Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Triticum aestivum
(wheat)

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Datasheet

Triticum aestivum (wheat)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Triticum aestivum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wheat
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Triticum aestivum; Wheat on stalk.
TitleWheat on stalk
CaptionTriticum aestivum; Wheat on stalk.
Copyright©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
Triticum aestivum; Wheat on stalk.
Wheat on stalkTriticum aestivum; Wheat on stalk.©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
Triticum aestivum; Ear of wheat.
TitleEar of wheat
CaptionTriticum aestivum; Ear of wheat.
Copyright©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
Triticum aestivum; Ear of wheat.
Ear of wheatTriticum aestivum; Ear of wheat.©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
T. aestivum: 1, habit; 2, ligule and auricles; 3, awnless spike; 4, spikelet; 5, floret (lemma and palea removed); 6, grains.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleT. aestivum - line drawing
CaptionT. aestivum: 1, habit; 2, ligule and auricles; 3, awnless spike; 4, spikelet; 5, floret (lemma and palea removed); 6, grains. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
T. aestivum: 1, habit; 2, ligule and auricles; 3, awnless spike; 4, spikelet; 5, floret (lemma and palea removed); 6, grains.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
T. aestivum - line drawingT. aestivum: 1, habit; 2, ligule and auricles; 3, awnless spike; 4, spikelet; 5, floret (lemma and palea removed); 6, grains. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Triticum aestivum L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • wheat

Other Scientific Names

  • Triticum cereale Schrank (1789)
  • Triticum sativum Lamk (1779)
  • Triticum vulgare Vill. (1787)

International Common Names

  • English: bread wheat; soft wheat; spring wheat; wheat (bread-); winter wheat
  • Spanish: trigo candeal; trigo de invierno; trigo de verano; trigo harinero
  • French: blé de printemps; blé d'hiver; blé tendre; froment; froment de printemps; froment d'hiver
  • Portuguese: trigo-mole

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Sommer- Weizen; Weich- Weizen; Winter- Weizen
  • Indonesia: gandum
  • Italy: fromento tenero; frumento estivo; frumento invernale; grano tenero
  • Netherlands: tarwe; wintertarwe; zomertarwe
  • Philippines: trigo
  • Sweden: hoestvete; vaarvete; vete
  • Thailand: khao sa le
  • Vietnam: lusa mif

EPPO code

  • TRZAX (Triticum aestivum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Triticum
  •                                 Species: Triticum aestivum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 29 Apr 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentWheat production (2011) 2,800,000 MT (*)
AngolaPresentWheat production (2011) 4,000 MT (*)
BotswanaPresentWheat production (2011) 0 MT (F)
BurundiPresentWheat production (2011) 9,787 MT
CameroonPresentWheat production (2011) 1,055 MT (Im)
ChadPresentWheat production (2011) 9,000 MT (F)
EgyptPresentWheat production (2011) 8,407,130 MT
EritreaPresentWheat production (2011) 28,786 MT (Im)
EswatiniPresentWheat production (2011) 628 MT (Im)
EthiopiaPresentWheat production (2011) 2,855,680 MT
KenyaPresentWheat production (2011) 268,482 MT
LesothoPresentWheat production (2011) 20,065 MT
LibyaPresentWheat production (2011) 111,215 MT (Im)
MadagascarPresentWheat production (2011) 10,421 MT (Im)
MalawiPresentWheat production (2011) 1,850 MT
MaliPresentWheat production (2011) 33,842 MT
MauritaniaPresentWheat production (2011) 2,888 MT
MoroccoPresentWheat production (2011) 3,400,000 MT (*)
MozambiquePresentWheat production (2011) 2,286 MT (Im)
NamibiaPresentWheat production (2011) 13,000 MT (F)
NigerPresentWheat production (2011) 6,309 MT (Im)
NigeriaPresentWheat production (2011) 52,000 MT (F)
RéunionPresentIntroduced1978
RwandaPresentWheat production (2011) 90,684 MT
SomaliaPresentWheat production (2011) 1,046 MT (Im)
South AfricaPresentWheat production (2011) 2,005,000 MT
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresentWheat production (2011) 1,605,500 MT
UgandaPresentWheat production (2011) 23,000 MT
ZambiaPresentWheat production (2011) 153,829 MT (Im)
ZimbabwePresentWheat production (2011) 44,045 MT (Im)

