Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Tridax procumbens
(coat buttons)

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Datasheet

Tridax procumbens (coat buttons)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tridax procumbens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coat buttons
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); habit. Thailand. March 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionTridax procumbens (coat buttons); habit. Thailand. March 2009.
Copyright©Siriporn Zungsontiporn
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); habit. Thailand. March 2009.
HabitTridax procumbens (coat buttons); habit. Thailand. March 2009.©Siriporn Zungsontiporn
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); flower. Thailand. March 2009.
TitleFlower
CaptionTridax procumbens (coat buttons); flower. Thailand. March 2009.
Copyright©Siriporn Zungsontiporn
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); flower. Thailand. March 2009.
FlowerTridax procumbens (coat buttons); flower. Thailand. March 2009.©Siriporn Zungsontiporn
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); habit with flowers and seeding heads. Thailand. March 2004.
TitleHabit
CaptionTridax procumbens (coat buttons); habit with flowers and seeding heads. Thailand. March 2004.
Copyright©Siriporn Zungsontiporn
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); habit with flowers and seeding heads. Thailand. March 2004.
HabitTridax procumbens (coat buttons); habit with flowers and seeding heads. Thailand. March 2004.©Siriporn Zungsontiporn
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); mature seedhead. Thailand. April 2006.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionTridax procumbens (coat buttons); mature seedhead. Thailand. April 2006.
Copyright©Siriporn Zungsontiporn
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); mature seedhead. Thailand. April 2006.
SeedheadTridax procumbens (coat buttons); mature seedhead. Thailand. April 2006.©Siriporn Zungsontiporn

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tridax procumbens L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • coat buttons

International Common Names

  • English: p.w.d.weed
  • Spanish: mata gusano
  • French: herbe caille (Mauritius)

Local Common Names

  • : hierba del toro
  • Australia: Tridax daisy
  • Brazil: erva-de-touro
  • Colombia: cadillo chisaca
  • Germany: Dreibiss, Niederliegender
  • India: bisalyakarmi; mukkuthipoo
  • Indonesia: cemondelan; glentangan; gletang; gobesan; katumpang; londotan; orang aring
  • Japan: kotobukigiku
  • Madagascar: anganiay
  • Malaysia: kanching baju
  • Mexico: flor amarilla
  • Myanmar: mive sok ne-gya
  • USA: Tridax daisy

EPPO code

  • TRQPR (Tridax procumbens)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Tridax
  •                                 Species: Tridax procumbens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The taxonomic status of this species is clearly defined and universally accepted. The name Tridax refers to the three lobes of the ray flowers while procumbens refers to the prostrate, trailing habit of the stems (Holm et al., 1997).

Description

Top of page Perennial herb with a firm taproot. Branches ascending from a creeping base, brittle, 20-75 cm long. Stem cylindrical, often purplish, sparsely and patently long- and white-pubescent. Leaves opposite, oblong-ovate, herbaceous or somewhat succulent; pinnately nerved, 2.5-6 x 2-4.5 cm, midrib strongly prominent below, both sides sparsely and patently long white-hirsute; petiole concave, long-hairy, 0.8-2.5 cm long. Flower heads terminal and axillary, 2 x 1 cm, erect-patently long-peduncled (10-40 cm), rather sparsely long-hirsute; 3-seriate, 5-9 cm long, base attenuate; outer bracts smallest, foliaceous, green; green; inner ones membraneous, usually purplish-margined; receptacle slightly convex, paleate; paleas linear, subpersistent, 5-8 mm long. Ray flowers 5-6, female; corolla 8-9 mm long with greenish-yellow limb, 3-4 lobed, pale yellow or white; ovary long, white, hairy. Disc flowers numerous, dense, erect, inner flowers numerous, dense, erect, inner ones longest; corolla 6-7.5 mm long, bright yellow, lobes 5; ovary with long white hairs; anthers cuneate, yellow with apical valve, 1.5 mm long; style arms long, acute, pilose. Achenes angular, dark brown to black, densely white long-hairy, 1.8-2.3 mm long, with 15-20 patent, 3-6 mm long rather stiff, feathered, unequal bristles.

The seedling hypocotyl is 1-7 mm long. The two cotyledons are glandular-hairy, green or purplish and have petioles 2-5 mm long. The first two true leaves are glandular-hairy with petioles 2-7 mm long and ovate to lanceolate blades 6-14 by 6-7.5 mm. The midnerve is distinctly prominent on the lower leaf surface (Soerjani et al., 1987).

