Vincetoxicum rossicum (European swallowwort)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (1950)
Preferred Common Name
- European swallowwort
Other Scientific Names
- Antitoxicum rossicum (Kleo.) Pobed (1952)
- Cynanchum medium R. Br. (1809)
- Cynanchum rossicum (Kleo.) Borhidi (1966)
- Cynanchum rossicum Kleo. (1929)
- Vincetoxicum medium (R. Br.) Decne (1844)
International Common Names
- English: dog-strangling vine; pale swallow-wort
Local Common Names
- Canada: dompte-venin de Russie
- USA: swallowwort; swallow-wort
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
V. rossicum is a herbaceous perennial climbing vine native to Ukraine and southwestern European Russia. It was introduced into North America for ornamental purposes and has spread extensively throughout the lower Great Lakes Basin, particularly Lake Ontario, including New York State, USA and Ontario, Canada. Self-fertility and large numbers of wind-borne seeds ensure rapid dispersal of V. rossicum to new sites. Small patches of V. rossicum can coalesce to form very large, monospecific stands which can outcompete native vegetation resulting in a change in habitats and a decrease in biodiversity. V. rossicum is allelopathic and can alter the microbial composition in the rhizosphere preventing the growth of sensitive plant species. In the USA, competition from V. rossicum is putting pressure on the rare and endangered species Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum. In addition to this, V. rossicum has been shown to decrease insect biodiversity and may have negative impact on the reproduction of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Gentianales
- Family: Asclepiadaceae
- Genus: Vincetoxicum
- Species: Vincetoxicum rossicum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Other names for the genus VincetoxicumWolf (1776) include Vincetoxicum Medik., Alexitoxicum St. Lag., Cynanchum (L.) Pers., Cynanchum (L.) R. Br. and Antitoxicum Pobed. No consensus exists for the distinction between Vincetoxicum and Cynanchum. Liede and Täuber (2002) found significant distinctions between Old and New World Cynanchum species, more so than between other established genera of Asclepiadaceae. Liede (1996) separated Vincetoxicum from Cynanchum on the basis of the presence of certain alkaloids and glycosides in Vincetoxicum that are lacking in Cynanchum, using these as indicators of phylogenetic distance. Others find the variation of these genera to be too continuous to separate them (Woodson, 1941; Kartesz, 1999).
DescriptionTop of page
V. rossicum is a perennial herbaceous suberect, climbing and twining vine growing from a fibrous root system with several subterranean buds at the stem base producing one (or more) stems which annually grow to 1-3+ m high. Leaves are opposite, 9-12 cm long, oblong to ovate, acuminate, rounded to subcordate at base, with short (5-10 mm) petioles.
Flowers are in groups of 4-6 in umbelliform cymes in the axils of leaves, peduncles 2-5 cm long, pedicels pubescent. Creamy pale to dark maroon corolla, 4-6 mm diameter, corolla lobes fleshy, glabrous, deltoid, 1.5-3 mm, segments joined by a connective membrane 1/2 their length. The fruits are slender, smooth follicles, 4-6 cm long by 0.5 cm wide, often in pairs. Seeds comose.