Antarctica

French Southern TerritoriesPresentIntroduced1985Original location reported: Kerguelen Islands

Asia

AfghanistanPresentWheat production (2011) 3,388,000 MT
ArmeniaPresentWheat production (2011) 224,082 MT
AzerbaijanPresentWheat production (2011) 1,594,390 MT
BangladeshPresentWheat production (2011) 972,085 MT
BhutanPresentWheat production (2011) 5,184 MT (Im)
ChinaPresentWheat production (2011) 1,174,10000 MT
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresentWheat production (2011) 8,687,4000 MT
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresentWheat production (2011) 2,808,900 MT
IsraelPresentWheat production (2011) 122,024 MT
JapanPresentWheat production (2011) 746,300 MT
JordanPresentWheat production (2011) 19,801 MT
KazakhstanPresentWheat production (2011) 2,273,2000 MT
KuwaitPresentWheat production (2011) 1,705 MT (Im)
KyrgyzstanPresentWheat production (2011) 799,841 MT
LebanonPresentWheat production (2011) 90,000 MT (F)
MongoliaPresentWheat production (2011) 435,889 MT
MyanmarPresentWheat production (2011) 184,500 MT (F)
NepalPresentWheat production (2011) 1,745,810 MT
OmanPresentWheat production (2011) 2,126 MT
PakistanPresentWheat production (2011) 2,521,3800 MT
QatarPresentWheat production (2011) 26 MT
Saudi ArabiaPresentWheat production (2011) 1,363,960 MT (Im)
SyriaPresentWheat production (2011) 3,858,330 MT
TajikistanPresentWheat production (2011) 726,880 MT
ThailandPresentWheat production (2011) 1,173 MT (Im)
TurkeyPresentWheat production (2011) 2,180,0000 MT
TurkmenistanPresentWheat production (2011) 3,272,660 MT (Im)
United Arab EmiratesPresentWheat production (2011) 42 MT (Im)
UzbekistanPresentWheat production (2011) 6,526,700 MT
YemenPresentWheat production (2011) 278,490 MT (Im)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentWheat production (2011) 292,800 MT
AustriaPresentWheat production (2011) 1,781,840 MT
BelarusPresentWheat production (2011) 2,177,920 MT
BelgiumPresentWheat production (2011) 1,687,750 MT
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentIntroduced1903
BulgariaPresentWheat production (2011) 4,458,490 MT
CroatiaPresentWheat production (2011) 782,499 MT
CyprusPresentWheat production (2011) 19,711 MT
CzechiaPresentWheat production (2011) 4,913,050 MT
DenmarkPresentWheat production (2011) 4,831,000 MT
EstoniaPresentWheat production (2011) 360,400 MT
FinlandPresentWheat production (2011) 980,700 MT
FrancePresentWheat production (2011) 3,803,7000 MT
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced1910
GermanyPresentWheat production (2011) 2,280,0000 MT
GreecePresentWheat production (2011) 1,702,020 MT
HungaryPresentWheat production (2011) 4,107,000 MT
IcelandPresentIntroduced1931
IrelandPresentWheat production (2011) 929,000 MT
ItalyPresentWheat production (2011) 6,622,000 MT
LatviaPresentWheat production (2011) 937,000 MT
LithuaniaPresentWheat production (2011) 1,869,000 MT
LuxembourgPresentWheat production (2011) 76,839 MT
MaltaPresentWheat production (2011) 15,127 MT (Im)
NetherlandsPresentWheat production (2011) 1,175,280 MT
NorwayPresentWheat production (2011) 265,000 MT
PolandPresentWheat production (2011) 9,339,200 MT
PortugalPresentWheat production (2011) 58,631 MT
RomaniaPresentWheat production (2011) 7,131,590 MT
RussiaPresentWheat production (2011) 5,624,0000 MT
SerbiaPresentWheat production (2011) 2,076,240 MT
SlovakiaPresentWheat production (2011) 1,639,300 MT
SloveniaPresentWheat production (2011) 153,575 MT
SpainPresentWheat production (2011) 6,900,000 MT
SwedenPresentWheat production (2011) 2,253,100 MT
SwitzerlandPresentWheat production (2011) 553,168 MT
UkrainePresentWheat production (2011) 2,232,3600 MT
United KingdomPresentWheat production (2011) 1,525,7000 MT
-ScotlandPresent

