Exomala orientalis (oriental beetle)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse, 1875)
Preferred Common Name
- oriental beetle
Other Scientific Names
- Anomala orientalis Heyden, 1887
- Blitopertha orientalis Reitter, 1903
- Exomala orientalis Reitter, 1903
- Phyllopertha orientalis Waterhouse, 1875
International Common Names
- English: beetle, oriental; white grub
- ANMLOR (Blitopertha orientalis)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Scarabaeidae
- Genus: Exomala
- Species: Exomala orientalis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
The egg is milky-white, ovoid and smooth. It is approximately 1.2 mm wide by 1.5 mm long. Mature eggs are more spherical and approximately 1.6 mm by 1.9 mm after a few days in damp soil (Tashiro, 1987).
First-instar grubs range from approximately 4-8 mm long and 1.2 mm in head width. Second-instar grubs range from approximately 15 mm long and 1.9 mm in head width. Third-instar grubs range from approximately 20-25 mm in length and 2.9 mm in head width. The characteristics of the raster pattern on the ventral side of the tenth abdominal segment differ from other species. E. orientalis larva have two parallel rows of 10-16 setae along the median line. Palidia are present, forming a pair of subparallel rows of medially pointed recumbent setae. There are usually 11-14 pali, but the number may vary from 10 to 16 in either paralidium, and may differ by as many as three pali between palidia (Tashiro, 1987). The anal silt is transverse and the seta shape is pointed. Larvae in KAAD solution shrank and hardened (Choo et al., 1999).
The prepupa is quiescent, wrinkled and flaccid. The exuviae split longitudinally to release the maturing pupa. The mature pupa is approximately 10 mm long by 5 mm wide (at the greatest diameter). The ventral side of the abdomen differs in the two sexes. Posterior to the ninth segment of the male and ventrally, there are two lobes that are absent in the female (Tashiro, 1999).
The adults are 13.5 by 7.5 mm and straw coloured to brownish-black. There are symmetrical, triangular black markings on the thorax between a longitudinal middle line, although some adults lack these markings. The spaces between the markings and the size of the markings are variable. The colour and markings on the elytra are also variable. In general, there are black bands on the elytra, although frequently this characteristic is lacking.
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|India||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Jammu and Kashmir||Present|
|Taiwan||Present, Few occurrences|
|Netherlands||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey||Based on ongoing long-term monitoring of importing companies.|
|United States||Present, Localized|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Present|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Oviposition occurs both during the day and night for up to 20 days after mating (Alm et al., 1995). The females deposit their eggs singly, 2.5-23 cm deep in damp soil. The females lay an average of 25 eggs, but some may deposit as many as 63 in June in Korea, but in July and early October in New York, USA. The egg stage lasts for approximately 17 to 25 days, depending upon temperature and moisture. First-instars may feed up to 30 days before moulting. The grub population consists mainly of first-instars in August, second-instars by early September and third-instars by early October in New York, USA whereas in Korea first-instars were observed in July.
The grubs feed by severing plant roots close to the soil surface. Their depth in the soil depends on the soil texture and moisture. The larvae burrow deeper into the soil as the surface layer dries out during the summer. The damage usually appears by early September and third-instars by early October. E. orientalis responded rapidly to shifting temperature (Villani and Wright, 1988). As soil temperatures drop to about 9.9°C in October, the larvae move downward for hibernation. They hibernate in an earthen cell, 20-40 cm underground. In spring, as soil temperatures warm to 6.1°C during late March or early April, the grubs start to move upward. Feeding continues until early June, when the grubs again burrow down 8-23 cm to pupate. The prepupal and pupal periods last approximately 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Most of the grubs pupate by mid- to late June (Friend, 1929; Alm et al., 1995; Potter, 1998). E. orientalis pupal development is initiated at 10°C (Keizi, 1997). The pupae usually vibrate the tips of their abdomens at the pupal period.
The beetles begin emerging in late June, completing the annual cycle (Friend, 1929; Alm et al., 1995; Potter, 1998). The adults emerge 1 month earlier in Korea than in New York. According to observations on the developmental stage of E. orientalis on the fairway of golf courses in Korea, it has a 1-year life cycle (Choo et al., 2002b) and the first E. orientalis adults were observed in late May. Adult emergence increased during the first week of June and peaked on 12 June. The emergence slowed by 19 June and was nearly complete by 27 June. By early July, only the eggs were found. By late July a few eggs remained, but most of the population were first- or second-instars. Only the third-instars were found after early October. The density of larvae was 12.0/0.09 m² in late July but decreased to 0-3/0.09 m² by the mid-April of the following year (Choo et al., 2002b).
