Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Tylenchorhynchus claytoni
(stunt nematode)



Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (stunt nematode)


  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tylenchorhynchus claytoni
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stunt nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Dolichodoridae
  •         Genus: Tylenchorhynchus
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Steiner, 1937

Preferred Common Name

  • stunt nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Tessellus claytoni Jairajpuri & Hunt, 1984

International Common Names

  • English: tobacco stunt nematode
  • Spanish: nematodo de clayton (Mexico); nematodo del raquitismo del tabaco

EPPO code

  • TYLRCL (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Dolichodoridae
  •                 Genus: Tylenchorhynchus
  •                     Species: Tylenchorhynchus claytoni

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BangladeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentYin et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentPrasad et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-Arunachal PradeshPresentPrasad et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentPrasad et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentPrasad and Rao, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentRamakrishnan and Vadivelu, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadYokoo and Koga, 1967; Mamiya, 1969; Yamazaki et al., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadChoi et al., 1992; Moon et al., 1995; Park et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014


South AfricaPresentAnon., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaWidespreadMountain, 1954; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentOlthof et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaWidespreadRodriquez-Kabana et al., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasWidespreadWehunt et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaWidespreadLarson, 1975a; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoWidespreadIngham and Coleman, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutWidespreadMiller and McIntyre, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-District of ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaWidespreadKaplan and Osborne, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaWidespreadRuehle, 1973; Wehunt et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandWidespreadFeldmesser and Golden, 1972; Funt et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyWidespreadFliegel, 1971; Huff, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkAbsent, reported but not confirmedCABI/EPPO, 2009
-North CarolinaWidespreadBarker et al., 1979; Noe, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-OregonWidespreadIngham and Detling, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentBookbinder et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentNyczepir et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentSoutherland and Adams, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

HondurasWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014


BelgiumPresentHeungens, 1965; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentKatalan-Gateva and Baicheva, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
CyprusPresentPhilis, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentLindhardt and Bagger, 1967; Anon., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentBraasch, 1976; Southey, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
NetherlandsPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentSouthey and Aitkenhead, 1972; Cotten and Hooper, 1991; Southey, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014


AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentBlair et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / galls along length
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Roots / stubby roots
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Drechmeria coniospora Pathogen Adults/Cysts/Eggs/Juveniles

Pathway Vectors

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Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Adams JR; Rodriguez-Kabana R, 1977. Effects of 2,3,4,5-tetrachloronitrobenzene on plant parasitic and free-living nematodes. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 3(1976):244.

Allen MW, 1955. A review of the nematode genus Tylenchorhynchus. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 61:129-166.

Anon., 1972. Plant Diseases and Pests in Denmark in 1971. 88th Annual Review. Lyngby, Denmark: State Plant Pathology Institute.

Anon., 1981. Annual Report of the Secretary for Agricultural Technical Services for the period 1 July 1979-31 March 1980. Republic of South Africa: Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Plant Nematology, 25-26, 113-114.

Anon., 1987. Bureau of Nematology, 1987. Triology Technical Report, 26(4):5-6.

Aycock R; Barker KR; Benson DM, 1976. Susceptiblity of Japanese holly to Criconemoides xenoplax, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, and certain other plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 8(1):26-31

Aycock R; Daughtry BI, 1975. Major diseases. In: Kofranek AM, Larson RA, ed. Growing azaleas commercially. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California. Davis, California USA, 78-88

Baicheva O, 1974. The nematode fauna on Petrich 84 tobacco in the vicinity of Petrich. Izvestiya na Tsentralnata Khelmintologichna Laboratoriya, 17:5-16

Barham RO, 1972. Effect of nematodes and Phytophthora cinnamomi on mycorrhizae of shortleaf pine seedlings. Phytopathology, 62(8):801.

Barham RO; Marx DH; Ruehle JL, 1974. Infection of ectomycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots of shortleaf pine by nematodes and Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology, 64(9):1260-1264.

