Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Triticum aestivum
(wheat)

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Datasheet

Triticum aestivum (wheat)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Triticum aestivum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wheat
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Beverage base
  • Cereal
  • Essential oils
  • Flour/starch
  • Fodder/animal feed

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleWheat on stalk
Caption
Copyright©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
Wheat on stalk©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
TitleEar of wheat
Caption
Copyright©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
Ear of wheat©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
T. aestivum: 1, habit; 2, ligule and auricles; 3, awnless spike; 4, spikelet; 5, floret (lemma and palea removed); 6, grains.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleT. aestivum - line drawing
CaptionT. aestivum: 1, habit; 2, ligule and auricles; 3, awnless spike; 4, spikelet; 5, floret (lemma and palea removed); 6, grains. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
T. aestivum: 1, habit; 2, ligule and auricles; 3, awnless spike; 4, spikelet; 5, floret (lemma and palea removed); 6, grains.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
T. aestivum - line drawingT. aestivum: 1, habit; 2, ligule and auricles; 3, awnless spike; 4, spikelet; 5, floret (lemma and palea removed); 6, grains. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Triticum aestivum L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • wheat

Other Scientific Names

  • Triticum cereale Schrank (1789)
  • Triticum sativum Lamk (1779)
  • Triticum vulgare Vill. (1787)

International Common Names

  • English: bread wheat; soft wheat; spring wheat; wheat (bread-); winter wheat
  • Spanish: trigo candeal; trigo de invierno; trigo de verano; trigo harinero
  • French: blé de printemps; blé d'hiver; blé tendre; froment; froment de printemps; froment d'hiver
  • Portuguese: trigo-mole

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Sommer- Weizen; Weich- Weizen; Winter- Weizen
  • Indonesia: gandum
  • Italy: fromento tenero; frumento estivo; frumento invernale; grano tenero
  • Netherlands: tarwe; wintertarwe; zomertarwe
  • Philippines: trigo
  • Sweden: hoestvete; vaarvete; vete
  • Thailand: khao sa le
  • Vietnam: lusa mif

EPPO code

  • TRZAX (Triticum aestivum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Triticum
  •                                 Species: Triticum aestivum

