JavaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-KalimantanPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-SulawesiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-SumatraPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
JapanPresentIntroduced1930Amami Oshima, Satsuna Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture
-Bonin IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced1930 Invasive ISSG, 2011
MalaysiaPresentNative1854ISSG, 2011
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent Invasive ISSG, 2011
-SarawakPresent Invasive ISSG, 2011
MyanmarPresentNative1887ISSG, 2011
PhilippinesPresentNative1890ISSG, 2011
SingaporePresent1854ISSG, 2011
South East AsiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Sri LankaPresentNative<1887ISSG, 2011
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1992ISSG, 2011
ThailandPresentNative1930ISSG, 2011
VietnamPresentNative<1894ISSG, 2011

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced1942ISSG, 2011Including Agalega Islands
RéunionPresentIntroduced<1895ISSG, 2011
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroduced<1954ISSG, 2011
SeychellesPresentIntroduced1962 Invasive ISSG, 2011
South AfricaPresentIntroduced<1980ISSG, 2011
TanzaniaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ZanzibarPresentIntroduced<1893ISSG, 2011

North America

MexicoWidespreadIntroduced1893ISSG, 2011
USARestricted distribution
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1950 Invasive ISSG, 2011Kauai, Maui and Oahu Islands

Central America and Caribbean

PanamaPresentIntroduced1964ISSG, 2011

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroduced1978ISSG, 2011
ChilePresentIntroduced1859ISSG, 2011

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-New South WalesEradicatedIntroduced2004 Invasive ISSG, 2011Eradicated in 2010
-QueenslandRestricted distributionIntroduced2001 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Caroline IslandsPresent1936ISSG, 2011
Cook IslandsRestricted distributionIntroduced1937 Invasive ISSG, 2011
FijiPresentIntroduced1876ISSG, 2011
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced1934ISSG, 2011
-MarquesasPresentIntroduced1925ISSG, 2011
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
KiribatiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
New CaledoniaPresentEarliest record <1882ISSG, 2011
New ZealandAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
NiuePresentIntroduced<1967ISSG, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
PalauPresentEarliest record 1936ISSG, 2011
Papua New GuineaPresentEarliest record 1896ISSG, 2011
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Solomon IslandsPresentEarliest record 1916ISSG, 2011
TokelauPresentIntroduced1934 Invasive ISSG, 2011
TongaPresentEarliest record <1870ISSG, 2011
TuvaluRestricted distributionEarliest record <1870ISSG, 2011; IPPC, 2015
VanuatuPresentEarliest record 1929ISSG, 2011
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentEarliest record 1913ISSG, 2011

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. gracilipes was accidently introduced on Christmas Island between 1915 and 1930. It is thought to have arrived by ship on produce or building material from Malaysia or Singapore (Parks Australia, 2013). The presence of the ant was noted in 1960-1970 but there were no reports of anything resembling a supercolony (Christmas Island, 2013). A single supercolony was discovered in 1989. This colony remained isolated and eventually declined. Supercolonies were again found from 1995-1997. Subsequent surveys have indicated at least 10 separate infestations, ranging from several hectares to at least 1square km, distributed throughout the island (Parks Australia, 2013). By 2001 the supercolonies affected around 2500 ha of the island, or 25% of the total rainforest area (O’Dowd et al., 2003).

A. gracilipes was first detected in Cairns, Australia, in 2001. Since then more than 20 additional sites have been found, occurring over at least 320 ha. Populations in some of these areas have been eradicated, whereas others are subject to on-going control (Csurhes and Hankamer, 2012). In 2004, A. gracilipes was first detected on Goodwood island, on the Clarence River near Yamba, New South Wales, Australia, and an eradication programme was put in place immediately (New South Wales Government, 2012). Only one naturalized population was detected and this was eradicated by 2010 (Csurhes and Hankamer, 2012).

This species was first reported in the USA on Oahu, Hawaii, in 1952 and has subsequently spread to Hawaii (Big Island), Maui and Kauai. The ant is abundant on Hawaii in the Hilo and Puna districts and at Hana on the island of Maui. Since the first detection, it has become one of the most dominant ant species on Hawaii (Krushelnycky et.al., 2005).