Barker KR; Aycock R; Daughtry BI, 1974. Host suitability of four woody ornamentals to certain nematodes. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 1:157

Barker KR; Benson DM; Jones RK, 1979. Interactions of Burfordi, Rotunda, and dwarf yaupon hollies and Aucuba with selected plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(2):113-116

Barker KR; Clayton CN, 1973. Nematodes attacking cultivars of peach in North Carolina. Journal of Nematology, 5(4):265-271

Benson DM; Barker KR, 1977. Efficacy of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and aldicarb for control of parasitic nematodes in the root zone of American boxwood, and Japanese and Chinese hollies. Journal of Nematology, 9(4):263-264

Benson DM; Barker KR, 1982. Susceptibility of Japanese boxwood, dwarf gardenia, Compacta (Japanese) holly, Spiny Greek and Blue Rug junipers, and nandina to four nematode species. Plant Disease, 66(12):1176-1179

Benson DM; Barker KR, 1985. Nematodes - a threat to ornamental plants in the nursery and landscape. Plant Disease, 69(2):97-100.

Blair BL; Stirling GR; Pattemore JA; Whittle PJL, 1999. Occurrence of pest nematodes in Burdekin and central Queensland sugarcane fields. Proceedings of the 1999 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 27-30 April 1999., 227-233; 25 ref.

Bookbinder MG; Bloom JR; Lukezic FL, 1980. Interactions of nematodes and bacteria on alfalfa. Phytopathology, 70(5):459

Braasch H, 1976. Nematodes of plants grown in peat soils. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 30(11):228-231

Brinkman H, 1973. Nematologische waarnemingen in 1972-73. Gewasbescherming, 4-8.

CABI/EPPO, 2009. Tylenchorhynchus claytoni. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1072 (Edition 1).

Choi YE; Cho MR; Moon YS, 1992. Nematodes associated with forest trees in Korea. I. Studies on nematodes associated with saplings. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 31(1):50-68; 10 ref.

Cotten J; Hooper DJ, 1991. Two new records of nematodes associated with azaleas in England: Paratrichodorus renifer Siddiqi, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Steiner. Plant Pathology, 40(2):308-310; 8 ref.

Davis RA; Jenkins WR, 1963. Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni on pea wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi race 1. Phytopathology, 53:745.

Daykin ME; Benson DM, 1977. Interaction of Phytophthora cinnamomi and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni in azalea decline. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 4:126

Dickson DW, ed. , 1976. Nematicide test reports. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests. Results of 1975. American Phytopathological Society. Winchester, Va. USA, 31:207-230

DiSanzo CP, 1981. Effect of foliar application of carbofuran and a related compound on plant-parasitic nematodes under greenhouse and growth chamber conditions. Journal of Nematology, 13(1):20-24

Elkins CB; Haaland RL; Rodriguez-Kabana R; Hoveland CS, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematode effects on water use and nutrient uptake of a small- and a large-rooted tall fescue genotype. Agronomy Journal, 71(3):497-500.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at

Feldmesser J; Golden AM, 1972. Control of nematodes damaging home lawngrasses in two counties in Maryland. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(6):476-480.

Fliegel P, 1971. Pathogenic effects of the nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni on tomato and the interaction of P. penetrans with wilt diseases, especially Fusarium wilt. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31B(11):6370

Funt RC; Krusberg LR; Ross DS; Goulart BL, 1982. Effect of post-plant nematicides and trickle irrigation on newly planted peach trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 107(5):891-895

Golden AM; Maqbool MA; Handoo ZA, 1987. Descriptions of two new species of Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Tylenchida). with details on morphology and variation of T. claytoni. Journal of Nematology, 19(1):58-68.

Heungens A, 1965. Chemical control of soil sickness in the cultivation of Rhododendron. Meded. LandbHogeschool Opzoekstns Gent, 30:1444-1453.

Hitcho PJ; Thorson RE, 1972. Behavior of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes in a thermal gradient. Journal of Parasitology, 58(3):599

Hooper DJ, 1986. Extraction of free-living stages from soil. In: Southey JF, ed. Laboratory Methods for work with Plant and Soil Nematodes. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Reference Book No. 402. London, UK: HMSO, 5-30.