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bentgrass)||Poaceae||Main|
|Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)||Malvaceae||Other|
|Ananas comosus (pineapple)||Bromeliaceae||Wild host|
|Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut)||Fagaceae||Wild host|
|Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree)||Celastraceae||Other|
|Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Nandina domestica (Nandina)||Berberidaceae||Other|
|Poa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass)||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Rubus idaeus (raspberry)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)||Poaceae||Other|
|Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)||Ericaceae||Wild host|
|Vaccinium myrtillus (blueberry)||Ericaceae||Wild host|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Zoysia japonica (zoysiagrass)||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Zoysia matrella (Manila grass)||Poaceae||Wild host|
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
Feeding by E. orientalis adults is usually restricted to the flowers of some plants (Friend, 1929; Potter, 1998; Choo et al., 2002b). The adults occasionally cause a little damage by feeding on the flowers but they are not considered to be a serious pest.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Roots / external feeding|
|Roots / reduced root system|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Peng and Leal (2001) identified and cloned a pheromone-binding protein (EoriPBP) from the Japanese and American populations of E. orientalis. EoriPBP has 116 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 12,981 Da, pI of 4.3, and six highly conserved cysteine residues. 5'-RACE amplifications led to the characterization of a signal peptide with 19 amino acids.
The mating season of E. orientalis in New York, USA began in the middle of June, with a peak in the first week of July and ended in mid-August (Facundo et al., 1999b). However, this occurs 1 month earlier in Korea (Choo et al., 2002b). Both sexes were most active around sunset (Facundo et al., 1999b; Choo et al., 2002b). Mate acquisition and copulation occurred on the soil surface near the female emergence site, with both sexes engaging in pheromone-mediated behaviours after having emerged from the soil. A highly stereotyped female pheromone release or calling behaviour was observed, consisting of the insertion of the female's head into the soil and the elevation of the tip of her abdomen into the air. Mating and copulation occurred without an obvious complex courtship, but observations of postmating behaviours suggested that mate guarding occurs (Facundo et al., 1999a).
In Korea, the emergence time of E. orientalis is the same as blooming of Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata). Early-, intermediate- and late-maturing varieties of Japanese chestnut are being grown in Korea. The adults were found on the flowers of the late-maturing chestnut variety because the flowers of the early and intermediate varieties were in senescence at the time of E. orientalis female emergence. Thus an outbreak of E. orientalis can be predicted by the blooming of late-maturing Japanese chestnut. The concentration of females on late-blooming Japanese chestnut trees led to higher densities of E. orientalis larvae. The late-blooming variety of Japanese chestnut tree is an important factor that affects the distribution of E. orientalis in turf grasses in Korea (Choo et al., 2002b).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Campsomeris marginella modesta||Parasite||Larvae|
|Tiphia bicarinata||Parasite||New England||lawns and turf|
|Tiphia biseculata||Parasite||New England||lawns and turf|
|Tiphia notopolita elleni||Parasite||New England||lawns and turf|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The natural spread of E. orientalis has been slow because it rarely makes long flights. However, mechanical agencies are of considerable importance in long-distance spread. The adults may remain hidden in flowers, whereas the larvae may be present in the soil accompanying consignments (Smith et al., 1992).
Movement in Trade
E. orientalis larvae can be introduced into new habitats with nursery stocks in soil. Because the adults feed on the flowers of some plants, the possibility of introduction with flowers cannot ruled out.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Leaves||adults||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Roots||eggs; larvae||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
DiagnosisTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
A pheromone trap was a useful detection instrument for E. orientalis adults. Identification of the E. orientalis pheromone, (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one (Leal, 1993; Leal et al., 1994; Facundo et al., 1994; Zhang et al., 1994; Alm et al., 1999) has made detection possible.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
E. orientalis larvae resemble those of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica in USA and Popillia quadriguttata in Korea. Those species have a transverse anal slit, but examining the pattern of hairs on the raster can easily separate them. E. orientalis grubs have two parallel rows of 10-16 short, stout, inward-pointing spines, whereas the Japanese beetle and P. quadriguttata grubs have two rows of six to seven spines forming a distinct 'V'-shape. They might also be confused with young May beetle (Phyllophaga spp.) grubs, but the latter have a 'Y'-shaped anal opening (Potter, 1998).