Distribution

Top of page T. procumbens originated in Central America but now occurs throughout the tropics and subtropics. It was reportedly introduced into Nigeria as an ornamental in the early 1900s and later spread from there to many other tropical countries (Holm et al., 1997).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentLutzeyer and Koch (1992)
CameroonPresentHutchinson et al. (1963)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedHutchinson et al. (1963); EPPO (2020)
EswatiniPresentWells et al. (1986)
EthiopiaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
GambiaPresentTerry (1981)
GhanaPresent, LocalizedHutchinson et al. (1963); Holm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentHolm et al. (1979)
MalawiPresentBanda and Morris (1986)
MauritiusPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresentHolm et al. (1979)
MozambiquePresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresent, LocalizedHutchinson et al. (1963); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedBerhaut (1967); EPPO (2020)
SeychellesPresentRobertson (1989)
Sierra LeonePresentHutchinson et al. (1963)
South AfricaPresent, LocalizedWells et al. (1986); EPPO (2020)
SudanPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentIvens (1989)
TogoPresentPocanam (2007)
UgandaPresent, LocalizedIvens (1989); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Vernon (1983)
ZimbabwePresent, LocalizedDrummond (1984); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresentRahman et al. (2008)
CambodiaPresent, LocalizedWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedWang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentZhao JinLi et al. (2008)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentMaruthi et al. (2005)
-GujaratPresentBhattacharyya and Pandya (1996)
-KarnatakaPresentSridhara et al. (1995)
-KeralaPresentDevi et al. (1993)
-Madhya PradeshPresentOudhia (2001)
-MaharashtraPresentPawar and Barkhede (1991)
-OdishaPresentMishra et al. (2003)
-PunjabPresentSidhu and Bir (1987)
-Tamil NaduPresentPaliwal and Ilangovan (1988)
-Uttar PradeshPresentAlam and Anis (1987)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedSoerjani et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentHolm et al. (1979)
IraqPresentHolm et al. (1979)
IsraelPresentHolm et al. (1979)
JapanPresentHolm et al. (1979)
JordanPresentHolm et al. (1979)
LebanonPresentHolm et al. (1979)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedBarnes and Chan (1990); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentKhalid (1995)
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedMoody et al. (1984); EPPO (2020)
SingaporePresentWaterhouse (1993)
South KoreaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
Sri LankaPresent, LocalizedPemadasa (1976); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresent, LocalizedDepartment of Agronomy (1968); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresent, LocalizedNoda et al. (1985); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentCABI (Undated a)
VietnamPresent, LocalizedMinh-Si (1969); EPPO (2020)

Europe

Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
FrancePresentHolm et al. (1979)
ItalyPresentHolm et al. (1979)
PortugalPresentHolm et al. (1979)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
SpainPresentHolm et al. (1979)

North America

Costa RicaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
CubaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
Dominican RepublicPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1997); EPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresentHolm et al. (1997)
GuatemalaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
HondurasPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1997); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
NicaraguaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Solis & de la Cruz, 1992
Puerto RicoPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1997); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentWestbrooks and Eplee (1988)
-HawaiiPresentHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
FijiPresent, LocalizedWaterhouse (1997); EPPO (2020)
French PolynesiaPresentWaterhouse (1997)
GuamPresentWaterhouse (1997)
KiribatiPresentWaterhouse (1997)
New CaledoniaPresentWaterhouse (1997)
New ZealandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresent, LocalizedHenty and Pritchard (1975); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresentWaterhouse (1997)
Solomon IslandsPresentWaterhouse (1997)
TongaPresentWaterhouse (1997)
TuvaluPresentWaterhouse (1997)
VanuatuPresentWaterhouse (1997)

South America

ArgentinaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedLorenzi (1982); EPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentProcópio et al. (2006)
-Mato GrossoPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Minas GeraisPresentBacelar (1994)
-ParanaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi (1982)
ColombiaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1997); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)

Habitat

Top of page T. procumbens occurs in many environments but is particularly well adapted to coarse-textured soils in tropical regions (Holm et al., 1997). It is found at elevations from sea level to over 2000 m, often as a weed of roadsides, waste land, fallow land and crops.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Holm et al. (1997) cite T. procumbens as a weed of 31 crops, however, this is almost certainly an underestimate. A wide range of crop types are infested, including cereals, fibres, legumes, pastures, tree crops and vegetables. Though not associated with waterlogged soils, it occurs in irrigated crops. Most crops have the potential to be infested with T. procumbens when grown within its habitat and geographical range.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Germination of T. procumbens occurs over a prolonged period and in a variable pattern. In Nigeria, Marks and Nwachuku (1986) found that freshly harvested seeds required light for 100% germination but, after two months of burial in soil, half germinated in darkness. Ogbonnaya (1988) found the highest germination rate (82%) of T. procumbens for seeds on the soil surface under diffuse light. While seeds can germinate when buried at depths of up to 4 cm in the soil, only 6% of those at 1 cm actually emerged and became established (Pemadasa and Kangatharalingam, 1977). Seeds stored in soil for two years gave 7% germination in south Benin (Lutzeyer and Koch, 1992). The pappus on the achene aids water uptake from soil, promoting germination (Pemadasa and Kangatharalingam, 1977). The percentage germination of fresh seed in India was greatest at 30°C and at pH 6 to 8. Synchronous germination of high densities of seedlings results in intra-specific competition and a reduction in subsequent seedling establishment.

