Tetropium castaneum (black spruce beetle)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Tetropium castaneum (Linnaeus, 1758)
Preferred Common Name
- black spruce beetle
Other Scientific Names
- Cerambyx castaneus Linnaeus, 1758
- Cerambyx luridus Linnaeus, 1767
- Isarthron castaneum
International Common Names
- French: callidie de l'épicéa
Local Common Names
- Denmark: alm. granbarbuk
- Finland: kiiltävä kuusijäärä
- Germany: Bock, Fichtensplint-; Bock, Gemeiner Fichten-; Bockkäfer, Fichtensplint-; Bockkäfer, Gemeiner Fichten-
- Italy: cerambice dell'abete rosso
- Norway: svart granbarkbukk
- Sweden: allmän barkbock
- TETOCA (Tetropium castaneum)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page There is no evidence to suggest that T. castaneum will be invasive once it is established outside its native range.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Cerambycidae
- Genus: Tetropium
- Species: Tetropium castaneum
DescriptionTop of page Cherepanov (1990) published complete descriptions of the morphological features of the adults, larvae and pupae.
The adults of T. castaneum are 8-19 mm long. There is a short, silvery pubescence on the elytra and abdomen (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Cherepanov, 1990), and the body is covered with a relatively sparse punctuation. The antennae are thick, relative to congeners, and reach midway down the elytra (Cherepanov, 1990). The body of T. castaneum is black, and the antennae, legs and elytra are reddish-brown to black (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Cherepanov, 1990). The darker forms predominate at higher altitudes (Cherepanov, 1990).
The oval eggs are white, 1.2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide (Cherepanov, 1990). The larvae and pupae of Tetropium spp. are difficult to distinguish without technical expertise. In general, the larvae are whitish, with rusty-brown heads and rusty setae covering the body (Cherepanov, 1990). The mature larvae are 18-22 mm long and the head capsule is 3.5 mm wide (Cherepanov, 1990). The whitish pupae are 12-19 mm long and up to 4 mm wide (Cherepanov, 1990).
DistributionTop of page
T. castaneum is native to Europe and Asia (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Cherepanov, 1990; APHIS, 2003). Its range extends west to the UK and east to Japan, and from Northern Siberia to the Hunan Province, China (APHIS, 2003).
This pest has been introduced many times to North America over the past 10 years (since the 1990s). In Canada, interceptions were made in British Columbia, Ottawa and Quebec, in shipments of Abies wood and other wood material originating in Germany and Italy (CFIA, 2002; Humble et al., 2002). In the USA, T. castaneum was intercepted at Oregon in wood originating in Russia (OISC, 2003).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Japan||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||APHIS, 2003|
|Kazakhstan||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Korea, DPR||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Bílý & Mehl, 1989|
|Korea, Republic of||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Bílý & Mehl, 1989|
|Mongolia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Bílý & Mehl, 1989|
|-British Columbia||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||1994||Not invasive||Humble et al., 2002|
|-Nova Scotia||Absent, invalid record||Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2012, personal communication; Locke, 2001|
|-Ontario||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||1999||Not invasive||CFIA, 2002|
|-Quebec||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||1999||Not invasive||CFIA, 2002|
|-Oregon||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||2002||Not invasive||APHIS, 2003; OISC, 2003|
|Albania||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Austria||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Belarus||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Belgium||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Bosnia-Hercegovina||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Bulgaria||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Croatia||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Czech Republic||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Denmark||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Estonia||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Finland||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|France||Widespread||Native||2002||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Germany||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||CFIA, 2002; Danilevsky, 2003|
|Greece||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Hungary||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Italy||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||CFIA, 2002; Danilevsky, 2003|
|Latvia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Lithuania||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Luxembourg||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Moldova||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Netherlands||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Norway||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Poland||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Zielinski, 1998; Danilevsky, 2003|
|Romania||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Russian Federation||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Central Russia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|-Eastern Siberia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||APHIS, 2003|
|-Northern Russia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|-Russian Far East||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||APHIS, 2003|
|-Southern Russia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|-Western Siberia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||APHIS, 2003|
|Serbia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Slovakia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Slovenia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Spain||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Sweden||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|Switzerland||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
|UK||Widespread||Introduced||Not invasive||Bílý & Mehl, 1989; Danilevsky, 2003|
|Ukraine||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Danilevsky, 2003|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page T. castaneum is a pest of quarantine significance in Canada (CFIA, 2003).