E. orientalis adults are easily distinguished from other scarab beetles occurring in turf grass by body colour. E. orientalis resembles Blitopertha pallidipennis (Kim, 2001). However, the pronotal puncture of E. orientalis is transversally long in all parts compared with B. pallidipennis, where the pronotal puncture of the mid-hind part is coarsely round (Kim, 1996, 2001).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
Cultural control consisted of adequate lime, fertilizer and irrigation to maintain healthy turf (Alm et al., 1995).
All species of cool-season turf grasses and many warm-season grasses, are susceptible to attack by white grubs. Among cool-season grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundiancea) is generally more tolerant of grub damage than Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (Alm et al., 1995; Potter, 1998).
Biological control agents consisted of natural enemies and microbial agents. E. orientalis grubs were susceptible to milky disease, Paenibacillus popilliae (Dutky, 1941; Tashiro, 1987; Choo et al., 2000; 2002b). Populations of milky disease-infected E. orientalis grubs differed between sites and with time (Dunbar and Beard, 1975; Hanula and Andreadis, 1988; Choo et al., 2000, 2002b). The Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui was effective against E. orientalis larva (Suzuki et al., 1992; Alm et al., 1997; Koppenhöfer et al., 1999). Protozoan (Gregarinidae) was found in infested E. orientalis larva (Hanula and Andreadis, 1988). Entomopathogenic nematodes (e.g. Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) can provide good control of E. orientalis larvae (Alm et al., 1992; Yeh and Alm, 1995; Lee et al., 1997a; Koppenhöfer et al., 1999; Choo et al., 2002a; Lee et al., 2002a; Polavarapu et al., 2007). Several entomopathogenic fungi are active against E. orientalis. Metarizium anisopliae (Lee et al., 1997b; Yokoyama et al., 1998; Choo et al., 2000), Beauveria bassiana (Lee et al., 1997c) and Beauveria brongniartii (Choo et al., 2002a) are useful for the biological control of E. orientalis. The dipteran predators, Cophinopoda chinensis, Philonicus albiceps (Choo et al., 2000) and Promachus yesonicus (Choo et al., 2000) and hymenopteran parasitoids, Scolia manilae [Campsomeris marginella modesta], Tiphia vernalis and Tiphia popilliavora are natural enemies of E. orientalis (Tashiro, 1987; Alm et al., 1995; Choo et al., 2000). Biological control of this pest and the related Adoretus sinicus was attempted in Hawaii intermittently between 1916 and 1953. As a result, two scolioid parasitoids from related hosts in the Philippines became established: C. marginella modesta and Tiphia segregata, which achieved substantial control of E. orientalis (Pemberton, 1964). Later C. marginella modesta was successfully introduced into Guam from Hawaii where a fair degree of control was obtained (Clausen, 1978). On the USA mainland, a major programme for the control of Popillia japonica was carried out, which led to the establishment of T. popilliavora and T. vernalis that also parasitize other white grub pests including E. orientalis.
Chemical control of adult E. orientalis has not been adequately tested and may not be practical in most situations (Alm et al., 1995). There are two methods concerning grub control: the curative or corrective approach and preventive control. Curative control is applied in the late summer, after the eggs have hatched and the grubs are present. Preventive control is applied as insurance, before a possible grub problem develops. Preventive control requires the use of an insecticide with a relatively long residual activity (e.g. imidacloprid, halofenozide) (Potter, 1998). Imidacloprid and halofenozide were recently registered for use on turf in the USA (Kunkel et al., 1999) and have good control efficacy for E. orientalis larvae (Cowles and Villani, 1996; Cowles et al., 1999) but stage-specific differences in susceptibility (Villani et al., 1988; Cowles and Villani, 1996). Isofenphos was also registered in the USA (Potter, 1998). The insecticides chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethofenprox, and imidaclopride, were registered for the control of the white grub on turf in the Republic of Korea (Anonymous, 2003).