A. gracilipes was first recorded in Mahe in the Seychelles in 1969 and was first reported in 1972 (Lewis et al., 1976, in Heines et al., 1994). It is likely that the ants were brought in with some package from a passing ship, and this is thought to have happened in 1962. By 1970, A. gracilipes had spread to an area of about 220 ha; by 1973 some 1000 ha of the northern peninsula were infested, and it had set up at least seven other centres totalling another 100 ha around the island. By 1976, it was present in 19 centres totalling 1417 ha (Haines and Haines, 1978b, in Haines et al., 1994). A subsequent survey in 1989 showed A. gracilipes had spread to most of the island.

Establishment in new areas is almost certainly due to the accidental transfer of colonies in vehicles and in produce, such as coconut husks, vegetables and building materials (Haines et al., 1994). In 1975, A. gracilipes was accidently introduced into Praslin, Seychelles, in a shipment of prefabricated building panels (Haines and Haines, 1978b). There has been constant reinfestation close to the airstrip at Amitie, Praslin, suggesting that ants are being regularly flown in from Mahe. A possible deliberate introduction of A. gracilipes into the island of Felicite, Seychelles, resulted in the ants becoming established on more than two thirds of the island.

Lester and Tavite (2004) documented the ongoing invasion of the Tokelau atolls, north of New Zealand, by A. gracilipes. Ants were collected from two of three Tokelau atolls. On the island of Fenua Fala, of Fakaofo Atoll, the ants appear to be a recent arrival and occur in only a small area around one of the two ports. Most of the inhabited islands of Yao and Motuhunga on Nukunonu Atoll, Tokelau, have been invaded, in addition to several of the uninhabited, forested islands (Lester and Tavite, 2004).

Risk of Introduction

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Since A. gracilipes has successfully spread to essentially all parts of Asia and the western Pacific where the native vegetation is tropical rainforest, this species is likely to do well in tropical rainforest areas where it has not yet been introduced. It would be expected to thrive in the moist tropical regions of the Caribbean, Central and South America, west and central Africa, north-eastern Australia and eastern Madagascar (Wetterer, 2005). With the moderating effects of irrigation and human habitations, A. gracilipes may also be able to expand to other drier and colder regions. Noting the presence of A. gracilipes in Mexico, Wheeler (1910) stated that this ant may appear within the warmer portions of the United States (Wetterer, 2005). Wetterer (2005) noted that the potential range of A. gracilipes may be limited to habitats between 27oS and 27oN, whereas Chen (2008) indicated the potential distribution range to be from 35oS and 35oN worldwide under the current climatic envelope.

A. gracilipes is sometimes regarded as a beneficial insect and has been used as a potential biological control agent in agricultural systems (Haines et al., 1994; Holway, 2002; Lach et al., 2010). In Seychelles it is a natural enemy of some coconut pests such as the beetles Melittomma insulare and Oryctes monoceros and the coreid bug Amblypeltacocophaga (Haines, 1994). In Papua New Guinea this ant was used to control cacao weevil (Pantorhytes szentivanyi), two mirid bugs and Araucaria looper (Millionia isodoxa) (Holway, 2002). It also limits the coconut bug (Amblypelta cocophaga) in the Solomon Islands (Greenslade, 1971). However, the negative impacts of A. gracilipes would outweigh any potential benefit from biocontrol within horticultural systems.

A. gracilipes has been intercepted on a wide range of commodities entering New Zealand, most frequently on fresh produce (of different types) and in empty containers. Timber, personal effect and various miscellaneous freight types are commodities with which the ant is commonly associated (Abbott, 2005). Although A. gracilipes has been intercepted at the country's borders it has not become established and is a regulated pest in New Zealand.

A. gracilipes is a ‘quarantine pest’ in the United States and the Republic of Korea, but not listed as an invasive species in North America (Csurhes and Hankamer, 2012).