Dry weight, plant height and leaf area index of T. procumbens are reduced by shade (Shetty et al., 1982). In Nigeria, seedlings attain maximum increments in height and biomass after 12 weeks, after which the growth rate declines (Ogbonnaya, 1988). T. procumbens forms slender, wavy taproots with many lateral branches (Shetty and Maiti, 1978). The branches are more abundant near the soil surface. Lateral roots angle sharply downward and are important in water and nutrient uptake. T. procumbens is a C3 plant and is a very inefficient user of water; Datta (1959) reports a transpiration coefficient of 1402 compared with 430 for sorghum.

Flowering plants of T. procumbens are found year-round in Sri Lanka (Pemadasa, 1976) but shorter flowering periods are reported for West Africa (Le Bourgeois and Merlier, 1995). In East Africa, flowering occurs 35 to 55 days after emergence, and seeds ripen within 3 weeks of flowering (Popay and Ivens, 1982). T. procumbens is not apomictic and can be either cross- or self-pollinated (Holm et al., 1997). Insect pollinators include thrips, beetles, bees (Ananthakakrishnan et al., 1981) and butterflies (Balasubramanian, 1989). Single plants can produce 500 to 2500 seeds (Pancho, 1964). The pappus is relatively small in comparison to seed weight and is not likely to aid in widespread seed dispersal (Baker, 1965).

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Symptoms, host range and methods of transmission of Tridax mosaic virus, a mosaic virus disease of T. procumbens in India are described by Shamsher Singh and Verma (1979).

Impact

Top of page T. procumbens has been recorded at densities as high as 340,000 plants/ha in cassava (Doll et al., 1977), and it is as a competitor with crops that this species has its most serious impact. However, though very common as a weed in East Africa, Ivens (1989) does not consider it to be a serious problem. In India, it can interfere with the harvesting of jute (Holm et al., 1997). Das and Pal (1970) have shown that T. procumbens has an allelopathic effect on rice. It is reported as a host to several crop pests, including root-knot nematodes in India (Upadhyay et al., 1977), an insect (Phalanta phalantha) which defoliates poplar trees in Nigeria (Akanbi, 1971), red spider mite (Tetranychus telarius [Tetranychus urticae]) in India (Choudhury and Mukherjee, 1971), Macrophomina phaseolina in India (Singh et al., 1990), sunflower yellow blotch umbravirus in Kenya (Theuri et al., 1987) and Aphis citricola, a vector of citrus cistreza closterovirus in India (Naidu, 1980). T. procumbens is also an alternate host to the parasitic weed Orobanche in India (Sen, 1981).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Vigna o-wahuensis (Oahu cowpea)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Pest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Pest and disease transmission

Uses

Top of page T. procumbens can be used for wound healing (Udupa et al., 1991), staunching bleeding (Burkhill, 1985) and treatment of diarrhoea (Burkhill, 1985; Shashi Gupta et al., 1993), backache (Burkhill, 1985) and bronchial catarrh (Ambasta, 1986). Extracts of this weed are reported to inhibit the growth of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Root galling by Meloidogyne incognita is reduced by powdered leaves of T. terrestris mixed in soil (Sharma and Tiagi, 1989) and there is evidence from laboratory tests that juvenile stages of this nematode are killed by leaf extracts (Mani and Chitra, 1989). Essential oils extracted from T. procumbens are reported to have insecticidal activity against Musca domestica, Culex quinquefasciatus, Dysdercus similis and Supella spp. (Pathak and Dixit, 1988). Aqueous extracts inhibit aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus (Ghewande and Nagaraj, 1987) and a petroleum ether extract from flowers protects cowpea seeds from damage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Alam and Anis, 1987). T. procumbens is sometimes used as green feed for poultry in Nigeria (Egunjobi, 1969).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Host of pest

Materials

  • Essential oils
  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Though there are many related weeds in the Compositae (Asteraceae) family, T. terrestris has a distinct appearance making it unlikely to be mistaken for any other weed species.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

T. procumbens does not have the great powers of regeneration possessed by some other perennial Compositae and can be easily controlled by cultivation and hand pulling (Adams and Baker, 1962; Ivens, 1989).