Hoveland CS; Rodriguez-Kabana R; Berry CD, 1975. Phalaris and tall fescue forage production as affected by nematodes in the field. Agronomy Journal, USA, 67(5):714-717

Howard RJ, ed. , 1978. Nematicides. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests. Results of 1977 American Phytopathological Society. Raleigh, NC USA, 33:191-209

Huff DE, 1985. A study of the interaction between plant parasitic nematodes, field corn and edaphic factors with emphasis on the role of Longidorus breviannulatus. Dissertation Abstracts International (B), Sciences and Engineering, 45(7):1989.

Ingham RE; Coleman DC, 1983. Effects of an ectoparasitic nematode on bacterial growth in gnotobiotic soil. Oikos, 41(2):227-232.

Ingham RE; Detling JK, 1986. Effects of defoliation and nematode consumption on growth and leaf gas exchange in Bouteloua curtipendula. Oikos, 46(1):23-28.

Ingham RE; Detling JK, 1991. Effects of the root-feeding nematode Tylenchorhynchus claytoni on growth and leaf gas exchange of Bouteloua gracilis (Gramineae). Pedobiologia, 35(4):219-224; 30 ref.

Ingram EG; Rodriguez-Kabana R, 1978. Susceptibility of pigeon pea to plant parasitic nematodes. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 4:177.

Ingram EG; Rodriguez-Kabana R; King PS, 1977. Comparison of the efficacy of ethoprop and fensulfothion in control of parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 9(4):272

Jairajpuri MS; Hunt DJ, 1984. The taxonomy of Tylenchorhynchinae (Nematoda: Tylenchida) with longitudinal lines and ridges. Systematic Parasitology, 6:261-268; 11 ref.

Jansson HB; Dackman C; Zuckerman BM, 1987. Adhesion and infection of plant parasitic nematodes by the fungus Drechmeria coniospora. Nematologica, 33(4):480-487

Kaplan DT; Osborne LS, 1986. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with leatherleaf fern. Journal of Nematology, 18(1):26-30.

Katalan-Gateva Sh, 1980. Structural analysis of the nematode coenosis of fruit trees in the district of Blagoevgrad. III. Nematode parasites of the roots of peaches (Persica vulgaris). Khelmintologiya, 9:11-17

Katalan-Gateva Sh; Baicheva O, 1976. The nematode fauna on two tobacco varieties, Rila 9 and Kulsko in the Blagoevgrad region. Khelmintologiya, Sofia, No. 1:49-61

Krishnaprasad KS; Krishnappa K, 1982. Reactions of a few rice varieties to the build up of stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus claytoni. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):173-174

Krusberg LR, 1959. Investigations on the life cycle, reproduction, feding habits and host range of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Steiner. Nematologica, 4:187-197.

Lindhardt K; Bagger O, 1967. Plant diseases in Denmark in 1966. 83rd annual overview collected by the State Plant Pathological service. Tidsskr. PiAvl., 71(3):285-337 (in Danish).

Loof PAA, 1974. Tylenchorhynchus claytoni. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 3, No. 39. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Lucas LT; Barker KR; Blake CT, 1978. Seasonal changes in nematode densities on bentgrass golf greens in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(4):373-376

Lucas LT; Blake CT; Barker KR, 1974. Nematodes associated with bentgrass and bermudagrass golf greens in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(9):822-824.

MacGowan JB, 1980. Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Steiner 1937. The tobacco stunt nematode. Nematology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 67:2 pp

MacGowan JB, 1989. Bureau of nematology: nematode detections of interest. Tri-ology Technical Report, 28(6):1-3.

Mamiya Y, 1969. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with coniferous seedlings in forest nurseries in eastern Japan. Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station, 219:95-119

MCGLOHON NE; SASSER JN; SHERWOOD RT, 1961. Investigations of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with forage crops in North Carolina. Technical Bulletin, 148. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 39 pp.

Mead FW, 1987. Bureau of nematology. Triology Technical Report, 26(1):5-6.

Miller PM; McIntyre JL, 1975. Tylenchorhynchus claytoni feeding on tobacco roots inhibits entry of Pratylenchus penetrans. Journal of Nematology, 7(4):327

Moon YS; Lee SM; Lee WK, 1995. Distribution of nematodes associated with saplings in Korea. FRI Journal of Forest Science, Seoul, 51:127-142.