Habitat

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A. gracilipes is primarily a species of lowland, tropical forest. Most collection records are below 1200m in elevation and from moist habitats (Wetterer, 2005; Abbott et al., 2005). In Hawaii it is usually found from sea level to about 600 metres in elevation (Mau and Kessing, 1992). A. gracilipes preferred moist habitats in India (Veeresh, 1987, in Harris et al., 2005).

It is known to invade disturbed habitats such as urban areas, forest edges and agricultural fields (Ness and Bronstein, 2004). The ability to live in human dwellings or human-frequented areas has meant it has become a serious pest in many households and buildings (O’Dowd et al., 1999). However, Harris et al. (2005) noted that this species does not appear to have a close association with urban buildings like other tramp species and has not been reported established in heating buildings in cities in temperate regions.

A. gracilipes has been known to successfully colonise a variety of agricultural systems, including cinnamon, citrus, coffee, cocoa and coconut plantations (Van Der Goot, 1916; Entwistle, 1972, in Holway et al., 2002; Haines and Haines 1978b; Passera, 1994; O’Dowd et al., 1999) and on mango, sugarcane (Passera, 1994), banana, rambutan, durian and langsat (Jochen Drescher, pers. comm., May 2010). In agricultural regions it is typically found nesting at the base, or even in the crown, of crop plants. For example, in New Guinea it nests in the crowns of coconut trees, feeding off honeydew-producing scale insects and palm flower nectar (Young, 1996, in O’Dowd et al., 1999).

A. gracilipes is also capable of invading undisturbed habitats, as in the case of the drier monsoon forests on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), where it experienced a population explosion and now thrives in (previously) undisturbed native forest habitats (CBD, 2003); however, it is not known to enter lowland rainforest or submontane rainforest (Jochen Drescher, pers. Comm., May 2010). The nesting requirements of the ant are general and it often nests under leaf litter or in cracks and crevices (Lewis et al., 1976; Rao and Veeresh, 1991, in O’Dowd et al., 1999). On Christmas Island, A. gracilipes takes advantage of crab burrows, woody debris of the forest floor, tree hollows, epiphytes and the hollows created at the base of palm leaves (O’Dowd et al., 1999).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)SterculiaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition

A. gracilipes has a broad diet, characteristic of many invasive ants. A generalised feeding regime increases the invasiveness of an ant due to the increased ability to gain nutrition from available resources including grains, seeds, arthropods, decaying matter and vegetation (Holway et al., 2002; Ness and Bronstein, 2004). A. gracilipes is a scavenger and preys on a variety of litter and canopy invertebrates, such as small isopods, myriapods, molluscs, arachnids, land crabs and insects (O’Dowd et al., 1999). It has been called subsequently a ‘scavenging predator’. In the Seychelles, it feeds on invertebrates and attacks, kills, and dismembers large arthropods (Haines et al., 1994, in O’Dowd et al., 1999). Like all ants, it requires proteinaceous foods for brood production (O’Dowd et al., 1999).

In addition to protein-rich foods A. gracilipes may rely heavily on carbohydrate-rich nutrient sources, such as plant nectar or honeydew-producing sap sucking insects, particularly scale insects (especially insects in the  Order Hemiptera). In the Seychelles, the quantity of honeydew in a 2.5mg worker is estimated to be up to 50% (Haines et al., 1994, in O’Dowd et al., 1999). The presence of scale insects may be so important as to limit population growth. For example, in cocoa plantations in Papua New Guinea scale insect populations are thought to be necessary to support and sustain A. gracilipes colonies (Holway et al., 2002).

Foraging Behaviour

Although A. gracilipes typically nests under leaf litter or in holes in the ground, it forages extremely competitively over every surface within its territory, including forests trees (Room, 1975, in O’Dowd et al., 1999). Its ability to forage throughout the day and night and over a wide range of temperatures allows it to rapidly alter invaded ecosystems. High temperatures (such as those that occur around midday) and surface ground temperatures of 44°C may prevent workers from foraging. Ant activity begins to decline from around 25°C and foraging may be limited by heavy rain and strong winds (Mau and Kessing, 1992). Researchers have reported an increase in both foraging activity and nest size in the dry season. A. gracilipes exhibits frenetic behaviour when its foraging is disturbed, which presumably explains its common name.