Early Warning Systems
The use of sex pheromone traps (Leal, 1993; Facundo et al., 1994; Leal et al., 1994; Zhang et al., 1994; Alm et al., 1999; Polavarapu et al., 2002) to monitor the adults provides a warning of potential outbreaks.
Field Monitoring/Economic Threshold Levels
Wire-mesh emergence cones, pheromone traps or direct observation have been used for monitoring E. orientalis adult emergence or activity (Facundo et al., 1999b) and soil sampling is recommended for monitoring the larvae (Hellman, 1989; Potter, 1998). Indirect methods using the entrance and exit holes made by E. orientalis adults, which are active from sunset into the night, are practical for monitoring populations on the grass at Korean golf courses (Choo et al., 2002b). These entrance and exit holes are discrete and characteristic for E. orientalis adults (Choo et al., 1999). Another indirect monitoring method of E. orientalis distribution, is to check the presence of the Japanese chestnut and magpie damaged areas. The presence of the late-blooming variety of Japanese chestnut around the green and magpie damage are correlated with E. orientalis infestations (Choo et al., 2002b). Over 95% accuracy was obtained between real numbers and estimated numbers of E. orientalis larvae at a density of over 303 larvae/m² when areas of 20 by 20 cm were sampled in golf courses (Lee et al., 2002b). From 43 to 65 grubs per 0.1m² are often present, causing complete destruction of the turf (Tashiro, 1987) and 30 grubs per 0.1m² cause complete destruction of turf in Korean golf courses (Lee et al., 2002b). The presence of as many as 590 grubs per 0.1m² has been reported (Tashiro, 1987).
Checking for the occurrence of E. orientalis by observing the entrance and exit holes in the green of golf courses can aid in spraying decisions. The use of insecticide is expected to further decrease because of the concerns for the environment and human health (Choo et al., 2002a). Choo et al. (1998a) used a combination of biological control agents or insecticides and entomopathogenic nematodes against E. orientalis. In most cases, such combinations resulted in additive or synergistic effects.
ReferencesTop of page
Alm SR; Villani MG; Klein MG, 1995. Oriental beetle, In: Brandenburg RL, and Villani MG, eds. Handbook of turfgrass insect pests. Lanham, USA: The Entomological Society of America, 81-83.
Alm SR; Villani MG; Roelofs W, 1999. Oriental beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): current distribution in the United States and optimization of monitoring traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(4):931-935; 11 ref.
Alm SR; Villani MG; Yeh T; Shutter R, 1997. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui for control of Japanese and oriental beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 32(3):477-484; 16 ref.
Alm SR; Yeh T; Hanula JL; Georgis R, 1992. Biological control of Japanese, Oriental, and black turfgrass ataenius beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae with entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(5):1660-1665
Anonymous, 2003. Agrochemicals use guide book. Seoul, Republic of Korea: Samjunginsaegongsa, 951 pp.
Bianchi FA, 1935. Investigations on Anomala orientalis Waterhouse at Oahu Sugar Company, Ltd. Hawaii. Plant. Research, 39:234-255.
Choo HoYul; Kaya HK; Huh Jin; Lee DongWoon; Kim HyeongHwan; Lee SangMyeong; Choo YoungMoo, 2002. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) and a fungus Beauveria brongniartii for biological control of the white grubs, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Exomala orientalis, in Korean golf courses. BioControl, 47(2):177-192; 43 ref.
Choo HoYul; Kaya HK; Lee SangMyeong; Kim HyeongHwan; Lee DongWoon, 1998. Biocontrol research with nematodes against insect pests in Korea. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 28(Special Issue):29-41; 29 ref.
Choo HoYul; Lee DongWoon; Lee SangMyeong; Lee TaeWoo; Choi WooGeun; Chung YoungKi; Sung YoungTak, 2000. Turfgrass insect pests and natural enemies in golf courses. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 39(3):171-179; 26 ref.
Choo HoYul; Lee DongWoon; Park JiWoong; Kaya HK; Smitley DR; Lee SangMyeong; Choo YoungMoo, 2002. Life history and spatial distribution of oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in golf courses in Korea. Journal of Economic Entomology, 95(1):72-80; 18 ref.
Choo HY; Lee DW; Lee SM; Kweon TW; Sung YT; Cho PY, 1998. White grubs in turfgrass of golf courses and their seasonal density. Korean Journal of Turfgrass Science, 12:225-236.