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite); Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); Aegilops cylindrica; Agropyron mosaic virus; Agrotis exclamationis (moth, heart and dart); Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); Alhagi maurorum (camelthorn); Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass); Alternaria brassicae (dark spot of crucifers); Alternaria triticina (leaf blight of wheat); Amaranthus blitoides (spreading amaranth); Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed); Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed); Anacridium rubrispinum (red-spined tree locust); Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel); Anaphothrips obscurus (grass thrips); Anguina tritici (wheat seed gall nematode); Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy); Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); Arion hortensis (garden slug); Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass); Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed); Asphodelus tenuifolius (onionweed); Athelia rolfsii (sclerotium rot); Atherigona naqvii (shootfly); Aulocara elliotti (Elliott grasshopper); Autographa gamma (silver-Y moth); Avena fatua (wild oat); Barley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf); Barley yellow striate mosaic virus; Blumeria graminis (powdery mildew of grasses and cereals); Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome); Bromus madritensis (compact brome); Bromus rigidus (ripgut brome); Bromus rubens (red brome); Bromus secalinus (rye brome); Bromus sterilis (barren brome); Bromus tectorum (downy brome); Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse); Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly); Cephus pygmeus (European wheat stem sawfly); Ceratobasidium cereale (sharp eyespot of cereals); Chaetocnema basalis; Chamomilla recutita (common chamomile); Chenopodium album (fat hen); Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle); Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle); Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. tessellarius (bacterial mosaic of wheat); Claviceps purpurea (ergot); Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaf folder); Cochliobolus sativus (root and foot rot); Cochliobolus spicifer (spring dead spot of grasses); Cocksfoot mottle virus; Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane); Corcyra cephalonica (rice meal moth); Cynomys (prairie dog); Datura stramonium (jimsonweed); Delia coarctata (fly, wheat bulb); Deroceras invadens (tramp slug); Deroceras reticulatum (grey field slug); Desmostachya bipinnata (halfa grass); Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass); Digitaria velutina (velvet fingergrass); Ditylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode); Diuraphis noxia (Russian wheat aphid); Dolerus; Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass); Echium plantagineum (Paterson's curse); Elymus repens (quackgrass); Emex australis (Doublegee); Emex spinosa (spiny emex); Ephestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth); Epicoccum nigrum (red blotch of grains); Equisetum arvense (field horsetail); Erwinia rhapontici (rhubarb crown rot); Euphorbia helioscopia (sun spurge); Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); Eurygaster integriceps (sunn pest); Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); Filago gallica (narrowleaf cottonrose); Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips); Fumaria officinalis (common fumitory); Fusarium asiaticum; Fusarium crookwellense; Fusarium culmorum (culm rot: cereals); Fusarium sporotrichioides (kernel rot of maize); Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis (crown sheath rot); Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (take-all); Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier); Galium aparine (cleavers); Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Gibberella coronicola; Gibberella sacchari (pineapple eye rot); Gibberella zeae (headblight of maize); Haplodiplosis marginata (saddle gall midge); Haplothrips aculeatus (grass thrips); Haplothrips tritici (wheat thrips); Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode); Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); Heterodera avenae (cereal cyst eelworm); Heterodera filipjevi; Heterodera latipons (mediterranean cereal cyst nematode); Hibiscus trionum (Venice mallow); High plains wheat mosaic emaravirus (high plains disease); Hydraecia micacea (potato skin borer); Hymenula cerealis (Cephalosporium stripe); Laodelphax striatellus (small brown planthopper); Lepidium draba (hoary cress); Lewia infectoria; Lidophia graminis (plumed spore disease of cereals); Limonius californicus (sugarbeet wireworm); Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil); Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass); Lolium rigidum (rigid ryegrass); Lolium temulentum (darnel); Macrosteles quadrilineatus (aster leafhopper); Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast disease); Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); Maize streak virus (streak disease of maize); Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); Melanoplus bivittatus (twostriped grasshopper); Melanoplus sanguinipes (lesser migratory