Reproduction

A. gracilipes colonies are polygynous (multi-queened) and generally without intraspecific aggression among workers (Haines and Haines, 1978b, in Passera, 1994), although interspecific competition appeared to occur between ants from different nests on Tokelau (Lesterand Tavite, 2004). Densities of 20 million ants per hectare have been recorded on Christmas Island (Abbott et al., 2005).

Worker production fluctuates but is continuous throughout the year. Sexual offspring may occur year-round, but are generally produced seasonally (prior to the rainy season) (Baker, 1976, in O’Dowd et al., 1999). Colony budding is an important form of dispersal for the ant, although mating flights of winged queens and males (known as alates) have been observed on Christmas Island (Abbott et al., 2005). It is unclear if winged-forms of the ant are able to start new colonies. Budding is a slower means of dispersal than dispersal by alate flights. On the Seychelles, colonies have been reported to spread 37-402 m a year (Holway et al., 2002) and 1100 m a year on Christmas Island (equivalent to average spread of 3m per day) (O’Dowd et al., 1999, in Csurhes and Hankamer, 2012). Colonies readily migrate if disturbed (Passera, 1994). Nest size averages about 4000 individuals (Mau and Kessing, 1992).

Lifecycle Stages

The life cycle of A. gracilipes has been estimated to take 76-84 days at 20-22oC. Eggs hatch in 18-20 days, and worker larvae develop in 16-20 days. Pupae of workers require around 20 days to develop while those of queens develop in 30-34 days. Workers live approximately 6 months, and the queens for several years. Queens lay about 700 eggs annually throughout their life span (Rao and Veeresh, 1991).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hypophrictis dolichoderella Predator

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Greenslade (1972) reported that A. gracilipes appeared to have no important enemies.  As a member of the subfamily Formicinae (it sprays formic acid which it stores in its abdomen), it is unpalatable to most vertebrate predators.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction Pathways to New Locations

Agriculture:A. gracilipes has been known to successfully colonise a variety of agricultural systems, including cinnamon, citrus and coffee crops and coconut plantations (Van Der Goot, 1916, in Holway et al., 2002; Haines and Haines, 1978; O’Dowd et al., 1999). Because of this, the movement of produce or habitat material out of ant-invaded agricultural regions could potentially facilitate the long distance dispersal of the ant.
Agriculture: Translocated in soil, produce and timber.
Aircraft: Transported in packaging material, timber and air containers.
Military: Transported in road vehicles, machinery, boats and aircraft.
Nursery trade: Transported in soil and produce.
Other: Deliberate introductions for biological control of plant pests on coconut, coffee and cacao plantations.
Road vehicles (long distance): Transported in soil, packaging materials and pallets.
Seafreight (container/bulk): Transported in goods, packaging and pallets in container. A. gracilipes has entered Australian ports in sea cargo containers in Cairns and Brisbane, Queensland, New South Wales and has been intercepted in Fremantle, Western Australia (Csurhes and Hankamer, 2012). New infestations on Tokelau arrive in produce transported on boats from Samoa (Lester and Tavite, 2004).

Local Dispersal Methods

Agriculture (local): Because A. gracilipes has successfully colonised a variety of agricultural systems, agricultural activities are likely to aggravate the spread of the ants locally.
Boat: Translocated in packaging material, timber, produce, soil and plants.
Natural dispersal (local): Colonies rarely disperse via winged female reproductive forms, and instead rely on colony ‘budding’ for colony dispersal. The rate of spread is lower than that of colonies able to disperse via flight. Species that reproduce and disperse solely by budding depend to a greater extent on human-mediated dispersal instead of natural dispersal for the colonisation of distant locations. However, A. gracilipes has spread about 37 to 402 m per year in the Seychelles, which is relatively high (Holway et al., 2002). On Christmas Island, an infestation of A. gracilipes expanded 1100 m in one year. This represents more than a ten-fold increase in area and an average spread of about three metres per day (O’Dowd et al., 1999).
Natural dispersal (local): Colony budding.
Other (local): Redistribution for biological control on coconut, coffee and cacao plantations.
Road vehicles: Translocated in packaging material, timber, produce, soil and plants.
Translocation of machinery/equipment (local): Movement of contaminated mining and agricultural equipment.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Biological control Yes
Crop production Yes Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Yes
Military movements Yes
Nursery trade Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