Choo HY; Lee DW; Park JW; Lee JW, 1999. Comparison of four major scarab beetles, Ectinohoplia rufipes, Adoretus tenuimaculatus, Exomala orientalis and Popillia quadriguttata in golf courses. Korean Journal of Turfgrass Science, 13:101-112.
Clausen CP ed., 1978. Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: a world review. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC: USA, Agricultural Handbook No. 480.
Cowles RS; Villani MG, 1996. Susceptibility of Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, and European chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to halofenozide, an insect growth regulator. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89(6):1556-1565; 15 ref.
Dutky SR, 1941. Susceptibility of certain scarabaeid larvae to infection by type a milk disease. Journal of Economic Entomology, 34:215-216.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Facundo HT; Villani MG; Linn CEJr; Roelofs WL, 1999. Temporal and spatial distribution of the oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in a golf course environment. Environmental Entomology, 28(1):14-21; 16 ref.
Friend RB, 1929. The Asiatic beetle in Connecticut. Conneticut Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 304:585-664.
Hallock HC, 1933. Present status of two Asiatic beetles (Anomala orientalis and Autoserica castanea) in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 26:80-85.
Hanula JL; Andreadis TG, 1988. Parasitic microorganisms of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and associated scarab larvae in Connecticut soils. Environmental Entomology, 17(4):709-714; 12 ref.
Hellman L, 1989. Turfgrass insect detection and sampling techniques, In: Leslie AR, ed. Hand book of integrated pest management for turf and ornamentals. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, 331-336.
Heyden L, 1887. Verzeichniss der von Herrn Otto Herz auf der chinensischen Halbinsel Korea gesammelten Coleopteren. Horae Soc. Ent. Rossicae, 21:243-273.
Keizi K, 1997. The low development threshold temperature and the thermal constant in insects, mites and nematodes in Japan. Reprinted from the Miscellaneous Publications of the National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, 21:1-72.
Kim JI, 1996. Taxonomic study of Korean Rutelidae (Coleoptera). Miscellaneous genera of Anomalini. Korean Journal of Entomology, 26:105-114.
Kim JI, 2001. Scarabaeoidea. Economic Insects of Korea 10. Insect Koreana Supplement 17, 199 pp.
Koppenhöfer AM; Choo HY; Kaya HK; Lee DW; Gelernter WD, 1999. Increased field and greenhouse efficacy against scarab grubs with a combination of an entomopathogenic nematode and Bacillus thuringiensis. Biological Control, 14(1):37-44; 14 ref.
Kunkel BA; Held DW; Potter DA, 1999. Impact of halofenozide, imidacloprid, and bendiocarb on beneficial invertebrates and predatory activity in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(4):922-930; 29 ref.
Lee DongWoon; Choo HoYul; Kaya HK; Lee SangMyeong; Smitley DR; Shin HongKyun; Park ChungGyoo, 2002. Laboratory and field evaluation of Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates against the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 95(5):918-926; 38 ref.
Lee DW; Shin CC; Kweon TW; Choo HY; Lee SM, 2002. Sampling and distribution of Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae, in golf courses. Korean Journal of Turfgrass Science, 16:97-106.
Lee SM; Lee DW; Choo HY; Kim DW; Kim JB, 1997. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes to some agro-forest insect pests. Korean Journal of Soil Zoology, 2:76-82.
Lee SM; Lee DW; Choo HY; Moon YS; Lee TW, 1997. Pathogenicities of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarizium anisopliae J-22 against turfgrass and some agro-forest insect pests. Korean Journal of Turfgrass Science, 11:185-191.
Lee SM; Lee DW; Choo HY; Park JW, 1997. Pathogenicities of Beauveria bassiana GY1-17 against some agro-forest insect pests. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 36:351-356.
Niemczyk HD; Shetlar DJ, 2000. Destructive turf insects. Wooster, USA: HDN Books.
Niijima Y; Kinoshita E, 1923. Die untersuchungen übér japanische Melolonthiden. Melolonthiden Japans und ihre Verbreitung. Report of Hokkaido Experimental Plantation, 2:1-253.
Pemberton CE, 1964. Highlights in the history of entomology in Hawaii 1778-1963. Pacific Insects, 6(4):689-729.