Plant TypeTop of page Broadleaved
Vine / climber
DistributionTop of page
V. rossicum is native to Ukraine and southwestern European Russia. V. rossicum has been introduced into North America where infestations are concentrated in the Lower Great Lakes basin, especially the Lake Plain of New York State, USA and southern Ontario, Canada. Additional reports come from Missouri (USDA-NRCS, 2016). The presence of V. rossicum has also been reported in British Columbia and Quebec, Canada, (USDA-NRCS, 2016). Populations of V. rossicum have been identified in Norway, where invasive tendencies were noted (Lauvanger and Borgen, 1998).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Norway||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Lauvanger and Borgen (1998)||First reported: before 1865|
|Russia||Present||CABI (Undated)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Southern Russia||Present, Localized||Native||Pobedimova (1952)|
|Ukraine||Present, Localized||Native||Visulina (1957)|
|Canada||Present||Introduced||Moore (1959); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||1885||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-Ontario||Present||Introduced||1889||Moore (1959); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|United States||Present||Introduced||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-Connecticut||Present||Introduced||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-Indiana||Present||Introduced||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Introduced||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-Michigan||Present||Introduced||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||1897||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Introduced||Sheeley and Raynal (1996); USDA-NRCS (2016)|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
The first record of V. rossicum in North American was collected in 1885 from cultivation in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (Moore, 1959; Sheeley and Raynal, 1996). The first record in eastern North America was in 1889 at Toronto Junction, Ontario, Canada (Moore, 1959). The earliest state record in the USA was 1897 in Monroe and Nassau Counties, New York (Sheeley and Raynal, 1996).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The accidental introduction of V. rossicum will continue via agricultural commodities, contaminated soil and vines/seeds caught on equipment. V. rossicum and the closely related V. nigrum are included on invasive plant lists for New York State and the New England states, but the lists have no regulatory power. In addition to this the attractive flowers and pods invite collection and introduction of V. rossicum into new areas by the public.
HabitatTop of page
V. rossicum is found in shrub steppe, meadow steppe and steppe meadow (Visulina, 1957), on stony soil high in calcium and carbonate, in its native regions north of the Black Sea in the Ukraine and southwestern European Russia.
In North America V. rossicum is present in a range of habitats from dry and sunny successional fields and limestone barrens to alluvial woodlands, all on lime-based soils. It is very competitive in open areas, particularly associated with disturbances, such as shallow soils susceptible to stresses such as freeze-thaw cycles and flooding.
V. rossicum is also associated with disturbed and waste areas such as quarries and transportation corridors. Once established, V. rossicum readily moves into natural and semi-natural habitats and is a weed of woodlands.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Moore (1959) reports the chromosome number for V. rossicum (Cynanchum medium R. Br.) as 2n=22.
Physiology and Phenology
Polyembryonic seeds germinate in autumn and spring, with improved germination after vernalisation, yielding 1-4 seedlings. The fibrous root system radiates from the crown. Seedlings have pointed ovate leaves. V. rossicum becomes reproductive during the second year, or later. Fruit dehisce and release coma (tufts of hairs)-bearing wind-borne seeds from mid-August until early October in New York State, USA. Plants senesce after seed dispersal. Dead stems persist through winter and the successive growing season. Perennating buds on the root crown readily sprout after top destruction. Plants emerge in May and expand rapidly. Twining begins as flower buds begin to enlarge. Flowering begins in mid to late May, and ends by mid-July.
Reproduction of V. rossicum is amphimictic, by entomophily or self-pollination. Flowers are visited mainly by Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera (Christensen, 1998; Lawlor, 2000). Seed longevity is unknown. Productivity in fully irradiated monospecific stands was over 2000 seeds/m² (Sheeley, 1992). Seed production is greatly reduced under low light conditions. Polyembryony yields 1-4 seedlings per seed (Sheeley, 1992; Cappuccino et al., 2002). Seed weight and seedling mass are related to polyembryony, which increased establishment success on bare soils, but not in competition with grasses (Cappuccino et al., 2002).
The Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, will lay eggs on V. rossicum, but larvae die (Casagrande and Dacy, 2001). This genus may therefore adversely affect Monarch butterflies by disrupting the obligate relationship of Monarch reproduction on Asclepias species.
V. rossicum appears to be able to manipulate native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the detriment of native plant species (A DiTomasso, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, personal communication, 2003).
