Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora
(montbretia)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • montbretia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and has escaped from cultivation to become invasive in disturbed sites, riverbanks, wasteland, along roadsides, and shrublands (...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowers and habit. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowers and habit. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowers and habit. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
FlowersCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowers and habit. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); habit in grassland. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); habit in grassland. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); habit in grassland. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
HabitCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); habit in grassland. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); habit in grassland. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); habit in grassland. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); habit in grassland. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
HabitCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); habit in grassland. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); close-up of flower spike. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
TitleFlower spike
CaptionCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); close-up of flower spike. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); close-up of flower spike. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.
Flower spikeCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); close-up of flower spike. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowers, open and unopened. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2016.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowers, open and unopened. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2016.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowers, open and unopened. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2016.
FlowersCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowers, open and unopened. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2016.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowering habit. nr Portscatho, Cornwall, United Kingdom. July 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowering habit. nr Portscatho, Cornwall, United Kingdom. July 2007.
Copyright©Ian Cunliffe/via Geograph - CC BY-SA 2.0
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowering habit. nr Portscatho, Cornwall, United Kingdom. July 2007.
Flowering habitCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia); flowering habit. nr Portscatho, Cornwall, United Kingdom. July 2007.©Ian Cunliffe/via Geograph - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (Lemoine) N.E. Br.

Preferred Common Name

  • montbretia

Other Scientific Names

  • Crocosmia × latifolia N.E.Br.
  • Montbretia × crocosmiiflora Lemoine
  • Tritonia × crocosmiiflora (Lemoine) G.Nicholson
  • Tritonia crocosmiflora

International Common Names

  • English: autumn gold; crocosmia; garden montbretia; Portuguese lily
  • Spanish: flor de avispa; patas de gallo
  • French: montbreitia
  • German: Montbretie

Local Common Names

  • Australia: garden montbretia
  • Chile: patas de gallo
  • Dominican Republic: flor de avispa
  • New Zealand: common montbretia

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and has escaped from cultivation to become invasive in disturbed sites, riverbanks, wasteland, along roadsides, and shrublands (Ensbey et al., 2011; Weeds of Australia, 2016, Weeds of New Zealand, 2016). This species is well adapted to grow in a wide range of environmental conditions and soil types (it may grow in any soil, wet or dry, poor or rich). It competes aggressively with native vegetation for resources such as water and nutrients and it has the potential to displace native vegetation primarily in riparian areas and moist shrublands. Once established, it moves rapidly down watercourses into natural forests. The mass of corms in the soil contributes to the breakdown and erosion of natural creek and riverbanks (Ensbey et al., 2011; Weeds of the Blue Mountains, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Liliales
  •                         Family: Iridaceae
  •                             Genus: Crocosmia
  •                                 Species: Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The family Iridaceae comprises about 66 genera and 2105 species distributed worldwide (Stevens, 2012). The diversification in Iridaceae has been greater in areas across Africa than in the northern hemisphere or other regions of the world (Davies et al., 2005). For example, the Cape of South Africa is notably diverse with about 650 Iridaceae species and more than 1050 Iridaceae species have been described for southern Africa (Procheŝ et al., 2006; Johnson 2010;) The great majority of these species show specialized pollination systems (Goldblatt and Manning 2006).

The species Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora is a hybrid of horticultural origin derived from the species Crocosmia aurea Planch and Crocosmia pottsii (Baker) N. E. Br. Both of these species are native to South Africa and the horticultural hybrid was developed in France by Victor Lemoine in 1880 (Weeds of Australia, 2016). More than seven cultivars of Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora (with flowers varying from yellow to orange and red colours) have been developed and are widely commercialized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (The Royal Horticultural Society, 2016).

Description

Top of page

Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora is an herb 25-50 (-100) cm tall, with corms 2-3 cm in diameter and slender scaly stolons. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, 30-50 cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide. Spikes slightly flexuous, arching horizontally, with several branches, bracts 6-10 mm long; tepals orange, lanceolate, 15-25 mm long, 6-9 mm wide, sub-equal, spreading, the perianth tube slightly curved, 10-15 mm long; filaments 15-22 mm long; anthers 6-8 mm long. Capsules up to 7 mm long, ca. 9 mm wide. Seeds brown, wrinkled, usually not viable (Wagner et al., 1999).