grasshopper); Melilotus indica (Indian sweetclover); Meloidogyne artiellia; Meloidogyne naasi (barley root knot nematode); Meromyza saltatrix (wheat stem maggot); Metopolophium dirhodum (rose-grass aphid); Microdochium bolleyi (root rot of maize); Mocis latipes (grass looper); Monographella nivalis (foot rot of cereals); Mycosphaerella graminicola (Septoria tritici blotch); Mythimna separata (paddy armyworm); Nicandra physalodes (apple of Peru); Nysius huttoni (wheat bug); Onopordum acanthium (scotch thistle); Oryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle); Oscinella frit (frit fly); Oulema melanopus (oat leaf beetle); Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); Papaver rhoeas (common poppy); Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed); Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (bacterial root rot of sweet potato); Penthaleus major (blue oat mite); Petrobia latens (brown wheat mite); Phaeosphaeria avenaria f.sp. avenaria (leaf spot of oats); Phaeosphaeria nodorum (glume blotch); Phalaris minor (littleseed canarygrass); Phalaris paradoxa (awned canary-grass); Phenacoccus hordei; Phragmites australis (common reed); Phyllachora graminis (black: grasses leaf spot); Phytophthora cryptogea (tomato foot rot); Poa annua (annual meadowgrass); Poa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass); Polygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed); Polygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper); Polygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria); Polygonum nepalense (Nepal persicaria); Polygonum persicaria (redshank); Polymyxa graminis (vector of streak mosaic: wheat); Pratylenchus thornei; Pseudomonas fuscovaginae (sheath brown rot); Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens (basal: wheat glume rot); Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); Pseudoseptoria donacis (halo spot of barley); Puccinia graminis (stem rust of cereals); Puccinia striiformis (yellow rust); Puccinia triticina (wheat brown rust); Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (leaf spot of wheat); Pythium aphanidermatum (damping-off); Pythium arrhenomanes (cereals root rot); Pythium graminicola (seedling blight of grasses); Pythium ultimum (black-leg of seedlings); Quelea quelea (weaver bird); Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish); Rathayibacter iranicus (gumming disease.); Rathayibacter tritici (tundu disease); Rhizoglyphus tritici; Rhopalosiphum padi (grain aphid); Rhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer); Rice black-streaked dwarf virus; Saccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane); Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust); Schizaphis graminum (spring green aphid); Sclerophthora macrospora (downy mildew); Sesamia calamistis (African pink stem borer); Sesamia inferens (purple stem borer); Setaria pumila (yellow foxtail); Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail); Setaria viridis (green foxtail); Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard); Sipha flava (yellow sugarcane aphid); Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae (wheat aphid); Sitobion miscanthi (indian grain aphid); Sitodiplosis mosellana (orange wheat blossom midge); Sitophilus granarius (grain weevil); Sitophilus oryzae (lesser grain weevil); Sitotroga cerealella (grain moth); Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade); Solanum nigrum (black nightshade); Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass); Spergula arvensis (corn spurry); Spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm); Stegobium paniceum (drugstore beetle); Stellaria media (common chickweed); Tagetes minuta (stinking Roger); Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion); Tenebrio molitor (European meal worm); Tenebroides mauritanicus (cadelle); Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (rice root aphid); Thanatephorus cucumeris (many names, depending on host); Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress); Thrips angusticeps (field thrips); Thrips nigropilosus (chrysanthemum thrips); Tilletia controversa (dwarf bunt of wheat); Tilletia indica (Karnal bunt of wheat); Tilletia laevis (smooth-spored wheat bunt); Tilletia tritici (wheat bunt); Trichodorus viruliferus (stubby root nematode); Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); Triticum mosaic virus; Trogoderma granarium (khapra beetle); Tylenchorhynchus mashhoodi; Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris; Typhula idahoensis (speckled snow mould); Tyrophagus putrescentiae (cereal mite); Urochloa panicoides (liverseed grass); Urocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat); Urtica dioica (stinging nettle); Veronica persica (creeping speedwell); Vicia villosa (hairy vetch); Vulpia myuros (annual fescue); Wheat dwarf virus; Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus; Wheat streak mosaic virus (wheat streak); Wheat yellow leaf virus; Wheat yellow mosaic bymovirus (wheat spindle streak mosaic); Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial: grasses streak); Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak); Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (bacterial: wheat leaf streak); Zabrus tenebrioides (corn ground beetle)