V. rossicum tolerates more precipitation in North America than in eastern Europe; mean precipitation 957 mm in Watertown, New York, USA, versus 519 mm in Kharkov, Ukraine, for example. Habitats include meadows, successional shrublands, hedgerows, copses and woodland from rocky shores to more than 400 m. V. rossicum has a preference for lime-derived soils. V. rossicum is present in areas with a mean winter temperature of -11-0.7°C and summer temperatures of 20.7-26.4°C with an annual precipitation of 776-1206 mm per year (ISSG, 2016).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-39|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||19||22|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-11||-2|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Mean annual rainfall||400||1000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Uniform
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Abrostola asclepiadis||Herbivore||Leaves||to genus||Petition for field release in North America pending||specific to V. nigrum, V. rossicum and V. hirundinaria|
|Chrysochus asclepiadeus||Herbivore||Leaves||not specific||Specific to a few species in the tribe Asclepiadeae (fam. Apocynaceae)|
|Chrysolina aurichalcea ssp. asclepiadis||Herbivore||Leaves||not specific|
|Chrysolina aurichalcea ssp. bohemia||Herbivore||Leaves||not specific|
|Hypena opulenta||Herbivore||Leaves||Canada||Specific to V. nigrum, V. rossicum and V. hirundinaria|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Eight insect species have been noted on Vinctoxicum spp. in Europe and are being considered as potential biocontrol agents (Tewksbury et al., 2002). No record of phytophagous insects on V. rossicum has been found in North America, although Cappuccino has observed transfer of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, onto V. rossicum (N Cappuccino, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, personal communication, 2003). In Europe, Vincetoxicum species are important alternate hosts for cronartium rust and resin-top, Cronartium flaccidum, in conifer trees, although no information is available on the susceptibility of V. rossicum to the rust (Kaitera, 1999).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Seeds of V. rossicum are wind-dispersed, bearing the tuft of hairs, or coma, typical of the milkweed family. A study by Cappuccino et al. (2002) found that seeds travelled up to 18 m at an average wind speed of 11.2 km/h from their release point, with 50% falling within 2.5 m.
V. rossicum may be accidentally transported by man, through garden cultivation and possible decorative use of dried fruits on the vine, as witnessed in an infested area in Monroe County, New York, USA, after wreaths of the vine were sold in a craft shop. Seeds have been observed in the trouser cuffs of hikers and hunters and can be moved with hay sales from infested hay fields, sale of nursery stock and Christmas trees.
V. rossicum was intentionally introduced into North America for ornamental and horticultural purposes.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||seeds|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||seeds|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||fruits; seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
Economic ImpactTop of page
In the USA, V. rossicum has been reported as a major problem in corn and soybean fields where it decreases yields. It is also a problem for Christmas tree producers (ISSG, 2016).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
V. rossicum can successfully dominate susceptible natural areas where it can form dense stands which can outcompete and smother native plant species. As a result, this leads to a change in habitat structure which can lead to loss of biodiversity in both flora and fauna. Change in habitat structure in grassland bird habitats is of concern for diminishing populations of migratory grassland birds in northern New York State, USA. The ability of V. rossicum to dominate the woodland herbaceous layer raises concerns about forest regeneration.
V. rossicum is allelopathic and a number of compounds identified in the roots and fruits have anti-fungal and anti-feedant activity (ISSG, 2016). These compounds may inhibit the germination seeds and modify soil microbial communities on which sensitive plant species may depend upon (ISSG, 2016).
Impact on Biodiversity
Both V. nigrum and V. rossicum may have negative impacts on the reproduction of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, as empty eggs have been found in the field. Experiments in field cages and in the laboratory indicate that larvae hatched from eggs oviposited on stems die in early instar stages (Casagrande and Dacy, 2001; DiTommaso and Losey, 2003). V. rossicum also displaces the native host for this species, Ascelpias syriaca (ISSG, 2016). A study by Ernst and Cappuccino (2002) found that monotypic stands of V. rossicum have been reported as decreasing insect biodiversity compared with graminoid old-fields or stands of Solidago altissima.
In North America, alvar habitats, disjunct and perhaps relict prairie plant communities on shallow soils over limestone bedrock are under competitive pressure from V. rossicum, as are populations of the USA federally listed hart's tongue fern, Phyllitis scolopendrium var. americana [Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum].