Mountain WB, 1954. Studies of nematodes in relation to brown root rot of tobacco in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany, 32:737-759.

Ndubizu TOC, 1977. Effects of earthworms, nematodes, cultivations and host plants on Verticillium wilt of peach and cherry. Annals of Applied Biology, 86(2):153-161

Noe JP, 1985. Spatial population dynamics of plant parasitic nematodes. Dissertation Abstracts International (B), Sciences and Engineering, 45(10):3137.

Noe JP; Barker KR, 1985. Relation of within-field spatial variation of plant-parasitic nematode population densities and edaphic factors. Phytopathology, 75(2):247-252.

Nyczepir AP; Zehr EI; Lewis SA; Harshman DC, 1983. Short life of peach trees induced by Criconemella xenoplax. Plant Disease, 67(5):507-508

Olthof THA; Anderson RV; Squire S, 1982. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Simcoe County, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(4):389-391

Park SD; Zakaullah K; Choi YE; Choi BS, 1998. Association and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in peony (Paeonia lactiflora) fields of Korea. International Journal of Nematology, 8:57-60.

Peacock CH; Dunn RA, 1986. Effects of nematicide formulations on turfgrass nematodes. Proceedings, Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 45:185-188.

Pedersen JF; Rodrfguez-Kßbana R, 1991. Winter grass cover crop effects on nematodes and yields of double cropped soybean. Plant and Soil, 131(2):287-291; 9 ref.

Philis J, 1998. Morphometrics of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Steiner from olive trees, in Cyprus. Nematologia Mediterranea, 26(2):165-171; 8 ref.

Prasad JSR; Rao YS, 1984. Ectoparasitic nematode fauna of upland rice soils. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin, 22(1):79-82.

Prasad KSK; Krishnappa K; Shetty KGH, 1978. A note on the plant parasitic nematodes at Agricultural College, Hebbal. Current Research, 7(9):154-155

Prasad KSK; Rao YS, 1977. Interaction between Tylenchorhynchus claytoni and Helicotylenchus crenatus in rice. Indian Journal of Nematology, 7(2):170-172

Radewald JD; Maire RG; Shibuya F; Sher SA, 1972. Control of stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) on azalea (Rhododendron indicum). Plant Disease Reporter, 56(6):540-543.

Ramakrishnan S; Sivagami Vadivelu, 1995. Phytonematodes associated with rice in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. Current Nematology, 6(1):81-83; 4 ref.

Roane MK, 1986. Diseases caused by nematodes. In: Benson DM, Barker KR, Coyier DL, eds. Compendium of Rhododendron and Azalea Diseases, 34-35.

Robbins RT; Riggs RD; Steen Dvon, 1989. Phytoparasitic nematode surveys of Arkansas cotton fields, 1986-88. Journal of Nematology, 21(4 (supplement)):619-623; [(^italic~Formerly called Annals of Applied Nematology^roman~)]; 9 ref.

Rodriguez-Kabana R, 1986. Organic and inorganic nitrogen amendments to soil as nematode suppressants. Journal of Nematology, 18(2):129-135.

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Hoveland CS; Haaland RL, 1977. Evaluation of a seed-treatment method with acetone for delivering systemic nematicides with wheat and rye. Journal of Nematology, 9(4):323-326

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Ingram E, 1976. Potato seed-piece treatment with the systemic nematicide phenamiphos for control of plant parasitic nematodes. Nematropica, 6(2):81-85

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Ingram EG, 1978. Susceptibility of pigeon peas to plant parasitic nematodes in Alabama. Nematropica, 8(1):32-34

Rodriguez-Kabana R; King PS, 1977. Nematicidal activity of the fungicide ethazole. Journal of Nematology, 9(3):203-206

Rodriguez-Kabana R; King PS; Adams JR, 1977. Nematicidal activity of the fungicide 2,3,4,5-tetrachloronitrobenzene. Nematropica, 7(2):47-52

Rodriguez-Kabana R; King PS; Ingram EG, 1976. Nematicidal activity of the systemic insecticide phorate in soil. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 3:245