Distribution

Top of page

Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora is a hybrid of horticultural origin derived from two Crocosmia species native to South Africa (Govaerts and Barker, 2016). Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora is now widely cultivated as an ornamental and can be found naturalized in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, the Americas, Australia, and Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999; Govaerts and Barker, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016), as well as in more temperate regions in northern Europe and New Zealand.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

China
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
India
-AssamPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
Japan
-Bonin IslandPresentIntroducedKato, 2007
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016

Africa

Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
MadagascarPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
MauritiusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive Lavergne, 2006
RwandaPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
South AfricaPresentNativeGovaerts and Barker, 2016
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016

North America

Canada
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
MexicoPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
USA
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016Cultivated
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016Cultivated
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016Cultivated
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016Cultivated
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016Cultivated
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016Cultivated

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 1994
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Mir, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al., 2004
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
BoliviaPresentIntroducedJørgensen et al., 2014
ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive Danton et al., 2006Invasive on Juan Fernandez Islands
ColombiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yánez, 1999
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2008Cultivated
PeruPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
FrancePresentIntroducedGovaerts and Barker, 2016
IrelandPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Naturalized
PortugalPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
UKPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Naturalized in England, Wales, and Scotland
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016

Oceania

Australia
-Lord Howe Is.PresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Owen, 1997
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Since 1880, Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora and many of its cultivars have been intentionally introduced as ornamentals in many tropical and subtropical regions. Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora has escaped from gardens and rapidly spreads into riparian areas, disturbed forests and humid shrublands in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and the Dominican Republic among others (Mir, 2012; PIER, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016, Weeds of New Zealand, 2016).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Considering that Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora is still widely commercialized in the horticultural trade and that it has the capability to spreads vegetatively by corms and rhizomes, the probability of new introductions and the risk of the plant spreading remains high (Ensbey et al., 2011; Weeds of Australia, 2016, Weeds of New Zealand, 2016).

Habitat

Top of page

In Central America, Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora grows as a weed in disturbed sites, abandoned farms and coffee plantations, thickets and along roadsides in wet, humid and seasonal forests at elevations ranging from 1000 to 2800 m (Davidse et al., 1994; Correa et al., 2004). In Hawaii, it can be found naturalized along trails and roadsides primarily in mesic to wet forest at elevations ranging from 170 to 1200 m (Wagner et al., 1999). In the West Indies, it has been cultivated as an outdoors and indoors ornamental and has escaped and become naturalized in wet and humid habitats including mountainous forests (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). In Puerto Rico it can be found naturalized across the Cordillera Central at elevations between 700-1100 m (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). In Australia and New Zealand, it grows as an environmental weed in wetter grasslands, open woodlands, pastures, waterways, coastal areas, roadsides, waste areas, disturbed sites and railway enclosures (Ensbey et al., 2011; Weeds of Australia, 2016, Weeds of New Zealand, 2016).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Physiology and Phenology

In Australia, Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora has been recorded flowering mostly during summer and autumn, but also during spring in warmer climates (Weeds of Australia, 2016). In New Zealand it flowers from December to April. In Central America it has been collected with flowers from April to August (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

Longevity

Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora is a perennial herb. In tropical areas this species grows continuously along the year, but in subtropical areas it dies back annually (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora grows in a wide range of environments including wet, moist, dry and semiarid habitats. It is also adapted to different soil types (it may grow in any soil, wet or dry, poor or rich) with pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.8 (Ensbey et al., 2011; Weeds of the Blue Mountains, 2016). It tolerates frost, heat and moderate shade (Weeds of New Zealand, 2016).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 6 25

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora spreads exclusively vegetatively via rhizomes and corms (Wagner et al., 1999). The seeds produced by this species are not viable. Each plant produces a string of flattened corms under the ground, up to 14 or more, each capable of producing another plant. Rhizomes also produce new plants. Rhizomes and corms are dispersed by the movement of contaminated soil, as dumped garden waste, and by watercourses (Ensbey et al., 2011; Weeds of Australia, 2016, Weeds of New Zealand, 2016).

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora is an environmental weed with the potential to invade moist grasslands, roadsides, forest remnants, coastal forests and riparian areas. It competes strongly with native understorey vegetation and small native shrubs. When invading riparian areas, it moves rapidly along watercourses and outwards into natural forests. Dense infestations smother the native ground flora and impede the regeneration of other native vegetation by inhibiting the establishment of seedlings of native species (Wagner et al., 1999; Ensbey et al., 2011; Mir, 2012; PIER, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016, Weeds of New Zealand, 2016).