High densities of A. gracilipes have the potential to devastate native 'keystone' species, resulting in a rapid alteration of ecosystem processes and negative effects on endemic species. The most notable example concerns the native forests of Christmas Island, in which populations of the yellow crazy ant have exploded in recent decades (at least 60 years after its initial introduction) (CBD, 2003). On the island the ant is continuously active and realises a broad diet, tending honeydew-producing scale insects (Tachardina aurantiaca) and causing their populations to explode (CBD, 2003). This results in an increased level of carbohydrate-rich honeydew residues on tree surfaces and an increase in the growth of sooty moulds on trees and tree death (CBD, 2003). A.gracilipes populations have also proven devastating to native land crabs, including the red land crab Gecarcoidea natalis, of which up to 20 million have died due to the formidable formic acid it possessed by the ant (O’Dowd et al., 1999; Parks Australia, 2005). Regulators of the natural island rainforest ecosystem, land crabs maintain high nutrient cycling rates in the forest ecosystem by degrading leaf litter, reducing new seedling recruitment and speeding up the microbial decomposition processes (CBD, 2003; Parks Australia, 2005). The loss of the crab, as well as other changes incited by the high densities of the ant, are presenting serious problems to native habitats and endemic species on the island, as well as indirectly threatening tourism and the aesthetic value of the island for the public. As well as significantly and quickly altering the natural ecosystem processes and the associated environment, the yellow crazy ant has reduced native bird, reptile and mammal life. The excellent competitive ability of the ant is thought to be due to the ant’s high foraging intensity and its greater foraging ability (for example it is able to utilise food sources in difficult-to-reach locations such as the rain forest canopy) (O’Dowd et al. 1999). Although less than 5% of the rainforest on Christmas Island has been invaded so far, scientists are concerned that endangered birds such as the Abbott’s booby (Sula abbotti), which nests nowhere else in the world, could eventually be driven to extinction through habitat alteration and direct attack by the ants (O’Dowd et al., 1999; 2003).

The ant threatens many endemic and endangered species, especially on islands, and undermines any potential or actual tourism investments. For example, on Bird Island in the Seychelles the tourism sector has been threatened by the ants’ displacement of about 60,000 pairs of sooty terns (Sterna fuscata), a main attraction of the island (Feare, 1999, in CBD, 2003).

The ant has the potential to impart significant damage, or alternatively be advantageous to agricultural systems and plant species, depending on variables such as the crop, the geographical region and the types of pest and/or beneficial insects present. The yellow crazy ant generally benefits honeydew-producing, plant-damaging insects, which would be expected to increase in number, while other insects (both plant- commensals and plant-exploiters) may be preyed by the ant and decrease in number. The mutualism between A. gracilipes and honeydew-secreting Hemiptera has also cause insect population explosions in native habitats, resulting in the growth of moulds on, and the dieback of, important canopy trees. High densities of A. gracilipes on Bird Island, Seychelles, are associated with high densities of coccid scale insects on the native tree Pisonia grandis, causing some tree mortality and a reduction in the number and density of invertebrate species on foliage and on the ground (Hill et al., 2003, in Csurhes and Hankamer, 2012).

In rural areas, A. gracilipes can become a severe household and field nuisance. When disturbed it sprays formic acid, a chemical that can cause burns and irritation when it comes in contact with the skin or the eyes.

Invasion by the ant may facilitate secondary invasions. On Christmas Island the giant African landsnail, Achatina fulica and some woody weeds increased in invaded areas. In introduced regions A. gracilipes forms super colonies, which gives it a greater potential to reach high local densities and dominate habitats (Holway et al., 2002; Ness and Bronstein, 2004; McGlynn, 1999). “Uniclonal” refers to the social structure of an ant colony, and is used to describe the cooperation of several ant nests (each with its own queen) to provide food, resources and care for individuals in all nests. This multinest (polydomous) and multi-queen (polygynous) structure increases the probability of colony survival, because the unit as a whole has access to a larger variety and number of resources at any time, and is able to use surplus resources more effectively. Uniclonal nests of A. gracilipes can contain upwards of 300 queens and between 2 500 and 36 000 workers and have been reported to extend over areas as large as 150 hectares. In contrast “multiclonal” colonies are monodomous and monogynous (one nest, one queen) and consist of workers that attend to and provide for only one queen and her nest. Such colonies have less access to potential resources and may be less resilient (McGlynn, 1999). In multiclonal colonies the workers defend one queen and exhibit high aggression, defend the nest from other colonies. These colonies may also aggressively and episodically raid the nests of other ant species. The competitive pressure in uniclonal colonies, on the other hand is lower with the workers cooperating as a “supercolony” to recruit food items (Ness and Bronstein, 2004; McGlynn, 1999)

For a summary of the general impacts of invasive ants, such as their effect on mutualistic relations, the competitive pressure they impose on native ants and the effect they may have on vulnerable ecosystems please read this document: invasive ants impacts compiled by the ISSG.

In India, native ants are reported to have been displaced by A. gracilipes (ISSG, 2013); two predatory ant species, Oecophylla smaragdina and Leptogenys processionalis, were eliminated by A. gracilipes in India (Veeresh and Gubbbbaiah, 1984, in Csurhes and Hankamer, 2012). In Tokelau 50% of ants recorded from the seven Islands are absent in areas inhabited by A. gracilipes haplotype D (Abbott et al., 2007, in Lach et al., 2010). Similarly, Lester and Tavite (2004) observed a negative correlation between A, gracilipes abundance and ant species richness in Tokelau.

In the Seychelles A. gracilipes kill land crabs of the genus Cardiosoma, cause nest failure in some birds such as sooty tern (Sterna fruscata) and white tern (Gygis alba) (Feare, 1999 in Holway et al., 2002), and the Seychelles' endemic skink Mabuya seychellensis has disappeared from the areas where the ant was abundant (Feare, 1999, in Harris et al., 2005).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Gecarcoidea natalis (Christmas Island red crab)No details No detailsChristmas Island (Indian Ocean)ISSG, 2011
Sterna fuscata (sooty tern)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)SeychellesISSG, 2011
Hylaeus anthracinus (anthricinan yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014a
Hylaeus assimulans (assimulans yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014b
Hylaeus facilis (easy yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014c
Hylaeus hilaris (hilaris yellow-faced bee)USA ESA species proposed for listing USA ESA species proposed for listingHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014d
Hylaeus kuakea (Hawaiian yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014e
Hylaeus longicepsUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014f
Hylaeus manaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014g

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Predation

Detection and Inspection

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Ant identification can be done using morphological characters by a trained entomologist to species level. The Pacific Invasive Ant Key (PIAKey) and Pacific Invasive Ants Taxonomy Workshop Manual can both be used in identifying invasive ants in the Pacific region. A key diagnostic feature of A. gracilipes is the antennae, which have 11 segments and an antennal scape length more than 1.5 times the head length (Sarnat, 2008; Csurhes, 2012).

The detection method described below can be carried out in the field or in a port environment:

Bait station surveillance with high energy food source and visual inspection should be carried out to detect any suspected ants. Ant detection surveys should be conducted on sunny days between 20°C (18°C for cooler areas) and 36°C. Optimal temperatures are required to take advantage of the most favourable foraging conditions as an increase in temperature increases ant activity. Surveying is stopped if it rains or there is high wind.

Ensure survey/surveillance occurs within the defined ‘risk area’. A risk ais any place where an imported risk item (sea containers or imported timber, for example) has rested. Surveillance areas are defined as habitable ground within a 150 m radius of a risk site.

Visual Surveillance

Visual inspection should be carried out while conducting the bait station surveillance over the area and inspecting all trees and shrubs that are flowering or exhibit symptoms of sooty mould growth from eye height down. Where ants are found, collect specimens and place in labelled sample bottles. Mark each location where ants were found so that the locations can be found again.

Separate protein and sugar based baits should be composed and laid as follows:

  1. Protein based bait: prepare protein based bait station (~60ml clear plastic container with a lid) by smearing in a line the blended peanut butter and soybean oil (the size of half a pea) to the inner side of each bait container  on the side corresponding with the back of the label. In addition, a slice of processed sausage or smear of raw sausage meat is to be placed inside each pot.
  2. Sugar based bait composition: prepare sugar based bait station by placing a plug of cotton wool soaked in 30% sugar solution inside the container, being sure to squeeze out the cotton ball to ensure ants can feed on the liquid without drowning. Alternatively, a smear of sugary jam may be used.

Each bait container (station) should be labelled with at least the date and the site name. Ants typically locate these baits with their natural foraging behaviour and will recruit additional worker ants to feed upon the bait.

Where the ant habitat is continuous, baits should be laid in rows 7-8 m apart, alternating between protein and sugar baits. Where the ant habitat is isolated, at least one of each bait type should be laid (minimum of one protein and one sugar bait stations within 15 square metres), ensuring they are at least 1 m apart. Ground locations of the bait stations should be marked with a crayon or spray paint spot during the course of surveillance. Bait stations should be collected approximately after two hours when temperature is between 20-24.9°C and after 30 minutes between 25-36°C after being laid. In the tropics bait stations should be placed in the shade where possible, as at temperatures above 28°C these baits are known to rapidly dry out, reducing their attractiveness to ants. Lids are put on the bait containers (station) to prevent ants escaping when they are collected. All bait stations should be sent to an entomologist to identify all samples in the bait station (as more than one species could be found in a bait station) and may require assistance from an expert to confirm the identifications (Sarty, 2007; Stringer et al., 2010; Gunawardana et al., 2013).

Prevention and Control

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Preventative Measures (Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

The Pacific Ant Prevention Programme is a proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional Technical Meeting for Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent invasive ant species from establishing within or spreading between countries in the Pacific.

A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand was prepared as part of 'The Invasive Ant Risk Assessment Project' (Harris et al., 2005) for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, New Zealand. A. gracilipes was scored as a high-risk threat to New Zealand by Harris (2005), which can be viewed at Anoplolepis gracilipes risk assessment. Please see Anoplolepis gracilipes information sheet  for more information on biology, distribution, pest status and control technologies (ISSG, 2013).

Chemical Control

Toxic baiting is the most effective method to control A. gracilipes. Successful control programmes have been carried out for high densities of A. gracilipes in both the Seychelles (Haines and Haines 1979a, 1979b) and on the Christmas Island (Green et al., 2004 and Boland et al., 2011), using toxic baits distributed throughout infested areas.

A toxic bait for the control of A. gracilipes in the Seychelles was developed by Haines and Haines (1979b,c in Haines et al., 1994 ) using salt, sugar and yeast (marmite) and coir (a waste product from the coconut-fibre industry) as the bait carrier, with animal fat used as the solvent for the toxin. The marmite (yeast) constituent of the bait matrix was highly attractive to A. gracilipes foragers. Haines and Haines (1979b,c in Haines et al., 1994) found A. gracilipes preferred solid protein baits rather than solid sugary baits. Sweet liquid bait formulations were almost as effective in the field as solid protein baits, but solid baits were more practical for large-scale applications (Haines and Haines 1979b,c in Haines et al., 1994).

Preference by A. gracilipes for solid protein baits has been confirmed in more recent control programmes. After laboratory and field trials to test the attractiveness of various commercial ant baits for control of A.gracilipes on Christmas Island, fish meal bait with fipronil was found to be the most attractive (Green et al., 2004, in Stanley, 2004). A heli-baiting (spread by helicopter) operation in 2002 on Christmas Island used high concentration fipronil to eradicate all targeted supercolonies.

The campaign reduced ant abundance by an average of 99.4% within four weeks at all treated supercolonies (Green et al., 2004, in Boland et al., 2011). As supercolonies began to develop steadily across the island, Boland et al. (2011) heli-baited 785 ha of supercolonies, this time using low concentrated (one tenth of the previous concentration) fipronil. All targeted supercolonies were again controlled, with ant activity reduced by 98.4% four weeks after baiting, and remained reduced by 99.2% 20 weeks after baiting. Regular treatments using fish meal bait are required to keep ant abundance low and prevent the formation of supercolonies (Green et al., 2004, in Stanely 2004). For small localised incursions, direct nest treatment (direct application of insecticide to nests) is likely to be sufficient (Abott et al., 2005).

More recently Webb and Hoffmann (2013) tested the efficacy of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen in Northern Australia against three invasive ant species, including A. gracilipes, and indicated that it had great potential for invasive ants.

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Reimer, N. J., Beardsley, J. W. and Jahn, G. 1990. Pest ants in the Hawaiian Islands. Applied myrmecology, a world perspective. In Vander Meer, R. K., Jaffe, K. and Cedeno, A.. Boulder, CO, Westview Press: 40-50.

Room, P. M. 1975. Diversity and organization of the ground foraging ant faunas of forest, grassland and tree crops in Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 23: 71-89.

Room, P. M. 1980. Insect fauna of oil palm in the Northern Province of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Agric. J. 31: 1-4.

Sakimura and Higa 1967. The long-legged ant, new to pineapple. Pineapple Research Institute News 15: 48-53.

Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California — Davis. http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html

Slip., D. J. , 2002. Control of the invasive exotic yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 406 - 414 IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Soans, A. B. and Soans, J. S. 1971. A case of intergeneric competition and replacement in the ants Oecophylla smaragdina (Fab.) and Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 68: 289-290.

Stanaway, M. A., Zalucki, M. P., Gillespie, P. S. and Rodriquez, C. M. 2001. Pest risk assessment of insects in sea cargo containers. Australian Journal of Entomology 40: 180-192.

Stanley, M. C. 2004. Review of the efficacy of baits used for ant control and eradication. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0405/044. Prepared for: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/ants/BaitEfficacyReport.pdf

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Vander Meer, R. K., Jaffe, K. and Cedeno, A. 1990. Applied Myrmecology: A World Perspective. Boulder, CO, Westview Press.

Veeresh, G. K. 1987. Pest status of crazy ant Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) in Karnataka, India, and causes for its outbreak. In Chemistry and biology of social insects. J. Eder and H. Rembold. Munich, Peperny: 667-668.

Veeresh, G. K. 1990. Pest ants of India. Applied Myrmecology, A World Perspective. In Vander Meer, R. K., Jaffe, K. and Cedeno, A.. Boulder, CO. 741 pp., Westview Press: 15-24.

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Way, M. J. 1953. The relationship between certain ant species with particular reference to biological control of the coreid, Theraptus spp. Bull. Entomol. Res. 44: 669-691.

Way, M. J. and Khoo, K. C. 1989. Relationships between Helopeltis theobromae damage and ants with special reference to Malaysian cocoa smallholdings. J. Plant Prot Trop 6: 1-11.

Way, M. J. and Khoo, K. C. 1992. Role of ants in pest management. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 37: 479-503.

Wetterer, J. K. (2005). Worldwide distribution and potential spread of the long-legged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 45(1): 77-97.

Wetterer, J. K. 1997. Ants On Cecropia in Hawaii. Biotropica 29(1): 128-132.

Wetterer, J. K. 1998. Nonindigenous ants associated with geothermal and human disturbances in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Pacific Science 52(1): 40-50.

Williams, D. F. 1994. Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Wilson, E. O. and Taylor, R. W. 1967. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monog. 14: 1-109.

Young, G. R. 1996. The Crazy Ant, Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on coconut palms in New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 39(2): 10-13.

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Young GR, 1996. An association between the crazy ant Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the coconut spathe moth, Tirathaba rufivena (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on coconut palms in the Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea. 1. Surveys to determine the extent. Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 39(1):1-6

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03/11/13: Datasheet reviewed by:

Disna Gunawardana, Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand

Modified: Monday, September 28, 2009
 

    Original text compiled by: Dr. Dennis O'Dowd, Centre for Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions, Australia & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

 


 

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