Chemical Control

Herbicides reported to give control of T. procumbens include ametryne, atrazine, 2,4-D and diuron (Terry, 1983), Avirosan (dimethametryn + piperophos) and oxadiazon in rice (Vernier, 1985), bromacil (Jayachandra and Menon, 1972), metobromuron + metolachlor in cowpea (Olifintoye and Adesiyun, 1989), MCPA and 2,4-D in sisal (Ivens, 1989) and oxyfluorfen in groundnut (Prasad et al., 1987).

References

Top of page

Adams C, Baker H, 1962. Weeds of cultivation and grazing lands. In: Wills J, ed. Agriculture and Land Use in Ghana. London, UK: Oxford Press.

Akanbi MO, 1971. The biology, ecology and control of Phalanta phalanta Drury (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), a defoliator of Populus spp. in Nigeria. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Nigeria, 3(1):19-26

Alam MM, Anis M, 1987. Ethno-medicinal uses of plants growing in the Bulandshahr district of northern India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 19(1):85-88

Ambasta SSP, ed. , 1986. The Useful Plants of India. New Delhi, India: Publications and Information Directorate, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

Ananthakakrishnan T, Varatharajan R, Gopinathan K, 1981. Pollination in Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. and Tridax procumbens L. (Compositae) by thrips (Thysanoptera: insects). Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, Part B, Biological Sciences, 47:159-165.

Bacelar M, 1994. Tridax procumbens L. - Asteraceae - a weed recently recorded in the state of Minas Gerais. Daphne, Revista do Herba^acute~rio PAMG da EPAMIG, 4(2):58-61; 21 ref.

Baker H, 1965. Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In: Baker H, Stebbins G, eds. The Genetics of Colonising Species. New York, USA: Academic Press, 147-169.

Balasubramanian MV, 1989. Studies on the ecology of butterfly pollination in south India. Annals of Entomology, 7(1):31-41

Banda EA, Morris B, 1986. Common Weeds of Malawi. Lilongwe, Malawi: The University of Malawi.

Barnes DE, Chan G, 1990. Common Weeds of Malaysia and their Control. Shah Alam, Malaysia: Ancom Berhad.

Berhaut J, 1967. Flore du Senegal. Dakar, Senegal: Editions Clairafrique.

Bhattacharyya G, Pandya SM, 1996. Distribution studies on exotic weeds of Saurashtra (India). Advances in Plant Sciences, 9:29-32.

Bourgeois Tle, Merlier H, 1995. ADVENTROP. Weeds of sudano-sahelian Africa. ADVENTROP. Les adventices d'Afriques soudano- sahe^acute~lienne., 637 pp.; 6 pp. of ref.

Burkhill HM, 1985. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Vol. I. Families A-D. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Choudhury A, Mukherjee A, 1971. Wild plants as alternate hosts of red spider mite, Tetranychus telarius L. (Tetranchidae: Acarina). Indian Journal of Entomology, 33:108-110.

Das T, Pal S, 1970. Effects of volatile substances of aromatic weeds on germination and subsequent growth of rice embryos. Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Bengal, 24:101-103.

Datta S, 1959. Weeds and weed control. Indian Agriculturalist, 3:26-36.

Department of Agronomy, 1968. Weeds found in cultivated land in Taiwan, Volume 2. Taipei, Taiwan: College of Agriculture, National Taiwan University.

Devi LG, Potty NN, Abraham CT, Thomas G, 1993. The weed flora in sugarcane fields of Palghat district. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 31(1):137-139

Doll J, Andersen P, Diaz R, 1977. An agro-economic survey of the weeds and weeding practices in cassava in Colombia. Weed Research, 17:153-160.

Drummond RB, 1984. Arable Weeds of Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe: Agricultural Research Trust of Zimbabwe.

Egunjobi J, 1969. Some Common Weeds of Western Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Bulletin of the Research Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Ghewande MP, Nagaraj G, 1987. Prevention of aflatoxin contamination through some commercial chemical products and plant extracts in groundnut. Mycotoxin Research, 3:19-24.

Henty EE, Pritchard GH, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their Control. Lp, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bulletin No.7.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World Weeds. Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, 1963. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol II. London, UK: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.