Impact on Habitats

The weight of the mass of corms can cause the collapse of stream banks leading to erosion and sedimentation of natural riparian areas (Ensbey et al., 2011; Weeds of the Blue Mountains, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

The species Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora is a hybrid of horticultural origin. In addition, many cultivars of Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora with flowers varying in size and colour (from yellow to orange and red colours) have been developed and are widely commercialized as indoor and outdoor ornamentals in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, as well as in temperate countries such as the UK and New Zealand (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; The Royal Horticultural Society, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora looks similar to the African species Chasmanthe floribunda and Watsonia meriana var. bulbillifera. According to the website Weeds of Australia (2016), these species can be distinguished by differences in floral and vegetative traits:

  • Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora is a relatively small plant (usually less than 60 cm tall) with relatively small leaves (30-80 cm long). Its flowers have three stigmas and they are arranged along the branches in a slightly zigzagging pattern.

  • Chasmanthe floribunda is a relatively large plant (usually about 1.5 m tall) with relatively large leaves (more than 80 cm long). Its flowers have three stigmas and the uppermost 'petal lobe' is significantly longer than the others.

  • Watsonia meriana var. bulbillifera is a relatively large plant (usually 1-1.8 m tall) with relatively large leaves (50-80 cm long). Its flowers have six stigmas and it rarely produces fruit (instead it produces clumps of cormils or bulbils on the upper stem joints).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Small infestations of C. crocosmiiflora can be controlled by trimming and digging-out entire plants and corms. Corms should be disposed properly in order to avoid re-sprouts. Digging should not be used where the loose soil will erode, particularly on creek and riverbanks (Weeds of New Zealand, 2016).

Chemical Control

In Australia and New Zealand, herbicides such as glyphosate and metsulfuron-methyl and have been used to control infestations of C. crocosmiiflora (Ensbey et al., 2011; Weeds of New Zealand, 2016). Herbicides can be used if patches of C. crocosmiiflora are away from all native plants and from any watercourses or swamps to ensure no risk of water contamination.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/PRFlora/monocots/

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98: 1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.). Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 599 pp.

DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Danton P, Perrier C, Martinez G, 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile)., Acta Botanica Gallica, 153:399-587

Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Chater AO, 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. 6: i–xvi, 1–543. Flora Mesoamericana. México, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Davies TJ, Savolainen V, Chase MW, Goldblatt P, Barraclough TG, 2005. Environment, area and diversification in the species rich flowering plant family Iridaceae. , American Naturalist, 186:418-425

Ensbey R, Kidston J, Cook T, Scott M, Johnson S, Oosterhout E van, 2011. Noxious and environmental weed control handbook – A guide to weed control in non-crop, aquatic and bushland situations.

Goldblatt P, Manning J, 2006. Radiation of pollination systems in the Iridaceae of sub-Saharan Africa., Annals of Botany, 97:317-344

Govaerts R, Barker C, 2016. World Checklist of Iridaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Johnson SD, 2010. The pollination niche and its role in the diversification and maintenance of the southern African flora. , Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 365:490-516

Jørgensen PM, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. , Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75:1-1182

Jørgensen PM, Nee MH, Beck SG, 2014. Catalogue of vascular plants of Bolivia. , Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 127:1–1744

Kato H, 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Lavergne C, 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a la Reunion [List of exotic invasive species on Reunion.]. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). http://www.hear.org/pier/references/pierref000519.htm

Mir C, 2012. Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras Realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”. Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Owen SJ, 1997. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Working draft. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Proches S, Cowling RM, Goldblatt P, Manning JC, Snijman DA, 2006. An overview of the Cape geophytes., Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 87:27-43

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

The Royal Horticultural Society, 2016. Online resources for Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora (Lemoine) N.e. Br. 'George Davison' Davison. https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/details?plantid=4590

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication.. USA, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1919 pp.

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Queensland Government Biosecurity Edition. Online resources. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/index.htm

Weeds of New Zealand, 2016. Weedbusters Weed List. http://www.weedbusters.org.nz/weed-information/weed-list/

Weeds of the Blue Mountains, 2016. Identify weeds. http://weedsbluemountains.org.au/identify-weeds/

Wu T, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Contributors

Top of page

08/09/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map