Polavarapu S; Koppenhofer AM; Barry JD; Holdcraft RJ; Fuzy EM, 2007. Entomopathogenic nematodes and neonicotinoids for remedial control of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in highbush blueberry. Crop Protection, 26(8):1266-1271. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194
Polavarapu S; Wicki M; Vogel K; Lonergan G; Nielsen K, 2002. Disruption of sexual communication of oriental beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with a microencapsulated formulation of sex pheromone components in blueberries and ornamental nurseries. Environmental Entomology, 31(6):1268-1275; [Available online at http://www.entsoc.org/pubs/ee/eetocs/]; 15 ref.
Potter DA, 1998. Destructive Turfgrass Insects: Biology, Diagnosis, and Control. Chelsea, Michigan, USA: Ann Arbor Press.
Reitter E, 1903. Bestimmung-Tabelle der Melolonthidae. Verh. Nat. Ver. Brunn., 51:28-156.
Ueno SI; Kurosawa Y; Sato M, 1985. The Coleoptera of Japan in color volume. Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing, 397-398.
Villani MG; Wright RJ, 1988. Use of radiography in behavioral studies of turfgrass-infesting scarab grub species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 34(3):132-144
Villani MG; Wright RJ; Baker PB, 1988. Differential susceptibility of Japanese beetle, Oriental beetle, and European chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae to five soil insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(3):785-788
Waterhouse CO, 1875. On the Lamellicorn Coleoptera of Japan. Trans. Ent. Soc. London. P. 108.
Westcott C, 1964. The gardener's bug book. New York, USA: Doubleday & Company, 117-118.
Yeh T; Alm SR, 1995. Evaluation of Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) for biological control of Japanese and oriental beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(5):1251-1255
Yokoyama T; Hasegawa M; Fujiie A; Sawada M; Noguchi K, 1998. Microbial control of scarab beetle larvae by a formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) in a sweet potato field. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 33(2):215-218; 10 ref.
Zhang A; Facundo HT; Robbins PS; Linn CE Jr; Hanula JL; Villani MG; Roelofs WL, 1994. Identification and synthesis of female sex pheromone of Oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(9):2415-2427
Alm S R, Villani M G, Roelofs W, 1999. Oriental beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): current distribution in the United States and optimization of monitoring traps. Journal of Economic Entomology. 92 (4), 931-935. DOI:10.1093/jee/92.4.931
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Choo HoYul, Lee DongWoon, Park JiWoong, Kaya H K, Smitley D R, Lee SangMyeong, Choo YoungMoo, 2002. Life history and spatial distribution of oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in golf courses in Korea. Journal of Economic Entomology. 95 (1), 72-80. DOI:10.1603/0022-0493-95.1.72
Kim JI, 1996. Taxonomic study of Korean Rutelidae (Coleoptera). Miscellaneous genera of Anomalini. In: Korean Journal of Entomology, 26 105-114.
Koppenhöfer A M, Fuzy E M, 2008. Early timing and new combinations to increase the efficacy of neonicotinoid-entomopathogenic nematode (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) combinations against white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Pest Management Science. 64 (7), 725-735. DOI:10.1002/ps.1550
Koppenhöfer A M, Fuzy E M, 2009. Long-term effects and persistence of Steinernema scarabaei applied for suppression of Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Biological Control. 48 (1), 63-72. DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.09.005
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Potter DA, 1998. Destructive Turfgrass Insects: Biology, Diagnosis, and Control., Chelsea, Michigan, USA: Ann Arbor Press.
Rodriguez-Saona C R, Polk D, Holdcraft R, Koppenhöfer A M, 2014. Long-term evaluation of field-wide oriental beetle (Col., Scarabaeidae) mating disruption in blueberries using female-mimic pheromone lures. Journal of Applied Entomology. 138 (1/2), 120-132. DOI:10.1111/jen.12095
Ueno SI, Kurosawa Y, Sato M, 1985. The Coleoptera of Japan in color volume., Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing. 397-398.
Wenninger E J, Averill A L, 2006. Effects of delayed mating on reproductive output of female oriental beetle Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 8 (3), 221-231. DOI:10.1111/j.1461-9563.2006.00300.x
Wenninger E J, Averill A L, 2006a. Mating disruption of oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in cranberry using retrievable, point-source dispensers of sex pheromone. Environmental Entomology. 35 (2), 458-464. DOI:10.1603/0046-225X-35.2.458
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/