Ivens GW, 1989. East African Weeds and their Control, 2nd edition. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

Jayachandra, Menon V, 1972. Post-emergent control of dicot weeds with bromacil. Current Science, 41(3):120

Khalid S, 1995. Weeds of Pakistan. Compositae. Islamabad, Pakistan: Pakistan Agricultural Research Council.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Lutzeyer HJ, Koch W, 1992. Seed survival and periodicity of seedling emergence of some important weeds in south Benin. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, Sonderheft 13:87-93

Mani A, Chitra KC, 1989. Toxicity of certain plant extracts to Meloidogyne incognita. Nematologia Mediterranea, 17(1):43-44; 3 ref.

Marks MK, Nwachuku AC, 1986. Seed-bank characteristics in a group of tropical weeds. Weed Research (Oxford), 26(3):151-157

Maruthi V, Reddy GS, Vanaja M, Reddy PR, 2005. Alternate weed management strategies in dryland cropping systems. Indian Journal of Dryland Agricultural Research and Development, 20(1):41-45.

Minh-Si H, 1969. Weeds in South Vietnam. Saigon, Vietnam: Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Land Reform and Development of Agriculture and Fisheries.

Mishra PJ, Mishra PK, Biswal S, Panda SK, Mishra MK, 2003. Studies on integrated weed management practices in spring planted sugarcane of coastal Orissa. Indian Sugar, 52(11):925-929; 5 ref.

Moody K, Munroe CE, Lubigan RT, Paller EC Jr, 1984. Major Weeds of the Philippines. Los Baños, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines, University of the Philippines at Los Baños.

Naidu R, 1980. Aphis citricola van der Goot - a new vector of citrus tristeza virus in India. Current Science, 49(17):668-669

Noda K, Teerawatsakul M, Prakongvongs C, Chaiwiratnukul L, 1985. Major Weeds in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Department of Agriculture.

Ogbonnaya CI, 1988. Aspects of the autecology of Tridax procumbens, a prevalent weed of croplands in southern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 1(2):83-89

Olifintoye JA, Adesiyun AA, 1989. Weed control in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with sethoxydim and Galex. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 2(1-2):29-34

Oudhia P, 2001. Common rice weeds used for first aid by Chhattisgarh farmers. Agricultural Science Digest, 21(4):273-274.

Paliwal K, Ilangovan M, 1988. Ecophysiological study of some dominant weeds of semi-arid grazing lands of Madurai. VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Ecologie et la Systematique des Mauvaises Herbes Paris, France: ANPP, 1:229-236l.

Pancho J, 1964. Seed size and production capabilities of common weed species in rice fields of Philippines. Philippines Agriculturalist, 48:307-316.

Pathak AK, Dixit VK, 1988. Insecticidal and insect repellent activity of essential oils of Tridax procumbens and Cyathocline lyrata.. Fitoterapia, 59(3):211-214.

Pawar WS, Barkhede UP, 1991. Weed management in cotton. Journal of Soils and Crops, 1(2):189-190

Pemadasa M, Kangatharalingam N, 1977. Factors affecting germination of some Compositaes. Ceylon Journal of Agricultural Science, 12:157-168.

Pemadasa MA, 1976. Interference in populations of three weed species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 13(3):899-913

Pocanam Y, 2007. A new herbicide of pre-emergence of maize without atrazine in Togo: aclonifene 330 G/L/isoxaflutole 50 G/L. (Un nouvel herbicide de pre-levee du maïs sans atrazine au Togo: aclonifene 330 G/L/isoxaflutole 50 G/L.) In: 20ème Conférence du COLUMA. Journées Internationales sur la Lutte contre les Mauvaises Herbes, Dijon, France, 11-12 décembre, 2007. Paris, France: Association Nationale pour la Protection des Plantes (ANPP), 699-705.

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Prasad TVR, Narasimha N, Dwarakanath N, Krishnamurthy K, 1987. Efficacy of oxyfluorfen for weed control in irrigated groundnut. International Arachis Newsletter, No.2:9-11

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Sridhara S, Nanjappa H V, Thimmegowda S, 1995. Weed flora of mulberry gardens under irrigated conditions of Bangalore, (Karnataka). World Weeds. 2 (1), 29-32.

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Zhao JinLi, Ma YouXin, Zhu Hua, Li HongMei, Liu WenJun, Li ZengJia, 2008. Invasion patterns of seven alien plant species along roadsides in southern mountainous areas of Yunnan Province. Biodiversity Science. 16 (4), 369-380. http://www.biodiversity-science.net/qikan/public/pdfdow_en.asp?xiazailx=A˜a.N˜&bsid=1039&ag=0&gaohao=08001&houzhui=.htm DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08001

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