Minor host of:

Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf); Acanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur); Acarus siro (flour mite); Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial leaf blight); Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid); Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed); Agromyza oryzae (rice leaf miner); Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed); Anthemis cotula (dog fennel); Aspergillus flavus (Aspergillus ear rot); Aspergillus niger (black mould of onion); Atherigona orientalis (pepper fruit fly); Atherigona oryzae (rice shoot fly); Atherigona soccata (sorghum stem fly); Barley stripe mosaic virus (stripe mosaic of barley); Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode); Blissus leucopterus (chinch bug); Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); Brome mosaic virus; Cadra cautella (dried currant moth); Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); Chaetocnema confinis (flea beetle); Chaetocnema pulicaria (corn flea beetle); Chlorops oryzae (rice stem maggot); Chnootriba similis (maize ladybird); Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth); Cicadulina mbila (maize leafhopper); Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt & leaf blight); Cochliobolus lunatus (head mould of grasses, rice and sorghum); Colletotrichum graminicola (red stalk rot of cereals); Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane); Cryptolestes ferrugineus (rusty grain beetle); Curvularia (black kernel); Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge); Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass); Delia platura (bean seed fly); Diabrotica balteata (banded cucumber beetle); Diabrotica speciosa (cucurbit beetle); Dicladispa armigera (rice hispa); Digitaria abyssinica (East African couchgrass); Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode); Fusarium langsethiae; Fusarium meridionale; Fusarium tricinctum; Globisporangium irregulare (dieback: carrot); Haematonectria haematococca (dry rot of potato); Halotydeus destructor (redlegged earth mite); Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Heterodera zeae (corn cyst nematode); Hirschmanniella oryzae (rice root nematode); Hoplolaimus indicus (lance nematode); Hoplolaimus pararobustus (lance nematode); Hypera postica (lucerne weevil); Hypera zoilus (clover leaf weevil); Hyptis suaveolens (pignut); Iva xanthiifolia (marsh-elder); Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy); Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax); Locusta migratoria (migratory locust); Maize rough dwarf virus; Maize stripe virus (stripe disease of maize); Melanotus communis (common wireworm); Meloidogyne ethiopica (Root-knot nematode); Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode); Melolontha melolontha (white grub cockchafer); Metopolophium festucae (fescue aphid); Mythimna loreyi (maize caterpillar); Oedaleus senegalensis (Senegalese grasshopper); Ostrinia nubilalis (European maize borer); Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Pelopidas mathias (rice skipper); Penicillium expansum (blue mould of stored apple); Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass); Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth); Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass); Portulaca oleracea (purslane); Pratylenchus agilis; Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode); Pratylenchus neglectus (nematode, California meadow); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Prostephanus truncatus (larger grain borer); Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive); Pseudomonas syringae pv. coronafaciens (halo blight); Pyrenophora chaetomioides (leaf blotch); Pyrenophora teres (net blotch); Pyrilla perpusilla (sugarcane planthopper); Rhopalosiphum insertum (apple-grass aphid); Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); Rhynchosporium secalis (leaf blotch); Rice stripe virus (rice stripe tenuivirus); Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode); Rumex crispus (curled dock); Scutellonema clathricaudatum; Setaria palmifolia (palm grass); Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail); Sitobion fragariae (blackberry cereal aphid); Sminthurus viridis (lucerne flea); Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle); Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm); Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); Thrips flavus (honeysuckle thrips); Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle); Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine); Ustilago hordei (covered smut of barley); Waitea circinata (root rot of maize); Wheat dwarf India virus; Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur); Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm)