North America

CanadaPresentWheat production (2011) 2,526,1400 MT
-AlbertaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
GuatemalaPresentWheat production (2011) 8,961 MT (Im)
HondurasPresentWheat production (2011) 1,089 MT (Im)
MexicoPresentWheat production (2011) 3,627,510 MT
United StatesPresentWheat production (2011) 5,441,3300 MT
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IndianaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentWheat production (2011) 2,741,0100 MT
-New South WalesPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New CaledoniaPresentWheat production (2011) 8 MT (Im)
New ZealandPresentWheat production (2011) 383,300 MT

South America

ArgentinaPresentWheat production (2011) 1,635,4100 MT
BrazilPresentWheat production (2011) 5,690,040 MT
-ParanaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresentWheat production (2011) 1,575,820 MT
ColombiaPresentWheat production (2011) 17,669 MT
EcuadorPresentWheat production (2011) 5,938 MT
ParaguayPresentWheat production (2011) 1,461,020 MT
PeruPresentWheat production (2011) 214,099 MT
UruguayPresentWheat production (2011) 1,470,300 MT (Im)

References

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Ahmed NE; Kanan HO; Inanaga S; Ma YQ; Sugimoto Y, 2001. Impact of pesticide seed treatments on aphid control and yield of wheat in the Sudan. Crop Protection, 20(10):929-934; 27 ref.

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Bowden WM, 1959. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the wheats, barleys, and ryes and their wild relatives. Canadian Journal of Botany, 37:657-684.

CIMMYT, 1985. Wheats for more tropical environments. Mexico DF:International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT).

Cook RJ; Veseth RJ, 1991. Wheat Health Management. St. Paul, USA: APS Press.

FAO, 2013. FAOSTAT database. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html [2011 data taken in 2013.]

Klatt AR(Editor), 1988. Wheat production constraints in tropical environments. Proceedings of the international conference, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 19-23 January 1987. Mexico, D.F., Mexico; CIMMYT, viii + 410pp.

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Lhaloui S; El-Bouhssini M; Nsarellah N; Nachit MM; Amri A, 2000. Biotic stress limiting durum wheat production in Morocco - Hessian fly and the Russian wheat aphid: surveys, loss assessment, and identification of sources of resistance. In: Royo C, Nachit MM, Fonzo N di, Araus JL, eds. Durum wheat improvement in the Mediterranean region: new challenges. Proceedings of a seminar, Zaragoza, Spain, 12-14 April, 2000. Options MediterranTennes, Serie A, Seminaires MediterranTens, 40:373-379.

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Piekarczyk, M., Wenda-Piesik, A., Gałęzewski, L., Kotwica, K., 2019. Weed infestation and yielding of field pea and yellow lupine depending on various doses of herbicide mixtures. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Agricultura, 18(1), 21-27. http://www.agricultura.acta.utp.edu.pl/index.php/agricultura/article/view/129/84

Quisenberry KS; Reitz LP, 1967. Wheat and Wheat improvement. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: ASA.

Saunders DA(Editor), 1991. Wheat for the nontraditional warm areas. A proceedings of the international conference, July 29-August 3, 1990, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil. Mexico; CIMMYT, xi + 549pp.

