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Datasheet

Anoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anoplophora chinensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black and white citrus longhorn
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Beetles are black and shiny, with white pubescence forming small white irregular spots on each elytron and usually covering the scutellum. Length is about 19-40 mm.
TitleAdult
CaptionBeetles are black and shiny, with white pubescence forming small white irregular spots on each elytron and usually covering the scutellum. Length is about 19-40 mm.
CopyrightClive Lau
Beetles are black and shiny, with white pubescence forming small white irregular spots on each elytron and usually covering the scutellum. Length is about 19-40 mm.
AdultBeetles are black and shiny, with white pubescence forming small white irregular spots on each elytron and usually covering the scutellum. Length is about 19-40 mm.Clive Lau
Typical cerambycid beetles, recognized by the long antennae reaching to at least the end of the body.
TitleAdult
CaptionTypical cerambycid beetles, recognized by the long antennae reaching to at least the end of the body.
CopyrightClive Lau
Typical cerambycid beetles, recognized by the long antennae reaching to at least the end of the body.
AdultTypical cerambycid beetles, recognized by the long antennae reaching to at least the end of the body. Clive Lau

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771)

Preferred Common Name

  • black and white citrus longhorn

Other Scientific Names

  • Anoplophora chinensis Breuning 1944
  • Anoplophora malasiaca (Thomson)
  • Anoplophora malasiaca malasiaca Samuelson 1965
  • Anoplophora perroudi Pic 1953
  • Anoplophora sepulchralis Breuning 1944
  • Callophora afflicta Thomson 1865
  • Callophora luctuosa Thomson 1865
  • Calloplophora abbreviata Thomson 1865
  • Calloplophora malasiaca Thomson 1865
  • Calloplophora sepulcralis Thomson 1865
  • Cerambyx chinensis Forster 1771
  • Cerambyx farinosus Houttuyn 1766
  • Cerambyx pulchricornis Voet 1778
  • Cerambyx sinensis Gmelin 1790
  • Lamia punctator Fabricius 1777
  • Melanauster chinensis (Forster)
  • Melanauster chinensis Matsumura 1908
  • Melanauster chinensis macularius Kojima 1950
  • Melanauster chinensis var. macularia Bates 1873
  • Melanauster chinensis var. macularis Matsushita 1933
  • Melanauster chinensis var. Sekimacularius Seki 1946
  • Melanauster macularius Kolbe 1886
  • Melanauster malasiacus Aurivillius 1922
  • Melanauster perroudi Pic 1953

International Common Names

  • English: citrus longhorn beetle; citrus longhorned beetle; citrus root cerambycid; mulberry white spotted longicorn; white-spotted longicorn beetle
  • French: capricorne á points blancs

Local Common Names

  • Japan: gomadara-kamikiri; hosi-kamikiri

EPPO code

  • ANOLCN (Anoplophora chinensis)
  • ANOLMA (Anoplophora malasiaca)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Cerambycidae
  •                             Genus: Anoplophora
  •                                 Species: Anoplophora chinensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page After many years of confusion, the Genus Anoplophora was revised by Lingafelter and Hoebeke (2002). Earlier uncertainty resulted from some workers using colour variation between features to distinguish specimens from different regions of China, Japan and South-East Asia and to split them into separate species. For example, Gressitt (1951) recognized A. chinensis and A. malasiaca as two distinct species on the basis of A. malasiaca having pale pubescence on the pronotum but Duffy (1968) considered them a single species. A. malasiaca has been treated as synonymous with, or as a variation of, A. chinensis or A. macularia for over 100 years (Bates, 1873; Matsushita, 1933; Breuning, 1949, 1961). Most recently Lingafelter and Hoebeke (2002) synonymised A. malasiaca with A. chinensis because they share so many characteristic features. They argued that A. chinensis and A. malasiaca could not be separated on the basis of the colour and size of elytral macula and the presence or absence of hair on the pronotum because the variation of such features is considerable and overlaps in specimens from the same locality.

Description

Top of page Eggs

The egg is elongate, subcylindrical, white and about 6 mm long (Gressitt, 1942). The chorion is off-white, turning yellowish-brown closer to hatching (Lieu, 1945).