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page The preferred hosts of T. castaneum in Europe appear to be spruce (Picea) trees (Lekander et al., 1977), although it will attack pine (Pinus), fir (Abies), larch (Larix), and to a lesser extent, oak (Quercus), maple (Acer) and walnut (Juglans) (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Cherepanov, 1990; APHIS, 2003). This species typically attacks weakened or dead trees in its native range. T. castaneum has been reported as feeding on at least the following species: Picea abies (Johansson et al., 1994), Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, Picea obovata, Larix sibirica and Pinus sylvestris (Cherepanov, 1990).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Abies sibirica (Siberian fir)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Larix sibirica (Siberian larch)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Picea abies (common spruce)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Picea obovata (Siberian spruce)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Pinus sibirica (Siberian stone pine)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page Post-harvest
SymptomsTop of page T. castaneum has only been reported as feeding on dead or dying trees. For this reason, the symptoms historically observed with this pest are restricted to dead wood material. A congener, Tetropium fuscum, has been reported as feeding on living trees in North America and should T. castaneum move onto living trees, the symptoms would probably be similar to those caused by T. fuscum (CAB International, 2003).
Larval damage occurs as tunnels/galleries in the cambium and phloem of the infested wood. These galleries are a maximum width of 6 mm and are packed with brown frass. As the larva matures, it tunnels up to 5 cm into the xylem of the wood and creates an oval pupation chamber. Wood-staining fungi in the genus, Ophiostoma, are associated with larval tunnels and pupal chambers of Tetropium spp. (Jacobs et al., 2003).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Stems / internal discoloration|
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / frass visible|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Oviposition occurs in the cracks and crevices of the bark (Bílý and Mehl, 1989). Tree stumps and injured, sick or recently felled trees are preferred oviposition sites (Bílý and Mehl, 1989). The eggs are generally laid singly (Cherepanov, 1990). Dissections of the females revealed egg loads of 76-142 mature eggs per female (Cherepanov, 1990).
After 2-3 weeks, the larvae hatch and tunnel in the inner bark and cambium of the tree (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Cherepanov, 1990). Wavy galleries are created and packed with brown frass (Bílý and Mehl, 1989). The mature larvae bore up to 4.5-5.0 cm into the wood (Cherepanov, 1990). Larval weights range from 32 to 269 mg (mean of 110 mg) (Cherepanov, 1990). The larvae can often be found inhabiting the same trees as other species of wood-boring insects (Cherepanov, 1990).
Pupation occurs in May in northern Europe and Asia (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Cherepanov, 1990). When it is ready to pupate, the larva creates a pupal cell (38-40 mm long and 6 mm wide) and the larval gallery leading into the cell is packed with white frass and wood shavings (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Cherepanov, 1990). The pupal stage lasts from 3 to 4 weeks and the pupae weigh 26-245 mg (mean of 99 mg) (Cherepanov, 1990). The pupal cell is created in the sapwood or the bark of the tree. It is curved and at a right angle to the trunk (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Cherepanov, 1990). In tree stumps, the larvae pupate in the exposed roots or in the base (Bílý and Mehl, 1989).
The populations of adults in Norway emerge in two distinct periods, one in early spring and one in mid-summer (Johansson et al., 1994). These two emergence dates are likely to be representatives of populations that are univoltine and those that require 2 years for development (Johansson et al., 1994). The result is that the flight period of T. castaneum in its native range, lasts from May to September (Cherepanov, 1990). The majority of adults (around 98%) are captured during June and July in Siberia (Cherepanov, 1990). The beetles weigh 18-175 mg (mean of 77 mg) (Cherepanov, 1990). They are generally active at dusk and at night, and during the day the adults hide under the crevices of bark (Bílý and Mehl, 1989). The entire life cycle requires 1 to 2 years (Bílý and Mehl, 1989; Johansson et al., 1994).
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page One species of asilid, Laphria gilva [Choerades gilva] feeds as a larva on T. castaneum and Tetropium fuscum larvae in their native ranges (Lavigne et al., 2000).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page T. castaneum is an excellent flier, and is often one of the first insects to colonize fallen spruce in Norway (Johansson et al., 1994). There are apparently no specific measurements of the dispersal capacity of T. castaneum.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||eggs||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Wood||larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Mostly softwood, but can infest some hardwoods||Yes|
|Solid wood packing material without bark||Mostly softwood, but can infest some hardwoods||Yes|
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page There is no mention of economic damage resulting from infestations of T. castaneum in its native or introduced ranges. T. castaneum feeds exclusively as a secondary pest on dead or dying coniferous trees. Tunnelling into the xylem of the tree or staining, resulting from Ophiostoma spp. fungi, may devalue the wood, although there are no reports of this in the literature. It should be noted that a congener, Tetropium fuscum, also feeds almost exclusively on dead or dying trees in its native range, although the populations introduced into Nova Scotia, Canada, attack healthy trees (Smith and Humble, 2000).
Environmental ImpactTop of page T. castaneum is one of the more important insect pests encountered in Russian spruce forests that are damaged by fire or weather (Kulikova, 2001) and it is one of the first insects to colonize fallen trees in Norwegian spruce plantations (Johansson et al., 1994). Thus, it appears that T. castaneum fulfils an important role in the decomposition of trees in its natural habitat. It is unclear how T. castaneum will interact with a recipient biota.