Rodriguez-Kabana R; King PS; Ingram EG, 1977. Activity of the systemic insecticide disulfoton against plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 9(4):282

Rodriguez-Kabana R; King PS; Pope MH, 1981. Combinations of anhydrous ammonia and ethylene dibromide for control of nematodes parasitic of soybeans. Nematropica, 11(1):27-41

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Pearson RW, 1972. Changes in populations of lance and stunt nematodes in cotton following a Bahiagrass sod. Journal of Nematology, 4(4):233

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Thurlow DL, 1980. Effect of Hoplolaimus galeatus and other nematodes on yield of selected soybean cultivars. Nematropica, 10(2):130-138

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Turner JL, 1978. Response of sweet potato varieties to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and to ectoparasitic nematodes. Nematropica, 8:23

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Turner JL; Ingram EG, 1978. Sweet potato seed-root treatment for control of plant parasitic nematodes. . Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 4(1977):180.

Ruehle JL, 1966. Nematodes parasitic on forest trees: I. Reproduction of ectoparasites on pines. Nematologica, 12(4):443-447.

Ruehle JL, 1973. Influence of plant-parasitic nematodes on longleaf pine seedlings. Journal of Nematology, 5(1):7-9

Saotome H; Ishibashi N, 1989. Effect of cinnamic aldehyde on nematode fauna in soil. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 35:107-109; 2 ref.

Satyanarayana Prasad J; Seshagiri Rao Y; Zaheruddeen SM; Mohan Das C, 1980. Weeds as hosts to parasitic nematodes of rice. Current Science, 49(19):755-756

Schmitt DP; Corbin FT, 1981. Interaction of fensulfothion and phorate with pre-emergence herbicides on soybean parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 13(1):37-40

Schmitt DP; Nelson LA, 1987. Chemical control of selected plant-parasitic nematodes in soybeans double-cropped with wheat in no-till and conventional tillage systems. Plant Disease, 71(4):323-326.

Southerland JR; Adams RE, 1964. The parasitism of the red pineand other forest nursery crops by Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Steiner. Nematologica, 10:637-643.

Southey JF, 1993. Nematode pests of ornamental and bulb crops. In: Evans J, Trudgill DL, Webster JM, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 463-500.

Southey JF; Aitkenhead P, 1972. Soil borne pests and pathogens associated with imported plants, with special reference to nematodes. Bulletin OEPP, 7:49-59.

Streu HT, 1975. Insect, mite, and nematode control on azaleas. In: Kofranek AM, Larson RA, ed. Growing azaleas commercially. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California. Davis, California USA, 89-96

Wang LH, 1971. Embryology and life cycle of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Steiner, 1937 (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea). Journal of Nematology, 3(2):101-107.

Wehunt EJ; Golden AM; Clark JR; Kirkpatrick TL; Baker EC; Brown MA, 1991. Nematodes associated with blackberry in Arkansas. Journal of Nematology, 23(4S):620-623; 16 ref.

Wehunt EJ; Horton BD; Prince VE, 1980. Effects of nematicides, lime, and herbicide on peach tree short life in Georgia. Journal of Nematology, 12(3):183-189

Wehunt EJ; Weaver DJ, 1972. Effect of nematodes and Fusarium oxysporum on the growth of peach seedlings in the greenhouse. Journal of Nematology, 4(4):236

Weingartner DP; Shumaker JR; Dickson DW; Smart GC Jr, 1974. Improving the quality of potato tubers through use of nematicides. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 33:67-72

Yamazaki K; Okabe M; Aihara T; Yuhara I, 1981. Studies on injury of azalea in continuous cropping field. I. Distribution of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni in azalea fields in Kanagawa prefecture and its control. Bulletin of the Kanagawa Horticultural Experiment Station, No.28:73-83

Yin YQ; Gao XB; Feng ZX, 1994. Investigations of parasitic nematodes on lychee in Guangdong province. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 15(3):22-27; 5 ref.

Yokoo T; Koga S, 1967. Nematode species detected from the rhizosphere in an azalea nursery. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 13:145.

Distribution Maps

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