Wild host of:

Recilia dorsalis (zigzag leafhopper)

Associated with (not a host):

Acaropsellina docta; Acaropsellina sollers; Aspergillus parasiticus; Aureobasidium pullulans (blue stain of wood); Bacillus subtilis; Blattisocius keegani; Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma); Cheyletus eruditus; Cheyletus malaccensis (predatory mite); Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis (soyabean stem canker); Erynia neoaphidis (parasite of aphids); Hypocrea rufa (green mould of narcissus); Meloidogyne chitwoodi (columbia root-knot nematode); Mycosphaerella brassicicola (cabbage ring-spot); Mycosphaerella tassiana (antagonist of Botrytis cinerea); Mylabris calida; Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato); Pseudomonas putida (biocontrol: Erwinia spp.); Sarocladium strictum (acremonium wilt); Trichoderma harzianum (hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia solani)

Host of (source - data mining):

Aelia rostrata; Aelia sibirica; Aeolus mellillus (wireworm, flat); Aeroglyphus robustus (warty grain mite); Agriotes brevis; Agriotes lineatus (wireworm); Agriotes obscurus (dusky wire worm); Agriotes sputator (click beetle, common); Agriotes ustulatus; Agromyza intermittens; Agromyza megalopsis; Agromyza nigrella; Agromyza nigrociliata; Agrotis orthogonia (pale western cutworm); Ahasverus advena (foreign grain beetle); Aleuroglyphus ovatus (brownlegged grain mite); Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Alternaria tenuissima (nailhead spot of tomato); Anisoplia austriaca; Apamea anceps; Apamea sordens (rustic shoulder, knot moth); Aptinothrips stylifer (green grass thrips); Ascochyta tritici (leaf spot of wheat); Aspergillus kambarensis; Atherigona punctata; Calliptamus italicus; Callosobruchus chinensis (Chinese bruchid); Calocoris norvegicus (strawberry bug); Cathartus quadricollis (square-necked grain beetle); Cerodontha denticornis (grass sheath miner); Cestrinus trivialis; Ceutorhynchus napi (cabbage stem weevil); Chaetocnema hortensis; Chorthippus albomarginatus; Chortoicetes terminifera (locust, Australian plague); Chromatomyia fuscula; Chromatomyia nigra (wheat leaf miner); Cicadulina chinai; Cladosporium spongiosum; Clinodiplosis cilicrus; Cnephasia pasiuana; Cnephasia pumicana; Cochliobolus hawaiiensis (leaf spot: maize); Cochliobolus ravenelii (false smut); Collaria oleosa; Collaria scenica; Contarinia pisi (midge, pea); Contarinia tritici (wheat yellow blossom midge); Creatonotos gangis; Cryptolestes pusillus (flat grain beetle); Ctenicera destructor; Ctenicera pruinina (great basin wireworm); Cydia nigricana (pea moth); Delia arambourgi (barley fly); Delphacodes kuscheli; Diatraea lineolata (neotropical corn stalk borer); Dociostaurus brevicollis; Drechslera biseptata; Elasmolomus sordidus (peanut trash bug); Eleodes extricata; Eleodes hispilabris (wireworm, false); Eleodes nigrina; Eleodes obsoleta; Eleodes suturalis (wireworm, false); Empoasca; Ephestia elutella (chocolate moth); Eurydema ventralis (cabbage bug); Eurygaster austriaca; Eurygaster maura (cereal, bug); Euxoa auxiliaris (army cutworm); Forda marginata; Frankliniella bispinosa; Frankliniella tritici (eastern flower thrips); Frankliniella williamsi (corn thrips); Fusarium merismoides (wilt of pigeon pea); Fusarium oxysporum (basal rot); Fusarium poae (central: Chrysanthemum spp. bud rot); Fusarium proliferatum; Geomyza tripunctata; Gibberella acuminata (stalk rot of maize); Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower); Gibberella pulicaris (basal canker of hop); Gibberella tricincta (blight: grasses); Gibellina cerealis (false eyespot); Glycyphagus domesticus (house, mite, common); Heliothis peltigera; Javesella pellucida; Lasioderma serricorne (cigarette beetle); Latheticus oryzae (longheaded flour beetle); Lepidoglyphus destructor (groceries, mite); Lepinotus patruelis; Lepthyphantes tenuis; Limonius infuscatus (western field wireworm); Limothrips cerealium (corn, thrips); Limothrips denticornis (barley thrips); Liposcelis bostrychophila (book louse); Liposcelis entomophila (grain psocid); Macrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid); Melanoplus gladstoni; Melanoplus packardii (packard grasshopper); Microtermes obesi; Mythimna sequax; Neodiprion lecontei (redheaded pine sawfly); Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot); Oebalus pugnax (rice stinkbug); Oligonychus pratensis (spider mite); Opomyza florum (fly, grass and cereal); Oria musculosa (wainscot, moth, brighton); Oryzaephilus mercator (merchant grain beetle); Oscinella pusilla; Oscinella vastator; Oxya hyla intricata; Pachynematus clitellatus; Paratriophtydeus coineaui; Peanut clump virus; Persectania ewingii (barley, grub); Phaeosphaeria avenaria f.sp. triticea (speckled: wheat leaf blotch); Phaneroptera furcifera (katydid, Philippine); Phoma glomerata (blight: grapevine); Phorbia haberlandti; Phorbia securis (fly, late wheat shoot); Phyllotreta (flea beetles); Phyllotreta vittula (barley flea beetle); Pleonomus canaliculatus; Pleospora herbarum (leaf blight of onion); Psammotettix striatus (European grass-feeding leafhopper); Pseudomonas syringae (bacterial blast); Pterohelaeus darlingensis (false, wireworm); Pyrenochaeta terrestris (pink root of onion); Pythium iwayamai (snow rot: cereals); Pythium torulosum; Rhypodes anceps; Rupela albinella (south American white borer (of rice)); Sclerotinia borealis (snow blight of grass); Sclerotinia minor (sclerotinia disease of lettuce); Selatosomus latus; Setosphaeria rostrata (leaf spot of grasses); Sipha elegans; Siteroptes avenae; Sitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil); Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus; Sorhoanus pascuellus; Spodoptera latifascia (lateral lined armyworm); Stenothrips graminum; Stenotus binotatus (timothy, plantbug); Tarsonemus granarius (glossy grain mite); Thyanta perditor (brown stem bug); Tipula aino (crane fly, rice); Tipula oleracea (common crane fly); Toya propinqua; Trachelus tabidus (black grain stem, sawfly); Tribolium audax (American black flour beetle); Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle); Trigonotylus coelestialium (rice, leafbug); Typhaea stercorea (hairy fungus beetle); Typhula incarnata (snow blight: cereals); Typhula ishikariensis (speckled: cereals snow mould); Ulomoides dermestoides; Ustilago avenae f.sp. avenae; Ustilago nuda f.sp. hordei (loose: barley smut); Ustilago nuda f.sp. tritici (loose wheat smut); Vicia sativa (common vetch); Wojnowicia hirta (foot and root rot: grasses); Xanthomonas campestris (black rot of crucifers); Zabrotes subfasciatus (Mexican bean weevil); Zeros orientalis; Zyginidia pullula; Zyginidia scutellaris

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Cereal
  • Flour/starch

Materials

  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore