Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Exomala orientalis
(oriental beetle)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Exomala orientalis (oriental beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Exomala orientalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • oriental beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. orientalis is an exotic, invasive species in the USA. E. orientalis was probably a native of the Philippine Islands, carried to Japan and was introduced from Japan to the USA. Some time before 1908, it was introduced to the Hawaiian Island of Oahu...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
E. orientlais larva on grass; note typical scarabaeiform shape.
TitleLarvae
CaptionE. orientlais larva on grass; note typical scarabaeiform shape.
CopyrightDongWoon Lee
E. orientlais larva on grass; note typical scarabaeiform shape.
LarvaeE. orientlais larva on grass; note typical scarabaeiform shape.DongWoon Lee
E. orientalis adult on grass.
TitleAdult
CaptionE. orientalis adult on grass.
CopyrightDongWoon Lee
E. orientalis adult on grass.
AdultE. orientalis adult on grass.DongWoon Lee
E. orientalis adults mating.
TitleCopulation
CaptionE. orientalis adults mating.
CopyrightDongWoon Lee
E. orientalis adults mating.
CopulationE. orientalis adults mating.DongWoon Lee
E. orientalis pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionE. orientalis pupa.
CopyrightDongWoon Lee
E. orientalis pupa.
PupaE. orientalis pupa.DongWoon Lee
Raster pattern of E. orientalis larva
TitleRaster pattern
CaptionRaster pattern of E. orientalis larva
CopyrightDongWoon Lee
Raster pattern of E. orientalis larva
Raster patternRaster pattern of E. orientalis larvaDongWoon Lee
E. orientalis damage symptoms in turfgrass.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionE. orientalis damage symptoms in turfgrass.
CopyrightDongWoon Lee
E. orientalis damage symptoms in turfgrass.
Damage symptomsE. orientalis damage symptoms in turfgrass.DongWoon Lee
Extra damage symptoms due to Magpies (Pica sp.) digging for larvae in already damaged turfgrass.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionExtra damage symptoms due to Magpies (Pica sp.) digging for larvae in already damaged turfgrass.
CopyrightDongWoon Lee
Extra damage symptoms due to Magpies (Pica sp.) digging for larvae in already damaged turfgrass.
Damage symptomsExtra damage symptoms due to Magpies (Pica sp.) digging for larvae in already damaged turfgrass.DongWoon Lee

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse, 1875)

Preferred Common Name

  • oriental beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Anomala orientalis Heyden, 1887
  • Blitopertha orientalis Reitter, 1903
  • Exomala orientalis Reitter, 1903
  • Phyllopertha orientalis Waterhouse, 1875

International Common Names

  • English: beetle, oriental; white grub

EPPO code

  • ANMLOR (Blitopertha orientalis)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page E. orientalis is an exotic, invasive species in the USA. E. orientalis was probably a native of the Philippine Islands, carried to Japan and was introduced from Japan to the USA. Some time before 1908, it was introduced to the Hawaiian Island of Oahu, where it became a serious pest of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). On the mainland, the adults were first collected in 1920 in a New Haven (Connecticut) nursery, having presumably been imported directly from Japan in infested nursery stock. In view of the fact that this nursery imported plants, some of them with earth around the roots, from Japan in 1911, 1912 and 1916, it is probable that the insect came directly from Japan on imported nursery stock. Twelve years later, E. orientalis was limited to an area within 145 km of New York City. It is currently present in twelve north-eastern states and North Carolina (Alm et al., 1999).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scarabaeidae
  •                             Genus: Exomala
  •                                 Species: Exomala orientalis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Waterhouse first described E. orientalis in 1875 as Phyllopertha orientalis. It was subsequently reclassified as Anomala orientalis (Heyden, 1887) but it is now placed within the genus Exomala (Reitter, 1903). E. orientalis is in American literature and Blitopertha orientalis is in Japanese literature (see Alm et al., 1995). However, both names are in Korean literature (Choo et al., 2002b).

Description

Top of page Egg

The egg is milky-white, ovoid and smooth. It is approximately 1.2 mm wide by 1.5 mm long. Mature eggs are more spherical and approximately 1.6 mm by 1.9 mm after a few days in damp soil (Tashiro, 1987).

Larva

First-instar grubs range from approximately 4-8 mm long and 1.2 mm in head width. Second-instar grubs range from approximately 15 mm long and 1.9 mm in head width. Third-instar grubs range from approximately 20-25 mm in length and 2.9 mm in head width. The characteristics of the raster pattern on the ventral side of the tenth abdominal segment differ from other species. E. orientalis larva have two parallel rows of 10-16 setae along the median line. Palidia are present, forming a pair of subparallel rows of medially pointed recumbent setae. There are usually 11-14 pali, but the number may vary from 10 to 16 in either paralidium, and may differ by as many as three pali between palidia (Tashiro, 1987). The anal silt is transverse and the seta shape is pointed. Larvae in KAAD solution shrank and hardened (Choo et al., 1999).

Pupa

The prepupa is quiescent, wrinkled and flaccid. The exuviae split longitudinally to release the maturing pupa. The mature pupa is approximately 10 mm long by 5 mm wide (at the greatest diameter). The ventral side of the abdomen differs in the two sexes. Posterior to the ninth segment of the male and ventrally, there are two lobes that are absent in the female (Tashiro, 1999).

Adult

The adults are 13.5 by 7.5 mm and straw coloured to brownish-black. There are symmetrical, triangular black markings on the thorax between a longitudinal middle line, although some adults lack these markings. The spaces between the markings and the size of the markings are variable. The colour and markings on the elytra are also variable. In general, there are black bands on the elytra, although frequently this characteristic is lacking.

Distribution

Top of page E. orientalis is distributed in Japan, Micronesia, Hawaii, eastern states in the USA, Korea (North and South) (Kim, 1996; Choo et al., 2002b) and China (Smith et al., 1992). E. orientalis was carried to Japan and introduced to the USA (Tashiro, 1987). In Korea, E. orientalis is found from all areas, but information of its distribution is not known.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentEPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentEPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoWidespreadNative Not invasive Niijima & Konoshita, 1923; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuWidespreadNative Not invasive Niijima & Konoshita, 1923; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuWidespreadNative Not invasive Ueno et al., 1985; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNative Not invasive Ueno et al., 1985
-ShikokuWidespreadNative Not invasive Niijima & Konoshita, 1923; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentNative Not invasive Kim, 1996; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentNative Not invasive Kim, 1996; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Tashiro, 1987
TaiwanPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014

North America

USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedPotter, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedPotter, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedPotter, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentIntroducedPotter, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedPotter, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedPotter, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedAlm et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014Based on ongoing long-term monitoring of importing companies.

Oceania

Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentChoo et al., 2002b; Kim, 1996

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page Waterhouse first described E. orientalis in 1875 from specimens taken in Japan and the habitat was given as Kawachi, Nagasaki and Hakodadi. According to Muir, some time before 1908 it was imported into Hawaii and became established in the cane fields on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. In 1920, adults were collected in a nursery in New Haven, Connecticut and in 1922 a complaint was received. In 1926, E. orientalis was discovered in Jericho, Long Island and New York, USA. It has since been found in large numbers there and neighbouring towns. Since 1925, a few beetles have been found in several towns of Westchester county in New York and Elizabeth in New Jersey (Friend, 1929). Using pheromone trap research, Alm et al. (1999) reported that E. orientalis was distributed in Cape Cod, Central Massachusetts, Delaware, south-eastern New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Maryland, New Jersey and Virginia. Recently Tennessee, West Virginia, Maine and South Carolina were newly detected areas of E. orientalis in the USA. The natural spread of E. orientalis has been slow, presumably because it is not a strong flier (Hallock, 1933; Bianchi, 1935). The major root of spread of E. orientalis is via the shipment of nursery stock (Alm et al., 1999).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page E. orientalis is exotic in the USA. This insect entered directly from Japan with infested nursery stock (Friend, 1929). As pests of nursery stock, the larvae have been shipped to new locations in containers or balled and burlaped plants (Alm et al., 1995). E. orientalis is an A1 quarantine pest in the EPPO region (Smith et al., 1992) and is also of quarantine significance for OIRSA (Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad Agropecuaria). If it is introduced into new regions, E. orientalis can cause considerable losses to horticulture, especially to grass.

Habitat

Top of page E. orientalis has a 1-year life cycle in Korea and New York, USA. The adults begin to emerge from late June, with peak emergence in mid-July in New York and a few may still be around into August (Facundo et al., 1999b), whereas they emerge from late May and peak in mid-June in Korea (Choo et al., 2002b). The adults are weak fliers, but they may fly short distances during the day. The adults are active in the evening from sunset, especially around 20.00 h (Choo et al., 2002b) and more males are captured than females in the turf grasses of golf courses (Facundo et al., 1999b; Choo et al., 2002b). The interval between mating and oviposition can be as short as 1 day, but is normally about 5 days.

Oviposition occurs both during the day and night for up to 20 days after mating (Alm et al., 1995). The females deposit their eggs singly, 2.5-23 cm deep in damp soil. The females lay an average of 25 eggs, but some may deposit as many as 63 in June in Korea, but in July and early October in New York, USA. The egg stage lasts for approximately 17 to 25 days, depending upon temperature and moisture. First-instars may feed up to 30 days before moulting. The grub population consists mainly of first-instars in August, second-instars by early September and third-instars by early October in New York, USA whereas in Korea first-instars were observed in July.

The grubs feed by severing plant roots close to the soil surface. Their depth in the soil depends on the soil texture and moisture. The larvae burrow deeper into the soil as the surface layer dries out during the summer. The damage usually appears by early September and third-instars by early October. E. orientalis responded rapidly to shifting temperature (Villani and Wright, 1988). As soil temperatures drop to about 9.9°C in October, the larvae move downward for hibernation. They hibernate in an earthen cell, 20-40 cm underground. In spring, as soil temperatures warm to 6.1°C during late March or early April, the grubs start to move upward. Feeding continues until early June, when the grubs again burrow down 8-23 cm to pupate. The prepupal and pupal periods last approximately 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Most of the grubs pupate by mid- to late June (Friend, 1929; Alm et al., 1995; Potter, 1998). E. orientalis pupal development is initiated at 10°C (Keizi, 1997). The pupae usually vibrate the tips of their abdomens at the pupal period.

The beetles begin emerging in late June, completing the annual cycle (Friend, 1929; Alm et al., 1995; Potter, 1998). The adults emerge 1 month earlier in Korea than in New York. According to observations on the developmental stage of E. orientalis on the fairway of golf courses in Korea, it has a 1-year life cycle (Choo et al., 2002b) and the first E. orientalis adults were observed in late May. Adult emergence increased during the first week of June and peaked on 12 June. The emergence slowed by 19 June and was nearly complete by 27 June. By early July, only the eggs were found. By late July a few eggs remained, but most of the population were first- or second-instars. Only the third-instars were found after early October. The density of larvae was 12.0/0.09 m² in late July but decreased to 0-3/0.09 m² by the mid-April of the following year (Choo et al., 2002b).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Little is known about the host range of E. orientalis adults. The adults chew the flowers of some plants and the larvae kill grasses by eating the roots close to the soil surface, especially of lawns and turf grasses in golf courses (Arnett, 1985; Choo et al., 2002b). E. orientalis is a polyphagous pest, whose larvae feed on the roots of most grasses, ornamental plants and many vegetable crops, and have been recorded in particular damaging maize (Zea mays), pineapples (Ananas comosus) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) (Bianchi, 1935; Westcott, 1964; Alm et al., 1995). It also infests strawberry beds and nursery stock, as well as the roots of potted plants that are grown outdoors (Potter, 1998). The adults feed on flowers of Alcea rosea, Dahlia spp., Iris spp., Phlox spp., roses (Friend, 1929), Castanea crenata, Euonymus japonicus and Nandina domestica (Choo et al., 2002b).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page

Growth Stages

Top of page Pre-emergence

Symptoms

Top of page The symptoms of E. orientalis larval infestation in turf grass are expressed as dead patches (Choo et al., 2002b), but normally these are not easily seen during the 4 or 5 years of infestation. The larvae feed on grass roots within 2.5 cm of the soil surface. Densities of 40-60 grubs per 0.1 m² are fairly common and cause severe damage. Early turf symptoms include gradual thinning, yellowing, wilting in spite of adequate soil moisture, and the appearance of scattered and irregular dead patches. As the damage continues, the dead patches join together and increase in size. Infested turf feels spongy underfoot because the grubs pull up the underlying soil (Potter, 1998). In dry and hot summers, and in autumn, the damaged turf becomes whitish and wilted. These plants die relatively quickly and in the cases of high grub density, dead and black or white patches appear. In the following spring, E. orientalis-damaged grass has reduced growth and greening because of a lack of vitality and destroyed roots.

Feeding by E. orientalis adults is usually restricted to the flowers of some plants (Friend, 1929; Potter, 1998; Choo et al., 2002b). The adults occasionally cause a little damage by feeding on the flowers but they are not considered to be a serious pest.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Roots / external feeding
Roots / reduced root system

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Peng and Leal (2001) identified and cloned a pheromone-binding protein (EoriPBP) from the Japanese and American populations of E. orientalis. EoriPBP has 116 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 12,981 Da, pI of 4.3, and six highly conserved cysteine residues. 5'-RACE amplifications led to the characterization of a signal peptide with 19 amino acids.

Reproductive Biology

The mating season of E. orientalis in New York, USA began in the middle of June, with a peak in the first week of July and ended in mid-August (Facundo et al., 1999b). However, this occurs 1 month earlier in Korea (Choo et al., 2002b). Both sexes were most active around sunset (Facundo et al., 1999b; Choo et al., 2002b). Mate acquisition and copulation occurred on the soil surface near the female emergence site, with both sexes engaging in pheromone-mediated behaviours after having emerged from the soil. A highly stereotyped female pheromone release or calling behaviour was observed, consisting of the insertion of the female's head into the soil and the elevation of the tip of her abdomen into the air. Mating and copulation occurred without an obvious complex courtship, but observations of postmating behaviours suggested that mate guarding occurs (Facundo et al., 1999a).

Associations

In Korea, the emergence time of E. orientalis is the same as blooming of Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata). Early-, intermediate- and late-maturing varieties of Japanese chestnut are being grown in Korea. The adults were found on the flowers of the late-maturing chestnut variety because the flowers of the early and intermediate varieties were in senescence at the time of E. orientalis female emergence. Thus an outbreak of E. orientalis can be predicted by the blooming of late-maturing Japanese chestnut. The concentration of females on late-blooming Japanese chestnut trees led to higher densities of E. orientalis larvae. The late-blooming variety of Japanese chestnut tree is an important factor that affects the distribution of E. orientalis in turf grasses in Korea (Choo et al., 2002b).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Asaphes suspensus Parasite
Campsomeris fulviceps Parasite Hawaii sugarcane
Campsomeris marginella modesta Parasite Larvae
Campsomeris ornaticeps Parasite Hawaii sugarcane
Campsomeris pulchrina Parasite Hawaii sugarcane
Craspedonotus tibialis Predator Hawaii sugarcane
Dendrocerus carpenteri Parasite
Hamaxia incongrua Parasite
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Ovavesicula popilliae Pathogen
Paenibacillus popilliae Pathogen
Paenibacillus popilliae Pathogen
Pyrophorus bellamyi Predator Hawaii sugarcane
Pyrophorus radians Predator Hawaii sugarcane
Rickettsiella popilliae Pathogen
Scarites striatus Predator Hawaii sugarcane
Scarites subterraneus Predator Hawaii sugarcane
Tettigonia orientalis Predator
Tiphia bicarinata Parasite New England lawns and turf
Tiphia biseculata Parasite New England lawns and turf
Tiphia notopolita elleni Parasite New England lawns and turf
Tiphia popilliavora Parasite Larvae
Tiphia segregata Parasite Larvae
Tiphia vernalis Parasite Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Naturally occurring predators, parasites and diseases are important. Cophinopoda chinensis, Philonicus albiceps (Choo et al., 2000) and Promachus yesonicus (Choo et al., 2000) are predators and Scolia manilae [Campsomeris marginella modesta], Tiphia vernalis and Tiphia popilliavora are parasites of E. orientalis (Tashiro, 1987; Alm et al., 1995; Choo et al., 2000). Paenibacillus popilliae was the most effective bacterial disease in the larva of E. orientalis (Dutky, 1941; Tashiro, 1987; Choo et al., 2000; 2002b). The Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui was effective against E. orientalis larvae (Suzuki et al., 1992; Alm et al., 1997; Koppenhöfer et al., 1999). Protozoan (Gregarinidae) were found in infested E. orientalis larvae (Hanula and Andreadis, 1988). The entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, and the entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae were found in E. orientalis larvae (Choo et al., 2000).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal

The natural spread of E. orientalis has been slow because it rarely makes long flights. However, mechanical agencies are of considerable importance in long-distance spread. The adults may remain hidden in flowers, whereas the larvae may be present in the soil accompanying consignments (Smith et al., 1992).

Movement in Trade

E. orientalis larvae can be introduced into new habitats with nursery stocks in soil. Because the adults feed on the flowers of some plants, the possibility of introduction with flowers cannot ruled out.

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots eggs; larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page Losses mainly arise from the larvae of E. orientalis feeding on the roots, which may be severely damaged, with crops turning brown and dying. In lawns, feeding by the overwintering larvae may kill the grass in June, but more often in August and September, with areas from a few square centimetres to 1-2 ha turning brown. In 1928, about 6 ha of lawn were injured in New State alone (Smith et al., 1992). It is considered the most serious grub pest of turf and woody ornamental plantings in Long Island, northern New Jersey and Connecticut, USA (Facundo et al., 1999b). Turf grasses now cover an estimated 10.1 to 12.1 million ha in the USA, and turf grass culture is at least a US$25 billion per year industry (Potter and Braman, 1991). Economic losses by E. orientalis larvae are serious in turf grasses. When scarab larvae were sampled at 15 golf courses in 11 provinces of Korea, the most abundant species was the E. orientalis (Choo et al., 1998b, 1999). Primary injury from larvae consuming turf roots is followed by secondary damage from wild birds searching for and feeding on grubs in the infested area (Choo et al., 2002b). Damage by E. orientalis in turf grasses is increasing in Korea.

Diagnosis

Top of page All white grubs have similar signs of infection. In general, early damaged turf gradually thins, yellows and wilts in spite of adequate soil moisture, and scattered, irregular dead patches appear. Infested turf feels spongy underfoot because the grubs churn up the underlying soil (Potter, 1998). These are signs of damage by E. orientalis larvae. Nevertheless, many other white grubs show similar signs. Therefore, if some of these signs appear in the patches, it is recommended to collect white grubs from the damaged areas and examine the rasters of the grubs.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The standard golf course hole cutter (11 cm diameter), or an oversized 15 cm diameter hole cutter are useful for the detection of the eggs, larvae and pupae of E. orientalis in turf grass (Schumann et al., 1998; Potter, 1998). The larvae are collected by handpicking though each soil core. They are identified using raster characteristics observed under a hand lens. Another method of sampling for grubs is to cut off sod using a flat-blade spade. Up to a 0.1 m² sample is cut on three sides to a depth of 7-10 cm and then the sod is turned back as if it were a flap. The soil is then broken up and the grubs detected (Schumann et al., 1998; Potter, 1998).

A pheromone trap was a useful detection instrument for E. orientalis adults. Identification of the E. orientalis pheromone, (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one (Leal, 1993; Leal et al., 1994; Facundo et al., 1994; Zhang et al., 1994; Alm et al., 1999) has made detection possible.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Larva

E. orientalis larvae resemble those of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica in USA and Popillia quadriguttata in Korea. Those species have a transverse anal slit, but examining the pattern of hairs on the raster can easily separate them. E. orientalis grubs have two parallel rows of 10-16 short, stout, inward-pointing spines, whereas the Japanese beetle and P. quadriguttata grubs have two rows of six to seven spines forming a distinct 'V'-shape. They might also be confused with young May beetle (Phyllophaga spp.) grubs, but the latter have a 'Y'-shaped anal opening (Potter, 1998).

Adult

E. orientalis adults are easily distinguished from other scarab beetles occurring in turf grass by body colour. E. orientalis resembles Blitopertha pallidipennis (Kim, 2001). However, the pronotal puncture of E. orientalis is transversally long in all parts compared with B. pallidipennis, where the pronotal puncture of the mid-hind part is coarsely round (Kim, 1996, 2001).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Cultural control consisted of adequate lime, fertilizer and irrigation to maintain healthy turf (Alm et al., 1995).

Host-Plant Resistance

All species of cool-season turf grasses and many warm-season grasses, are susceptible to attack by white grubs. Among cool-season grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundiancea) is generally more tolerant of grub damage than Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (Alm et al., 1995; Potter, 1998).

Biological Control

Biological control agents consisted of natural enemies and microbial agents. E. orientalis grubs were susceptible to milky disease, Paenibacillus popilliae (Dutky, 1941; Tashiro, 1987; Choo et al., 2000; 2002b). Populations of milky disease-infected E. orientalis grubs differed between sites and with time (Dunbar and Beard, 1975; Hanula and Andreadis, 1988; Choo et al., 2000, 2002b). The Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui was effective against E. orientalis larva (Suzuki et al., 1992; Alm et al., 1997; Koppenhöfer et al., 1999). Protozoan (Gregarinidae) was found in infested E. orientalis larva (Hanula and Andreadis, 1988). Entomopathogenic nematodes (e.g. Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) can provide good control of E. orientalis larvae (Alm et al., 1992; Yeh and Alm, 1995; Lee et al., 1997a; Koppenhöfer et al., 1999; Choo et al., 2002a; Lee et al., 2002a; Polavarapu et al., 2007). Several entomopathogenic fungi are active against E. orientalis. Metarizium anisopliae (Lee et al., 1997b; Yokoyama et al., 1998; Choo et al., 2000), Beauveria bassiana (Lee et al., 1997c) and Beauveria brongniartii (Choo et al., 2002a) are useful for the biological control of E. orientalis. The dipteran predators, Cophinopoda chinensis, Philonicus albiceps (Choo et al., 2000) and Promachus yesonicus (Choo et al., 2000) and hymenopteran parasitoids, Scolia manilae [Campsomeris marginella modesta], Tiphia vernalis and Tiphia popilliavora are natural enemies of E. orientalis (Tashiro, 1987; Alm et al., 1995; Choo et al., 2000). Biological control of this pest and the related Adoretus sinicus was attempted in Hawaii intermittently between 1916 and 1953. As a result, two scolioid parasitoids from related hosts in the Philippines became established: C. marginella modesta and Tiphia segregata, which achieved substantial control of E. orientalis (Pemberton, 1964). Later C. marginella modesta was successfully introduced into Guam from Hawaii where a fair degree of control was obtained (Clausen, 1978). On the USA mainland, a major programme for the control of Popillia japonica was carried out, which led to the establishment of T. popilliavora and T. vernalis that also parasitize other white grub pests including E. orientalis.

Chemical Control

Chemical control of adult E. orientalis has not been adequately tested and may not be practical in most situations (Alm et al., 1995). There are two methods concerning grub control: the curative or corrective approach and preventive control. Curative control is applied in the late summer, after the eggs have hatched and the grubs are present. Preventive control is applied as insurance, before a possible grub problem develops. Preventive control requires the use of an insecticide with a relatively long residual activity (e.g. imidacloprid, halofenozide) (Potter, 1998). Imidacloprid and halofenozide were recently registered for use on turf in the USA (Kunkel et al., 1999) and have good control efficacy for E. orientalis larvae (Cowles and Villani, 1996; Cowles et al., 1999) but stage-specific differences in susceptibility (Villani et al., 1988; Cowles and Villani, 1996). Isofenphos was also registered in the USA (Potter, 1998). The insecticides chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethofenprox, and imidaclopride, were registered for the control of the white grub on turf in the Republic of Korea (Anonymous, 2003).

Early Warning Systems

The use of sex pheromone traps (Leal, 1993; Facundo et al., 1994; Leal et al., 1994; Zhang et al., 1994; Alm et al., 1999; Polavarapu et al., 2002) to monitor the adults provides a warning of potential outbreaks.

Field Monitoring/Economic Threshold Levels

Wire-mesh emergence cones, pheromone traps or direct observation have been used for monitoring E. orientalis adult emergence or activity (Facundo et al., 1999b) and soil sampling is recommended for monitoring the larvae (Hellman, 1989; Potter, 1998). Indirect methods using the entrance and exit holes made by E. orientalis adults, which are active from sunset into the night, are practical for monitoring populations on the grass at Korean golf courses (Choo et al., 2002b). These entrance and exit holes are discrete and characteristic for E. orientalis adults (Choo et al., 1999). Another indirect monitoring method of E. orientalis distribution, is to check the presence of the Japanese chestnut and magpie damaged areas. The presence of the late-blooming variety of Japanese chestnut around the green and magpie damage are correlated with E. orientalis infestations (Choo et al., 2002b). Over 95% accuracy was obtained between real numbers and estimated numbers of E. orientalis larvae at a density of over 303 larvae/m² when areas of 20 by 20 cm were sampled in golf courses (Lee et al., 2002b). From 43 to 65 grubs per 0.1m² are often present, causing complete destruction of the turf (Tashiro, 1987) and 30 grubs per 0.1m² cause complete destruction of turf in Korean golf courses (Lee et al., 2002b). The presence of as many as 590 grubs per 0.1m² has been reported (Tashiro, 1987).

IPM Programmes

Checking for the occurrence of E. orientalis by observing the entrance and exit holes in the green of golf courses can aid in spraying decisions. The use of insecticide is expected to further decrease because of the concerns for the environment and human health (Choo et al., 2002a). Choo et al. (1998a) used a combination of biological control agents or insecticides and entomopathogenic nematodes against E. orientalis. In most cases, such combinations resulted in additive or synergistic effects.

References

Top of page

Alm SR; Villani MG; Klein MG, 1995. Oriental beetle, In: Brandenburg RL, and Villani MG, eds. Handbook of turfgrass insect pests. Lanham, USA: The Entomological Society of America, 81-83.

Alm SR; Villani MG; Roelofs W, 1999. Oriental beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): current distribution in the United States and optimization of monitoring traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(4):931-935; 11 ref.

Alm SR; Villani MG; Yeh T; Shutter R, 1997. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui for control of Japanese and oriental beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 32(3):477-484; 16 ref.

Alm SR; Yeh T; Hanula JL; Georgis R, 1992. Biological control of Japanese, Oriental, and black turfgrass ataenius beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae with entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(5):1660-1665

Anonymous, 2003. Agrochemicals use guide book. Seoul, Republic of Korea: Samjunginsaegongsa, 951 pp.

Arnett RHJr, 1985. American insects: a handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico. American insects: a handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico., xiii + 850 pp.; many ref.

Bianchi FA, 1935. Investigations on Anomala orientalis Waterhouse at Oahu Sugar Company, Ltd. Hawaii. Plant. Research, 39:234-255.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Choo HoYul; Kaya HK; Huh Jin; Lee DongWoon; Kim HyeongHwan; Lee SangMyeong; Choo YoungMoo, 2002. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) and a fungus Beauveria brongniartii for biological control of the white grubs, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Exomala orientalis, in Korean golf courses. BioControl, 47(2):177-192; 43 ref.

Choo HoYul; Kaya HK; Lee SangMyeong; Kim HyeongHwan; Lee DongWoon, 1998. Biocontrol research with nematodes against insect pests in Korea. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 28(Special Issue):29-41; 29 ref.

Choo HoYul; Lee DongWoon; Lee SangMyeong; Lee TaeWoo; Choi WooGeun; Chung YoungKi; Sung YoungTak, 2000. Turfgrass insect pests and natural enemies in golf courses. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 39(3):171-179; 26 ref.

Choo HoYul; Lee DongWoon; Park JiWoong; Kaya HK; Smitley DR; Lee SangMyeong; Choo YoungMoo, 2002. Life history and spatial distribution of oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in golf courses in Korea. Journal of Economic Entomology, 95(1):72-80; 18 ref.

Choo HY; Lee DW; Lee SM; Kweon TW; Sung YT; Cho PY, 1998. White grubs in turfgrass of golf courses and their seasonal density. Korean Journal of Turfgrass Science, 12:225-236.

Choo HY; Lee DW; Park JW; Lee JW, 1999. Comparison of four major scarab beetles, Ectinohoplia rufipes, Adoretus tenuimaculatus, Exomala orientalis and Popillia quadriguttata in golf courses. Korean Journal of Turfgrass Science, 13:101-112.

Clausen CP ed., 1978. Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: a world review. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC: USA, Agricultural Handbook No. 480.

Cowles RS; Alm SR; Villani MG, 1999. Selective toxicity of halofenozide to exotic white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(2):427-434; 12 ref.

Cowles RS; Villani MG, 1996. Susceptibility of Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, and European chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to halofenozide, an insect growth regulator. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89(6):1556-1565; 15 ref.

Dunbar DM; Beard RL, 1975. Present status of milky disease of Japanese and oriental beetles in Connecticut. Journal of Economic Entomology, 68(4):453-457

Dutky SR, 1941. Susceptibility of certain scarabaeid larvae to infection by type a milk disease. Journal of Economic Entomology, 34:215-216.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Facundo HT; Linn CEJr; Villani MG; Roelofs WL, 1999. Emergence, mating, and postmating behaviors of the oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Insect Behavior, 12(2):175-192; 40 ref.

Facundo HT; Villani MG; Linn CEJr; Roelofs WL, 1999. Temporal and spatial distribution of the oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in a golf course environment. Environmental Entomology, 28(1):14-21; 16 ref.

Facundo HT; Zhang A; Robbins PS; Alm SR; Linn CE Jr; Villani MG; Roelofs WL, 1994. Sex pheromone responses of the oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Environmental Entomology, 23(6):1508-1515

Friend RB, 1929. The Asiatic beetle in Connecticut. Conneticut Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 304:585-664.

Hallock HC, 1933. Present status of two Asiatic beetles (Anomala orientalis and Autoserica castanea) in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 26:80-85.

Hanula JL; Andreadis TG, 1988. Parasitic microorganisms of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and associated scarab larvae in Connecticut soils. Environmental Entomology, 17(4):709-714; 12 ref.

Hellman L, 1989. Turfgrass insect detection and sampling techniques, In: Leslie AR, ed. Hand book of integrated pest management for turf and ornamentals. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, 331-336.

Heyden L, 1887. Verzeichniss der von Herrn Otto Herz auf der chinensischen Halbinsel Korea gesammelten Coleopteren. Horae Soc. Ent. Rossicae, 21:243-273.

Keizi K, 1997. The low development threshold temperature and the thermal constant in insects, mites and nematodes in Japan. Reprinted from the Miscellaneous Publications of the National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, 21:1-72.

Kim JI, 1996. Taxonomic study of Korean Rutelidae (Coleoptera). Miscellaneous genera of Anomalini. Korean Journal of Entomology, 26:105-114.

Kim JI, 2001. Scarabaeoidea. Economic Insects of Korea 10. Insect Koreana Supplement 17, 199 pp.

Koppenhöfer AM; Choo HY; Kaya HK; Lee DW; Gelernter WD, 1999. Increased field and greenhouse efficacy against scarab grubs with a combination of an entomopathogenic nematode and Bacillus thuringiensis. Biological Control, 14(1):37-44; 14 ref.

Kunkel BA; Held DW; Potter DA, 1999. Impact of halofenozide, imidacloprid, and bendiocarb on beneficial invertebrates and predatory activity in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(4):922-930; 29 ref.

Leal WS, 1993. (Z)- and (E)-tetradec-7-en-2-one, a new type of sex pheromone from the oriental beetle. Naturwissenschaften, 80(2):86-87

Leal WS; Hasegawa M; Sawada M; Ono M, 1994. Sex pheromone of oriental beetle, Exomala orientalis; identification and field evaluation. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(7):1705-1718

Lee DongWoon; Choo HoYul; Kaya HK; Lee SangMyeong; Smitley DR; Shin HongKyun; Park ChungGyoo, 2002. Laboratory and field evaluation of Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates against the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 95(5):918-926; 38 ref.

Lee DW; Shin CC; Kweon TW; Choo HY; Lee SM, 2002. Sampling and distribution of Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae, in golf courses. Korean Journal of Turfgrass Science, 16:97-106.

Lee SM; Lee DW; Choo HY; Kim DW; Kim JB, 1997. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes to some agro-forest insect pests. Korean Journal of Soil Zoology, 2:76-82.

Lee SM; Lee DW; Choo HY; Moon YS; Lee TW, 1997. Pathogenicities of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarizium anisopliae J-22 against turfgrass and some agro-forest insect pests. Korean Journal of Turfgrass Science, 11:185-191.

Lee SM; Lee DW; Choo HY; Park JW, 1997. Pathogenicities of Beauveria bassiana GY1-17 against some agro-forest insect pests. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 36:351-356.

Niemczyk HD; Shetlar DJ, 2000. Destructive turf insects. Wooster, USA: HDN Books.

Niijima Y; Kinoshita E, 1923. Die untersuchungen übér japanische Melolonthiden. Melolonthiden Japans und ihre Verbreitung. Report of Hokkaido Experimental Plantation, 2:1-253.

Pemberton CE, 1964. Highlights in the history of entomology in Hawaii 1778-1963. Pacific Insects, 6(4):689-729.

Peng GuiHong; Leal WS, 2001. Identification and cloning of a pheromone-binding protein from the Oriental beetle, Exomala orientalis. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(11):2183-2192; 29 ref.

Polavarapu S; Koppenhofer AM; Barry JD; Holdcraft RJ; Fuzy EM, 2007. Entomopathogenic nematodes and neonicotinoids for remedial control of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in highbush blueberry. Crop Protection, 26(8):1266-1271. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Polavarapu S; Wicki M; Vogel K; Lonergan G; Nielsen K, 2002. Disruption of sexual communication of oriental beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with a microencapsulated formulation of sex pheromone components in blueberries and ornamental nurseries. Environmental Entomology, 31(6):1268-1275; [Available online at http://www.entsoc.org/pubs/ee/eetocs/]; 15 ref.

Potter DA, 1998. Destructive Turfgrass Insects: Biology, Diagnosis, and Control. Chelsea, Michigan, USA: Ann Arbor Press.

Potter DA; Braman SK, 1991. Ecology and management of turfgrass insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 36:383-406

Reitter E, 1903. Bestimmung-Tabelle der Melolonthidae. Verh. Nat. Ver. Brunn., 51:28-156.

Schumann GL; Vittum PJ; Elliott ML; Cobb PP, 1998. IPM handbook for golf courses. IPM handbook for golf courses., vii + 264 pp.; many ref.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Harris KM, 1992. Quarantine Pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Suzuki N; Hori H; Ogiwara K; Asano S; Sato R; Ohba M; Iwahana H, 1992. Insecticidal spectrum of a novel isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis. Biological Control, 2(2):138-142; 9 ref.

Tashiro H, 1987. Turfgrass insects of the United States and Canada. Ithaca, New York, USA; Cornell University Press, xiv + 391 pp.

Ueno SI; Kurosawa Y; Sato M, 1985. The Coleoptera of Japan in color volume. Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing, 397-398.

Villani MG; Wright RJ, 1988. Use of radiography in behavioral studies of turfgrass-infesting scarab grub species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 34(3):132-144

Villani MG; Wright RJ; Baker PB, 1988. Differential susceptibility of Japanese beetle, Oriental beetle, and European chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae to five soil insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(3):785-788

Waterhouse CO, 1875. On the Lamellicorn Coleoptera of Japan. Trans. Ent. Soc. London. P. 108.

Westcott C, 1964. The gardener's bug book. New York, USA: Doubleday & Company, 117-118.

Yeh T; Alm SR, 1995. Evaluation of Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) for biological control of Japanese and oriental beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(5):1251-1255

Yokoyama T; Hasegawa M; Fujiie A; Sawada M; Noguchi K, 1998. Microbial control of scarab beetle larvae by a formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) in a sweet potato field. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 33(2):215-218; 10 ref.

Zhang A; Facundo HT; Robbins PS; Linn CE Jr; Hanula JL; Villani MG; Roelofs WL, 1994. Identification and synthesis of female sex pheromone of Oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(9):2415-2427

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map