Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tsuga canadensis
(eastern hemlock)

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Datasheet

Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Threatened Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tsuga canadensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • eastern hemlock
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •         Class: Pinopsida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Habit of ageing, free-growing tree. Shawano County, Wisconsin, USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionHabit of ageing, free-growing tree. Shawano County, Wisconsin, USA.
CopyrightR. Korth/H.G. Schabel
Habit of ageing, free-growing tree. Shawano County, Wisconsin, USA.
HabitHabit of ageing, free-growing tree. Shawano County, Wisconsin, USA.R. Korth/H.G. Schabel
Habit of 20-year-old tree. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionHabit of 20-year-old tree. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
CopyrightH.G. Schabel
Habit of 20-year-old tree. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
HabitHabit of 20-year-old tree. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.H.G. Schabel
Bark of mature tree (approximately 300 years old). Upper Michigan, USA.
TitleBark
CaptionBark of mature tree (approximately 300 years old). Upper Michigan, USA.
CopyrightH.G. Schabel
Bark of mature tree (approximately 300 years old). Upper Michigan, USA.
BarkBark of mature tree (approximately 300 years old). Upper Michigan, USA.H.G. Schabel
Bark of 20-year-old tree. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
TitleBark
CaptionBark of 20-year-old tree. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
CopyrightH.G. Schabel
Bark of 20-year-old tree. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
BarkBark of 20-year-old tree. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.H.G. Schabel
Branch with needles and opened cones as seen from below.
TitleNeedles and cones
CaptionBranch with needles and opened cones as seen from below.
CopyrightH.G. Schabel
Branch with needles and opened cones as seen from below.
Needles and conesBranch with needles and opened cones as seen from below.H.G. Schabel
Mixed hardwood-hemlock forest, hemlock being restricted to N/NE-facing glacial bowl. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
TitleMixed hardwood-hemlock forest
CaptionMixed hardwood-hemlock forest, hemlock being restricted to N/NE-facing glacial bowl. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
CopyrightH.G. Schabel
Mixed hardwood-hemlock forest, hemlock being restricted to N/NE-facing glacial bowl. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
Mixed hardwood-hemlock forestMixed hardwood-hemlock forest, hemlock being restricted to N/NE-facing glacial bowl. Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.H.G. Schabel
40-year-old T. canadensis 'Pendula' at Longwood Gardens, Pennsylvania.
TitleOrnamental tree
Caption40-year-old T. canadensis 'Pendula' at Longwood Gardens, Pennsylvania.
CopyrightLarry Albee
40-year-old T. canadensis 'Pendula' at Longwood Gardens, Pennsylvania.
Ornamental tree40-year-old T. canadensis 'Pendula' at Longwood Gardens, Pennsylvania.Larry Albee

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere

Preferred Common Name

  • eastern hemlock

Other Scientific Names

  • Abies canadensis var. gracilis Waterer ex Gordon
  • Picea canadensis (L.) Link
  • Pinus canadensis L.
  • Tsuga americana Mill.
  • Tsuga canadensis f. fastigiata (Beissner) C. K. Schneid.
  • Tsuga canadensis f. gracilis (Waterer ex Gordon) Beissner
  • Tsuga canadensis var. fastigiata Beissner

International Common Names

  • English: Canada hemlock; Canadian hemlock
  • Spanish: Tsuga del Canada
  • French: pruche du Canada; Tsuga du Canada

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kanadische Hemlocktanne; Kanadische Schierlingstanne
  • Italy: Abete del Canada; Tsuga canadese
  • Netherlands: canadeese hemlockspar
  • Sweden: vanlig hemlock
  • USA: hemlock spruce; spruce pine

EPPO code

  • TSUCA (Tsuga canadensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •                 Class: Pinopsida
  •                     Family: Pinaceae
  •                         Genus: Tsuga
  •                             Species: Tsuga canadensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Tsuga, originally described as a section of Pinus by Endlicher in 1847, was recognized as a distinct genus by Carriere in 1855. T. canadensis, originally described by Linnaeus as a species of Pinus, was transferred to Tsuga by Carriere in 1855 (Taylor, 1993).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

JapanPresent

North America

CanadaUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-New BrunswickPresent Natural
-Nova ScotiaUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-OntarioUnconfirmed record Natural
-Prince Edward IslandPresent Natural
-QuebecPresent Natural
USAPresent
-AlabamaPresent Natural
-ConnecticutPresent Natural
-DelawarePresent Natural
-GeorgiaUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-IndianaPresent Natural
-KentuckyPresent Natural
-MainePresent Natural
-MarylandUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-MassachusettsPresent Natural
-MichiganUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-MinnesotaPresent Natural
-New HampshirePresent Natural
-New JerseyPresent Natural
-New YorkPresent Natural CAB Abstracts
-North CarolinaPresent Natural
-OhioPresent Natural
-PennsylvaniaPresent Natural
-Rhode IslandPresent Natural
-South CarolinaPresent Natural
-TennesseePresent Natural
-VermontPresent Natural
-VirginiaPresent Natural
-West VirginiaPresent Natural Larcenaire et al., 2015
-WisconsinPresent Natural
-WyomingUnconfirmed record

Europe

GermanyPresent
PolandUnconfirmed record

Invasive Species Threats

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Invasive SpeciesWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid)Canada; USAHerbivory/grazing/browsingISSG, 2011

References

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Anderson HW; Gordon AG, 1994. The tolerant conifers: eastern hemlock and red spruce, their ecology and management. Forest Research Information Paper - Ontario Forest Research Institute, No. 113:48 pp.; 41 + 6 ref.