Detection and InspectionTop of page In Oregon, T. castaneum adults were captured in Lindgren funnels with a lure containing a spruce blend and ethanol (APHIS, 2003). In its native range, Johansson et al. (1994) used trap logs of spruce to capture T. castaneum. There is now an interest shown in developing lures and attractants for the invasive, Tetropium fuscum, which may also be useful in sampling T. castaneum.
In infested wood, the bark should be removed to aid searching for larval tunnelling. These tunnels meander through the cambium and phloem, are tightly packed with frass and a maximum width of 6 mm. The mature larvae tunnel into the xylem and form a pupation chamber up to 5 cm into the wood. The adult exit holes are approximately 4 mm in diameter and can be seen externally on the surface of the wood.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page There are 17 species worldwide in the genus Tetropium (Bílý and Mehl, 1989), seven of which are found in the Palearctic and six inhabit the Nearctic (Cherepanov, 1990). T. castaneum can be distinguished from the invasive Tetropium fuscum because the elytra of T. castaneum are of a single colour and the antennae are relatively thick in T. castaneum. Also, the disc of the pronotum on T. castaneum is relatively lustrous without considerable punctuation, whereas in T. fuscum the disc is fairly rugose.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Solid wood packing material should be treated as detailed in CFIA (2003); either by heat-treating the wood material at 56ºC for at least 30 minutes.
ReferencesTop of page
APHIS, 2003. National exotic woodborer/bark beetle survey plan 2003/2004. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USA. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ep/alb/wbbb03-04.pdf.
Bíl8 S; Mehl O, 1989. Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Lieden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill/Scandinavian Science Press Ltd. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, Vol. 22.
CFIA, 2002. Intercepted plant pests 1997-2000. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa Laboratory, Nepean Ottawa, Canada. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/sci/lab/cpqp/introe.shtml#pi.
CFIA, 2003. Entry requirements for wood packaging produced in all areas other than the United States. Plant Health Division, Plant Products Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Nepean, Ontario, Canada. Publication no. D-98-08. http://www.importers.ca/important_03/03_03_28woodpacking.doc.
Danilevsky ML, 2003. Systematic list of longicorn beetles (Cerambycoidea: Coleoptera) of Europe. http://marilyn.uochb.cas.cz/~natur/cerambyx/list_europe.htm.
Humble LM; Allen EA; Bell JD, 2002. Exotic wood-boring beetles in British Columbia: interceptions and establishments. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada. http://www.pfc.forestry.ca/biodiversity/exotics/index_e.html.
Jacobs K; Siefert KA; Harrison KJ; Kirisits K, 2003. Identity and phylogenetic relationships of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with invasive and native Tetropium species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany, 81:316-329.
Kulikova EG, 2001. Phytosanitary risks and wildlife damage. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Risk Management and Sustainable Forestry, 8 September 2001, Bordeaux, France. http://www.efi.fi/events/2001/8th_Annual_Conference/Kulikova.pdf.
Lavigne R; Dennis S; Gowen JA, 2000. Asilid literature update, 1956-1976. Laramie, WY, USA: Cooperative Extension Service, University of Wyoming, SM-36.
Locke S, 2001. Brown spruce longhorn beetle Tetropium fuscum (Fabricius). http://www.dal.ca/~dp/webliteracy/projects/beetle/beetle3.html.
OISC, 2003. Invasive species in Oregon report card 2002. Oregon Invasive Species Council, Oregon Department of Agriculture, Salem, OR, USA. http://www.oda.state.or.us/plant/Inv_spp/InvSppRepCard2002.pdf.
Smith GA; Humble LM, 2000. The brown spruce longhorn borer. Victoria, BC, Canada: Exotic Forest Pest Advisory, Natural Resources Canada, Canada Forest Service. http://www.atl.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/index-e/what-e/science-e/entomology-e/bslb-e/exotic-pest.pdf.
Sweeney JD; Silk PJ; Gutowski JM; Wu JunPing; Lemay MA; Mayo PD; Magee DI, 2010. Effect of chirality, release rate, and host volatiles on response of Tetropium fuscum (F.), Tetropium cinnamopterum Kirby, and Tetropium castaneum (L.) to the aggregation pheromone, fuscumol. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36(12):1309-1321. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104273
UK CAB International, 2009. Tetropium fuscum ((Fabricius, 1787)), brown spruce longhorn beetle. [pest/pathogen]. Crop Protection Compendium, AQB CPC record. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Sheet 2488. http://www.cabi.org/cpc/default.aspx?site=161&page=868&LoadModule=DataSheet&dsID=55301&CompID=1
Zielinski S, 1998. As cited at Cerambyicidae of the Drawa National Park. http://www.lkp.org.pl/dpn/chckl_kozki.html.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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