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum (American hart's-tongue fern)||No Details||USA||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smothering||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012|
Social ImpactTop of page
Large infestations of V. rossicum have interfered with management of, and access to, amenity areas. Loss of plant diversity, pastures, etc. on private lands has diminished pleasure and productivity of landowners.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Negatively impacts tourism
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Pest and disease transmission
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Several Vincetoxicum species were investigated as rubber substitutes during World War II by the Canadian Department of Agriculture however there is little information is available. V. rossicum was originally introduced for its ornamental purposes. Wreaths made with mature V. rossicum vines have been offered for sale in northern New York State, USA.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
V. rossicum may be confused with a number of closely related species in the genus Vincetoxicum.
In North America V. rossicum is often confused with V. nigrum, where ranges only occasionally overlap. Flowers and fruits of V. nigrum tend to be larger than those of V. rossicum, with the fruits 5-7 cm long. V. nigrum flowers are dark purple with straight white hairs on the upper surface, peduncles 1-3 cm.
In Europe, V. hirundinaria has yellow-white flowers and only occasionally twines. V. fuscatum has brown flowers with short, erect stems. Lack of taxonomic agreement, numerous subspecies and evidence of hybridization all add to confusion between species.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
V. rossicum has been suppressed in cattle pastures in central New York State, USA.
Mowing, pulling and other top destruction methods have poor long-term success as there is rapid regrowth from perennating buds. Effective timing of cutting, as fruit begin to enlarge, will prevent maturation of the seed crop and prevent successful recovery to form a new seed crop. Digging must remove the entire root crown.
Triclopyr has been more effective at reducing V. rossicum than has glyphosate (Lawlor and Raynal, 2002). A systemic herbicide must be used against this perennial plant.
Possibilities for biological control of V. rossicum and V. nigrum are being investigated (Tewksbury et al., 2002). Host-range studies at the University of Rhode Island (URI), USA, with Chrysolina aurichalcea ssp. asclepiadis have shown that this species is unsuitable age owing to the potential risk of attack on native North American Asclepias and Asteraceae (Weed and Casagrande, 2011).
In contrast, host-specificity tests conducted with more than 80 test plant species showed that the leaf-feeding moths Hypena opulenta and Abrostola asclepiadis are very host specific: successful larval development occurred only on species of Vincetoxicum. In 2014, mature H. opulenta larvae and pupae were successfully released on V. rossicum in Ottawa, Canada and released on V. nigrum in 2016. In 2016, H. opulenta had not yet been approved for release in the USA. Work on Chrysochus asclepiadeus did not show high levels of host specificity as for the two leaf feeding moths. Comparative host specificity studies are planed with various populations of C. asclepiadeus. Preliminary studies with the fruit fly Euphranta connexa indicate high host specificity. The potential of pathogens for biological control of V. rossicum has not yet been investigated. The chemical signature of Old World Asclepiadaceae may separate Vincetoxicum spp. from Asclepiadaceae species of the New World for effective host specificity.
Prevention and early eradication are the best control methods for V. rossicum. Seed crops from upwind infestations must be managed to successfully prevent new infestations. Early detection and eradication are essential. Public education will build awareness in susceptible areas.
ReferencesTop of page
Cappuccino N, Mackay R, Eisner C, 2002. Spread of the invasive alien vine Vincetoxicum rossicum: tradeoffs between seed dispersability and seed quality. American Midland Naturalist, 148(2):263-270; 22 ref.
Casagrande RA, Dacy J, 2001. Monarch Butterfly (Danus plexippus) oviposition on Black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum). Rhode Island Natural History Survey, 8:2-3.
Christensen T, 1998. Swallow-worts: The ecology and control of Vincetoxicum spp. Wildflower, 14:21-25.
DiTommaso A, Losey JE, 2003. Oviposition selection and larval feeding by Monarch butterflies on two invasive swallow-wort species. Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society of America, 57:121.