Saunders DA; Hettel GP, 1994. Wheat in heat-stressed environments: irrigated, dry areas and rice-wheat farming systems. Proceedings of conferences held at Wad Medani, Sudan, 1-4 February, 1993 and Dinajpur, Bangladesh 13-15 February 1993. Wheat in heat-stressed environments: irrigated, dry areas and rice-wheat farming systems. Proceedings of conferences held at Wad Medani, Sudan, 1-4 February, 1993 and Dinajpur, Bangladesh 13-15 February 1993., x + 402 pp.; [ref. at ends of papers].

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Wiese MV, 1987. Compendium of wheat diseases. Second edition. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 112 pp.

XiuLan Sheng; Yang FengQi; Zheng Guo; Wei YuHong; Halsey ME; Huber DM, 2001. Efficacy of MON65500 for controlling take-all of irrigated spring wheat in Northcentral China. Crop Protection, 20(4):345-349; 5 ref.

Yildirim A; Gokmen S; Braun HJ; Ketata H; Ekiz H, 2000. Bugdayda sari pas hastaliginin Turkiye acisindan onemi ve islah calismalari. [Importance of stripe rust disease of wheat in Turkey and breeding efforts for resistance.] Orta Anadolu'da hububat tariminin sorunlari ve cozum yollari Sempozyumu, Konya, Turkey, 8-11 Haziran 1999, 158-163.

Zillinsky FJ, 1983. Common diseases of small grain cereals. A guide to identification. Common diseases of small grain cereals. A guide to identification., 141 pp.; [301 col. fig.]; 7 ref.

Distribution References

Aatika S, Nasira K, Shahina F, 2017. Description of Filenchus maqbooli n. sp., and redescriptions of five new records of plant parasitic nematodes of maize crops from Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 35 (1), 47-64. DOI:10.18681/pjn.v35.i01.p47-64

Abbad Andaloussi F, Bachikh J, 2001. Studies on the host range of Ditylenchus dipsaci in Morocco. Nematologia Mediterranea. 29 (1), 51-57.

Abdul Waheed, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Jakhar G S, Hayatullah Tareen, 2009. Weed community dynamics in wheat crop of district Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41 (1), 247-254. http://www.pjbot.org

Abidou H, El-Ahmed A, Nİcol J M, Bolat N, Rivoal R, Yahyaoui A, 2005. Occurrence and distribution of species of the Heterodera avenae group in Syria and Turkey. Nematologia Mediterranea. 33 (2), 195-201.

Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath. 13 (1), 51-55. http://111.68.103.26/journals/index.php/mycopath/article/viewFile/673/354

Afonina V M, Tshernyshev W B, Soboleva-Dokuchaeva I I, Timokhov A V, Timokhova O V, Seifulina R R, 2001. Arthropod complex of winter wheat crops and its seasonal dynamics. Bulletin OILB/SROP. 24 (6), 153-163.

Aghajani M A, Safaei N, 2008. New hosts for sclerotinia stem rot of canola. Journal of Plant Pathology. 90 (1), 147. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

Agustí-Brisach C, Raya-Ortega M C, Trapero C, Roca L F, Luque F, López-Moral A, Fuentes M, Trapero A, 2018. First report of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot of wheat in Europe. Plant Disease. 102 (8), 1670. DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-17-1840-pdn

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Bentley A R, Cromey M G, Farrokhi-Nejad R, Leslie J F, Summerell B A, Burgess L W, 2006. Fusarium crown and root rot pathogens associated with wheat and grass stem bases on the South Island of New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology. 35 (5), 495-502. DOI:10.1071/AP06053

Bhardwaj S C, Prashar M, Kumar S, Jain S K, Datta D, 2005. Lr19 resistance in wheat becomes susceptible to Puccinia triticina in India. Plant Disease. 89 (12), 1360. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1360A

Blount A R, Rizvi S A, Barnett R D, Chen X M, Schubert T S, Dankers W H, Momol T M, Dixon W N, 2005. First report of stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici on wheat in Florida. Plant Health Progress. 1-3. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2005/stripe/

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