Larvae

The larva is elongate, cylindrical, up to 56 mm long and 10 mm at its broadest point across the prothorax; it lacks obvious legs. It tapers gradually behind the prothorax towards the end of the abdomen, but is then slightly broadened apically. It is pale yellowish-white, with the anterior part of the head pitchy-black. There are some yellow, chitinized patterns on the prothorax. The pronotum has a narrow orange transverse band near the anterior margin and a large, orange, raised area posteriorly. The ocelli, one on each side, are slightly chitinized on the surface and are ventro-lateral to the antennae. The antennae are very short, three-segmented (Lieu, 1945; Nakamura and Kojima, 1981). An illustrated description of the larva was provided by Gressitt (1942) and by Duffy (1968). Duffy also keyed out all the known Oriental cerambycid larvae, including A. chinensis.

Pupae

The pupa is light yellow, 24 to 35 mm long, with legs and long, coiled antennae (Kawada, 1975).

Adults

Typically cerambycid in shape, adults are black and shiny, 21 (male) to 37 (female) mm long, with long antennae, 1.7-2 times body length in males; 1.2 times body length in females. The head, antennae, legs and underside are covered with very fine pale-blue to white pubescence. The head is held vertically downwards, with maxillary palpi tapering apically. Antennae are inserted on distinct prominences forming a strong V on the top of the head. The basal segment of the antennae has a distinct apical scar-like region. Antennal joints are black with a blue-grey base. The pronotum is transverse, with a stout lateral spine at each side and a raised area medially in the basal half. The legs appear to have four segments excluding the claws, but with the third segment strongly bilobed and almost concealing the very small fourth segment at the base of the true fifth, claw-bearing segment. Male fore tarsi are larger than those of the female. Elytral pubescence form several irregular, white to blue spots and usually covering the scutellum. The male has the elytra narrowed distally. The sides of the female elytra are parallel and rounded distally. On mainland China, most A. chinensis have white rather than blue pubescence, which is usually seen in Japanese specimens although rarely some have neither white or blue patches on the elytra, and resemble A. leechi (Duffy, 1968; Kusama and Takakuwa, 1984; EPPO, 1997b).

For a detailed description and colour photographs, see Lingafelter and Hoebeke (2002).

Distribution

Top of page

The distribution of A. chinensis has been confused with other Anoplophora species for many years because of taxonomic confusion (Kojima and Hayashi, 1969; Kusama and Takakuwa, 1984; Saito and Ohbayashi, 1989; Adachi, 1994; Carvey et al., 1998; Fukaya et al., 2000). Since Lingafelter and Hoebke (2002) synonymised A. malasiaca with A. chinensis, it is considered to occur primarily in China, Japan and Korea. Within China it is found in all but the most northern prefectures (CABI/EPPO, 2008). In Japan it is found from the southern part of Hokkaido to Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Archipelago, in the south (Azuma, 1975; Kiyosawa et al., 1981; Hayashi, 1985). It is widespread in the southern part of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea including Cheju Island (Lee, 1982).

CABI/EPPO (2008) report A. chinensis as present with restricted distribution in the USA on the basis of interceptions from plants said to originate in Hawaii (Sorauer, 1954). Hua (1982) recorded A. chinensis from North America but did not provide further details. Although the species has been intercepted at ports or found in association with plants recently imported from Asia, it is not presently known to be established in the USA or Canada (Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002). Reports of A. chinensis establishing in the UK (Cooter, 1998) have subsequently been found to be erroneous (Cooter, 2000). 

The first published record of A. chinensis occuring on natural vegetation in Europe, as opposed to on imported plant material, was in 2001 (Colombo and Limonta, 2001) although it is suggested that the pest may have been present since 1997. Eradication efforts are underway in Italy (EPPO 2002a).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaWidespreadNativeAPPPC, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-GansuPresentGressitt, 1951; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongWidespreadGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentGressitt, 1951; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HainanPresentGressitt, 1942; Gressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentGressitt, 1951; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; APPPC, 1987; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentGressitt, 1951; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentGressitt, 1951; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentDuffy, 1968; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-MacauPresentEPPO. 1997a; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentGressitt, 1951; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanWidespreadGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-TibetPresentGressitt, 1951; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaRestricted distributionLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraRestricted distributionLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadNativeGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lee, 1982; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoWidespreadHayashi and, 1985; Saito and Ohbayashi, 1989; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuWidespreadHayashi and, 1985; Saito and Ohbayashi, 1989; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuWidespreadHayashi and, 1985; Saito and Ohbayashi, 1989; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoWidespreadGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Hayashi and, 1985; Saito and Ohbayashi, 1989; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuWidespreadHayashi and, 1985; Saito and Ohbayashi, 1989; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentLee, 1982; Kusama and Takakuwa, 1984; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lee, 1982; Kusama and Takakuwa, 1984; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaRestricted distributionNativeLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaRestricted distributionLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentNativeGressitt, 1951; Duffy, 1968; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyTransient: actionable, under eradicationIPPC, 2016
VietnamRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

North America

USAEradicatedLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaAbsent, unreliable recordLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-GeorgiaEradicatedEPPO, 2002a; USDA-APHIS, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiAbsent, never occurredLingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonEradicatedEPPO, 2002a; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinEradicatedEPPO, 2002a; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Europe

CroatiaEradicatedVukadin and Hrasovec, 2008; EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014EPPO Reporting Service No. 2011/238.
DenmarkEradicatedIPPC, 2011; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015
FinlandAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
FranceEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-France (mainland)EradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008
GermanyEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GuernseyTransient: actionable, under eradicationEPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2002a; Colombo and Limonta, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Italy (mainland)Present, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2008
LithuaniaAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2016
NetherlandsEradicatedNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
PolandAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
UKTransient: actionable, under eradicationADAS, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2008
-England and WalesTransient: actionable, under eradicationCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page A. chinensis is a quarantine pest for the European Union and EPPO. The species presents a significant risk to Citrus-growing countries around the Mediterranean. A. chinensis is also a quarantine pest in Canada (EPPO, 2002b).

Habitat

Top of page In China, A. chinensis is extremely abundant in all lowland orchards (Duffy, 1968).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page A. chinensis is a polyphagous xylophile i.e. a species that attacks many species of living tree. Over 100 species in at least 26 families can be attacked (Kojima and Nakamura, 1986; EPPO, 1997b; Lingafelter and Hoebeke, 2002) especially in orchards where it is regarded as a serious pest of Citrus (Yamaguchi and Ohtake, 1986; Mitomi et al., 1990). Malus, Pylus, Alnus and Platanus also suffer serious damage (Research Group of Alder-tree-pests, 1972; Aono and Murakoshi, 1980; Ito et al., 1980; Yamaguchi and Ohtake, 1986; Ohga et al., 1995).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acacia decurrens (green wattle)FabaceaeWild host
Acacia mearnsii (black wattle)FabaceaeWild host
Acer (maples)AceraceaeOther
Acer negundo (box elder)AceraceaeOther
Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)AceraceaeOther
Acer pictum (painted maple)AceraceaeOther
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)FabaceaeWild host
Alnus (alders)BetulaceaeWild host
Alnus alnobetula (green alder)BetulaceaeWild host
Alnus firmaBetulaceaeWild host
Alnus hirsuta (Siberian alder)BetulaceaeWild host
Alnus pendulaBetulaceaeWild host
Aralia cordata (spikenard)AraliaceaeWild host
AtalantiaRutaceaeWild host
Betula platyphylla (Manchurian birch)BetulaceaeOther
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)MoraceaeOther
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeOther
Carpinus laxifloraBetulaceaeOther
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)JuglandaceaeWild host
Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut)FagaceaeOther
Castanopsis cuspidata (chinkapin)FagaceaeWild host
Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)CasuarinaceaeMain
Casuarina stricta (coast she-oak)CasuarinaceaeWild host
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeMain
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeMain
Citrus deliciosa (mediterranean mandarin)RutaceaeMain
Citrus limonia (mandarin lime)RutaceaeMain
Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeMain
Citrus natsudaidai (natsudaidai)RutaceaeMain
Citrus nobilis (tangor)RutaceaeMain
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeMain
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeMain
Citrus unshiu (satsuma)RutaceaeMain
Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar)TaxodiaceaeOther
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)ElaeagnaceaeOther
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeWild host
Fagus crenata (Japanese beech)FagaceaeOther
Ficus carica (fig)MoraceaeOther
Fortunella margarita (oval kumquat)RutaceaeOther
Hedera rhombea (japanese ivy)AraliaceaeOther
Hibiscus mutabilis (cottonrose)MalvaceaeOther
Juglans (walnuts)JuglandaceaeOther
LagerstroemiaLythraceaeOther
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeOther
Lindera praecoxLauraceaeWild host
Litchi sinensisSapindaceaeOther
Mallotus japonicusEuphorbiaceaeOther
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeOther
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
Persea thunbergiiLauraceaeOther
Pinus massoniana (masson pine)PinaceaeOther
Platanus acerifolia (London planetree)PlatanaceaeOther
Platanus orientalis (plane)PlatanaceaeOther
Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliate orange)RutaceaeMain
Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeMain
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Populus maximowiczii (Japanese poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Populus sieboldii (japanese aspen)SalicaceaeMain
Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeOther
Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeOther
Prunus pseudocerasus (chinese fruiting cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus yedoensisRosaceaeOther
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeWild host
Pyracantha angustifolia (Narrow-leaf firethorn)RosaceaeOther
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeOther
Quercus acutissima (sawtooth oak)FagaceaeWild host
Quercus glauca (ring-cup oak)FagaceaeWild host
Quercus petraea (durmast oak)FagaceaeWild host
Quercus serrata (glandbearing oak)FagaceaeWild host
Rhus javanicaAnacardiaceaeWild host
Rhus vernicifluaAnacardiaceaeWild host
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeWild host
Rosa multiflora (Multiflora rose)RosaceaeOther
Rubus microphyllusRosaceaeOther
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeMain
Salix gracilistyla (big catkin willow)SalicaceaeMain
Salix integraSalicaceaeMain
Salix jessoensisSalicaceaeMain
Salix laevigata (red willow)SalicaceaeMain
Salix sachalinensisSalicaceaeMain
Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallow tree)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
SophoraFabaceaeWild host
Styrax japonicaStyracaceaeWild host
Ulmus davidiana (japanese elm)UlmaceaeOther
Ulmus pumila (dwarf elm)UlmaceaeOther
Vernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page A female will use her mandibles to cut a T-shaped slit in the bark of the tree trunk close to ground level or on an exposed root, in which to lay an egg. Upon hatching the larva bores into the stem and destroys the pith and vascular system of the host (Adachi, 1989; Mitomi et al., 1990) but later enters the heart wood, tunnelling up and down. Considerable amounts of frass (small cylindrical pellets of sawdust) and woodpulp are ejected through holes in the bark (Gressitt, 1942). The piles of frass accumulating at the base of an attacked tree are usually conspicuous when a tree is undisturbed and give a good indication of infestation. Adults eat young leaves, branches and bark of the tree (Kajiwara et al., 1986).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page

Leaves

  • external feeding

Roots

  • internal feeding

Stems

  • gummosis or resinosis
  • internal feeding
  • visible frass

Whole plant

  • frass visible
  • plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Adults live for about 30 days in China and can be found from April to August, but are most abundant from May to July. In Japan adults live about 70 days between June and August. Adults are active during the daytime feeding on leaves, petioles and the young bark of host trees. Sexual maturation occurs around 10 days after emergence (Adachi, 1988). Adults fly readily and the rate of tree-to-tree movement tends to be higher in males (Adachi, 1990b) presumably due to mate searching behaviour. When a male encounters a female, the male has to touch the female with his antennae and/or tarsi to detect a sex pheromone on the body surface of the female which stimulates mounting and copulation (Fukaya et al., 1999, 2000). Adults mate polygamously. There are two peaks of mating activity, from 08.00 to 12.00 h and from 15.00 to 17.00 h. Mating occurs on the trunks and main branches at least 0.6 m from the ground. Egg deposition begins a week after copulation. Females use their mandibles to cut a T-shaped slit in the bark of a living tree, several centimetres from the ground. Eggs are laid singly under the bark of the trunk through the ovipositional cut. Females may also oviposit on exposed roots (Wang et al. 1996). In Japan females lay around 190 eggs with the peak rate of egg laying around 30 days after emergence (Adachi, 1988). At 20-30°C, eggs hatch about 10 days after oviposition. The feeding larva tunnels into the trunk just under the bark and later enters and destroys the pith and vascular systems of the lower trunk and root. If a tree is small, a single larva can remove much of the heart wood. During this feeding process, large amounts of frass are ejected through holes in the bark. Larvae spend several months without feeding before pupation (Adachi, 1994). Pupation takes place in the wood, often in the upper part of the feeding area. Four to eight days after adult eclosion, they exit through emergence holes approximately 10-20 mm diameter about 25 cm above the oviposition site (Xu, 1997).

Adachi (1994) studied the development of A. chinensis under fluctuating seasonal temperatures and at three constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30°C. With fluctuating temperatures, more than 70% of the larvae survived and required 1 or 2 years to complete their life cycle (from egg to adult eclosion). Adults emerged simultaneously in June although there had been three different oviposition dates. At 20°C, 57% of the individuals completed their development 306 to 704 days after oviposition. All larvae died at 25 and 30°C. Adachi (1994) estimated that the lower developmental threshold temperatures for eggs and young larvae were 6.7 and 11.6°C, respectively. A total accumulated temperature of 1200°C was needed after overwintering to develop from larvae into adults (Xu, 1997).

In tropical and subtropical regions there is one generation per year although further north there may be one generation every 2 years. Xu (1997) reported that even where A. chinensis had, on average, one generation per year, 15% had two generations in 3 years.

Chang (1975), Aono and Murakoshi (1980), Kawamura (1985), Adachi (1988, 1994) and Mitomi et al. (1990) provide more details on the life cycle.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aprostocetus fukutai Parasite Eggs
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Beauveria brongniartii Pathogen Japan
Oecophylla smaragdina Predator Adults/Larvae
Ontsira anoplophorae Parasite Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite Japan Citrus

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Aprostocetus fukutai was the only natural enemy listed by Duffy (1968). Ontsira anoplophorae was described as the first parasitoid of Anoplophora spp. in Japan (Kusigemati and Hashimoto, 1993) although Tetrastichus (=Aprostocetus) sp. was also found to be a parasitoid of A. chinensis from Japan (Japan Plant Protection Society, 1997). In China, Oecophylla smaragdina preys on A. chinensis and when present in Citrus orchards, it can be so effective as to significantly reduce, or remove, the need for insecticides (Yang, 1984).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page A. chinensis can move via international trade. It is most likely to be moved as eggs, larvae or pupae in woody planting material or finished minature plants (bonsai or penjing). Individuals (larvae and adults) have entered Europe and the USA on bonsai plants of Acer buergeranum, A. palmatum, Celastrus, Cydonia sinensis, Malus micromalus and Sageretia from China and Japan (Anon., 1986, 1988; EPPO, 2001, 2002a).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact

Top of page A. chinensis is regarded as one of the most destructive cerambycid pests of fruit trees, especially Citrus, in lowland areas of China where economic loss can be substantial (Gressitt, 1942; Duffy, 1968; Wang et al., 1996). In a survey of Citrus orchards in six regions of Japan, 66% of trees were found to have adult emergence holes. Across all regions, there was a mean of 3.8 holes per tree although means between regions varied from 2.2 to 5.9 holes per tree (Mitomi et al., 1990). Trees are weakened by larval attack and are readily susceptible to diseases and wind damage. Serious infestation causes tree decay and a decrease of fruit yield in orchards. Damage to small young trees is most serious (Lieu, 1945; Kojima and Hayashi, 1974). Adult damage to the fruiting shoots of fruit trees results in particular economic loss.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Bark around the base of trees should be examined for an ovipositional scar (3-4 mm wide, 1-2 mm long) (Kojima and Hayashi, 1969). Trees should be inspected, especially at the base of trunks, and any exposed roots, for signs of larval tunnels. Frass and wood pulp extruding from holes are signs of infestation (Kajiwara et al., 1986).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Following the taxonomic revision by Lingafelter and Hoebeke (2002) A. chinensis is most similar to A. davidis and A. macularia. Mature larvae are extremely similar to those of Monochamus species (Duffy, 1968).

Prevention and Control

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Insecticide treatments are used in Citrus orchards in China and Japan. The insecticides are sprayed on the tree canopy to kill adults, and at the base of the trunk to kill eggs and larvae (Komazaki et al., 1989).

Biological control has been used in Japan with the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Kashio, 1982, 1986), and with the pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii (Kashio and Ujiye, 1988; Japan Plant Protection Society, 1997). Application of a formulation of B. brongniartii drastically decreased emergence of the pest in a Citrus orchard (Kobayashi et al., 1999). The fungi was reported to kill 43-100% of adults when it was impregnated on polyurethane forms and hung from the trunk, or wrapped along the trunks of Citrus trees (Kashio and Tsutsumi, 1990; Tsutsumi et al., 1990). In China, chemical control of A. chinensis was found to be unnecessary when colonies of the ant Oecophylla smaragdina are present in Citrus orchards (Yang, 1984).

Physical methods can also be used. For example, covering the bottom of trunks with netting (6 holes/cm), sticky cardboard or 2-cm fishing net can prevent oviposition and capture adults (Adachi and Korenaga, 1989). Wire netting and piling soil around the trunk base proved to be effective at preventing oviposition in Citrus groves (Adachi, 1990a).

References

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