Burns RM; Honkala BH, 1990. Silvics of North America: 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington DC, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Also available on the Internet (individual authors noted) at: < target="_blank">http://willow.ncfes.umn.edu/fth_pub.htm>

Burns RM; Honkala BH, eds. , 1990. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook No. 654. Washington D.C., USA: USDA Forest Service. World Wide Web page at

Caldwell WF, 2000. You have conifers in Texas? American Conifer Society Bulletin, 17:31-33.

Ciesla WM, 1998. Non-wood forest products from conifers. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Dallimore W; Jackson AB, 1966. Handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. Fourth edition. Revised by SG Harison. London, UK: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd.

Del Tredici P, 1983. A giant among dwarfs. The mystery of Sargent's weeping hemlock. Little Compton, RI: Theophrastus.

Dirr MA, 1990. Manual of woody landscape plants: their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and uses. Ed. 4. Champaign, Illinois, USA: Stipes Publ. Co, 1007 pp.

Drooz AT (Compiler), 1985. Insects of eastern forests. US Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication No. 1426, 618 pp.

Eickmeier W; Adams MS; Lester D, 1975. Two physiological races of Tsuga canadensis in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53(9):940-951; 25 ref.

Eiselt MG, 1960. Conifers [Nadelgehölze]. Radebeul, Germany: Neumann Verlag.

Erdmann GG; Godman RM, 1987. Regenerating eastern hemlock in the Lake States. United States Department of Agriculture, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service. Northern Hardwood Notes, 3.05.

Evans RA; Johnson E; Shreiner J; Ambler A; Battles J; Cleavitt N; Fahey T; Sciascia J; Pehek E, 1996. Potential impacts of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) ecosystems. Proceedings of the first hemlock woolly adelgid review. Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. 12 October 1995., 42-57; [Publication no. FHTET 96-10]; 39 ref.

Fordham AJ, 1971. Canadian Hemlock variants and their propagation. Combined Proceedings, International Plant Propagators' Society, 21: 470-475.

Fuller JL, 1998. Ecological impact of the mid-Holocene hemlock decline in southern Ontario, Canada. Ecology, 79(7):2337-2351; 70 ref.

Griesemer SJ; Fuller TK; Degraaf RM, 1998. Habitat use by porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) in central Massachusetts: effects of topography and forest composition. American Midland Naturalist, 140(2):271-279; 27 ref.

Hepting GH, 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United States. USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 386. Washington, DC, USA: USDA-Forest Service.

Hough AF, 1960. Silvical characteristics of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Station Paper. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, No. 132:23.

ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Iverson LR; Prasad AM; Hale BJ; Kennedy Sutherland E, 1999. Atlas of current and potential future distributions of common trees of the Eastern United States. Radnor, PA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.

Kavanagh K; Kellman M, 1986. Performance of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. at the centre and northern edge of its range: a comparison. Journal of Biogeography, 13(2):145-157; 40 ref.

Kessell SR, 1979. Adaptation and dimorphism in eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. American Naturalist, 113:333-350.

Larcenaire CJ; Tomon TJ; Turcotte RM, 2015. A new host and a new state record for Paralobesia piceana (Freeman) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on eastern hemlock in West Virginia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 117(2):244-246. http://www.bioone.org/loi/went

McClure M, 1994. Hemlock woolly adelgid. Pest Alert, USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, NA-PR-03-94, 1 pp.

McClure MS; Cheah CASJ, 1998. Released Japanese ladybugs are multiplying and killing hemlock woolly adelgids. Frontiers of Plant Science, 50(2):6-8.

McManus KA; Shields KS; Souto DR, 2000. USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General Technical Report NE-267.

Mitchell JM, 1999. Habitat relationships of five northern bird species breeding in hemlock ravines in Ohio, USA. Natural Areas Journal, 19:3-11.

Mroz G; Martin J, 1996. Hemlock ecology and management. Proceedings of a Regional Conference on Ecology and Management of Eastern Hemlock, September 1995. Madison, Wisconsin: Department of Forestry, University of Wisconsin.

Obrizok RA, 1994. A garden of conifers. Introduction and selection guide. Deer Park, WI, USA: Capability's Books.

Olson JS; Stearns FW; Nienstaedt H, 1959. Eastern Hemlock [Tsuga canadensis] growth cycle and early years. Circular. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 205:24.

Orwig DA; Foster DR, 1998. Forest response to the introduced hemlock woolly adelgid in southern New England, USA. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 125(1):60-73; 74 ref.

Quimby JW, Salom SM (ed. ), Tigner TC (ed.), Reardon RC, 1996. Value and importance of hemlock ecosystems in the eastern United States. Proceedings of the first hemlock woolly adelgid review. Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. 12 October 1995, 1-8; Publication no. FHTET 96-10; 27 ref.

Raske AG; West RJ; Retnakaran A, 1995. Hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria. In: Armstrong JA, Ives WGH, eds. Forest insect pests in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Forest Service, 141-147.

Rogers R, 1978. Forests dominated by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): distribution as related to site and postsettlement history. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56:843-854.

Rooney TP; Waller DM, 1998. Local and regional variation in hemlock seedling establishment in forests of the upper Great Lakes region, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 111(2/3):211-224; 2 pp. of ref.

Rose AH; Lindquist OH, 1978. Insects of eastern spruces, fir and hemlock. Forestry Technical Report, Canadian Forestry Service, No. 23.

Souto D; Luther T; Chianese B, 1996. Past and current status of HWA in eastern and Carolina hemlock stands. Proceedings of the first hemlock woolly adelgid review. Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. 12 October 1995., 9-15; [Publication no. FHTET 96-10]; 1 ref.

Stiefel J, 1999. Eastern hemlock tree (Tsuga canadensis). The Minor View, 37:9.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Taylor RJ, 1993. Flora of North America north of Mexico. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.

USDA Forest Service, 1999. Wood handbook. Wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-113.

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