Ernst CM, Cappuccino N, 2002. The effects of an invasive vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Asclepiaceae), on arthropod diversity in old fields. In: 139th Annual Meeding of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 18-20 October 2002, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Gibson DM, Castrillo LA, Donzelli BGG, Milbrath LR, 2012. First report of blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on the invasive exotic weed, Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort), in western New York. Plant Disease, 96(3):456-457. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
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Kartesz JT, 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz JR, Meachum CA, eds. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: North Carolina Botanical Garden. CD-ROM.
Lauvanger EG, Borgen L, 1998. The identity of Vinceotoxicum in Norway. Nordic Journal of Botany, 18(3):353-364.
Lawlor FM, 2000. Herbicidal treatment of the invasive plant Cynanchum rossicum and experimental post control restoration of infested sites. M.S. Thesis, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York.
Liede S, 1996. Cynanchum - Rhodostegiella - Vincetoxicum - Tylophora (Asclepiadaceae): new consideration on an old problem. Taxon, 45:193-211.
Liede S, TSuber A, 2002. Circumscription of the genus Cynanchum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae). Systematic Botany, 27:789-800.
Moore RJ, 1959. The dog-strangling vine Cynanchum medium, its chromosome number and its occurrence in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 73:144-147.
Pardi PN, 1933. Studi sulla cariologia dello Asclepiadaceae. Nuova Bot. Ital., 40:576-589.
Pobedimova EG, 1952. Family CXXXIII Asclepidaceae Lindl. In: Shishkin BK, Bobrow EG, eds. Flora of the USSR, Volume 18. Metachlamydeae, 487-527.
Pringle JS, 1973. The spread of Vincetoxicum species (Asclepiadaceae) in Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 87:27-33.
Sheeley S, 1992. The distribution and life history characteristics of Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum). M.S. thesis. Syracuse, New York, USA. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry.
Staerk D, Christensen J, Lemmich E, Duus J, Olsen C, Jaroszewski J, 2000. Cytotoxic activity of some phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide alkaloids from Cynanchum vincetoxicum. Journal of Natural Products, 63:1584-1586.
Tewksbury L, Casagrande R, Gassmann A, 2002. 16. Swallow-worts. In: Van Driesche R, Lyon S, Blossey B, Hoddle M, Reardon R, eds. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Publication FHTET-2002-04.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. In: American Hart's-tongue Fern (Asplenium scolopendium var. americanum). 5-year review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 23 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4110.pdf
USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.
USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
Uva RH, Neal JC, DiTomaso JM, 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press.
Visulina OD, 1957. Family CXVII. Asclepiadaceae Lindl. In: Kotov MI, Varvarich AI, eds. Flora of the Ukrainian SSR, Vol. 8. Kyiv, Ukraine: Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, 270-287 [in Ukrainian].
Weed AS, Casagrande RA, 2011. Evaluation of host range and larval feeding impact of Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa): considerations for biological control of vincetoxicum in North America. Environmental Entomology, 40(6):1427-1436. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/envent/2011/00000040/00000006/art00014
Woodson, RE Jr, 1941. The North American Asclepiadaceae I: Perspectives of the genera. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 28:193-244.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Lauvanger EG, Borgen L, 1998. The identity of Vinceotoxicum in Norway. In: Nordic Journal of Botany, 18 (3) 353-364.
Moore RJ, 1959. The dog-strangling vine Cynanchum medium, its chromosome number and its occurrence in Canada. In: Canadian Field-Naturalist, 73 144-147.
USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov
Visulina OD, 1957. Family CXVII. Asclepiadaceae Lindl. In: Flora of the Ukrainian SSR, 8 [ed. by Kotov MI, Varvarich AI]. Kyiv, Ukraine: Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. 270-287.
ContributorsTop of page
28/12/2016 Updated by:
André Gassmann, CABI-CH, Switzerland
Distribution MapsTop of page
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