Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Triumfetta semitriloba
(burweed)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Triumfetta semitriloba
  • Preferred Common Name
  • burweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed) is a weedy perennial shrub species, native to large parts of tropical and subtropical America, from northern Argentina and Chile to Mexico and Florida. It has been introduced an...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); habit. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); habit. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); habit. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
HabitTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); habit. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); invasive habit the fore to midground is a mass of burweed. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); invasive habit the fore to midground is a mass of burweed. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); invasive habit the fore to midground is a mass of burweed. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2011.
HabitTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); invasive habit the fore to midground is a mass of burweed. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); habit and foliage. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
TitleHabit and foliage
CaptionTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); habit and foliage. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); habit and foliage. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
Habit and foliageTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); habit and foliage. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); cluster of fruits or burs, 'sticking' to gloved fingers. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2011.
TitleFruits
CaptionTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); cluster of fruits or burs, 'sticking' to gloved fingers. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); cluster of fruits or burs, 'sticking' to gloved fingers. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2011.
FruitsTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); cluster of fruits or burs, 'sticking' to gloved fingers. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); close-up of fruits or burs. Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2003.
TitleFruits
CaptionTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); close-up of fruits or burs. Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2003.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); close-up of fruits or burs. Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2003.
FruitsTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed, Sacramento bur); close-up of fruits or burs. Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2003.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.

Preferred Common Name

  • burweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Heliocarpus hirtus (Vahl) R.O.Williams & Sandwith
  • Triumfetta abutiloides A.St.-Hil
  • Triumfetta hirta Vahl
  • Triumfetta obscura A.St.-Hil.
  • Triumfetta oxyphylla DC.
  • Triumfetta rubricaulis Kunth
  • Triumfetta tricuspis A.St.-Hil.

International Common Names

  • English: black bush; sacramento bur; sacramento burbark; triumfetta
  • Spanish: cadillo de perro; cadillo de perro; escobilla amarilla; escobilla amarilla; gúizapol de Borrego; guizazo de caballo (Cuba); huizapolillo; mozote colorado; mozote colorado; pegadillo
  • French: cousin-petit; mahot-cousinrouge; petit mahot-cousin; tête à nègre

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: carrapicho; carrapicho-de-calçada; carrapicho-miúdo; juta-nacional; juta-nacional
  • China: fei dao ci shuo ma
  • Cuba: guizazo de caballo
  • Ecuador/Galapagos Islands: pegadillo
  • Guam: dadangsi; masiksik lahe
  • USA: black bush; Sacramento bur; Sacramento burbark; triumfetta

EPPO code

  • TIUSE (Triumfetta semitriloba)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed) is a weedy perennial shrub species, native to large parts of tropical and subtropical America, from northern Argentina and Chile to Mexico and Florida. It has been introduced and has become invasive in a number of Pacific islands. It is a declared noxious weed in Hawaii and is noted as invasive in the Galapagos islands, Micronesia, Tonga, Guam and Taiwan, generally found in wasteland, farmland and forest areas. It is, however, less widespread that the widely naturalized and invasive T. rhomboidea. Although reasons for international introduction are unknown, the hooked barbs on the burs attach themselves to animals, and are the main reason for its spread. Control is difficult, and further accidental introduction is likely, therefore efforts should be made to reduce such risks.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Tiliaceae
  •                             Genus: Triumfetta
  •                                 Species: Triumfetta semitriloba

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

There appears to be some confusion regarding taxonomic placement of the genus Triumfetta. It is generally regarded as a member of the Malvaceae family, though placed by some in the Tiliaceae. Nonetheless, it is a clearly demarcated genus, containing several to many species, depending on the classification used. Triumfetta semitriloba has cleary defined taxonomic limits, but given its very broad native range, from Florida to Argentina and Chile, it is not surprising that several varieties are reported, including var. berlandieri, var. brasiliensis, var. martiana and var. surinamensis, and a form, f. althaeoides.

Description

Top of page

Adapted from: Long and Lakela (1976); Howard (1989); Liogier (1994); Flora of China (2015); PIER, (2015).

T. semitriloba is a commonly single-stemmed, perennial but short-lived shrub, generally 1 m tall or more, up to 3 m, or occasionally a herb or subshrub 0.5 m tall. Stems erect, with a woody main stem to 3 cm diameter, with smooth, grey bark. Branchlets pubescent and densely stellate especially when young, hairs simple and stellate, becoming glabrate with age. Leaves variable in shape, usually broadly ovate or rhombic-ovate to lanceolate especially in the upper parts of the plant, sometimes obscurely 3-lobed and 3-nerved from base, 3-8 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, stellate pubescent, more so on lower surface, margins irregularly serrate-dentate, apex acuminate, base very broadly cuneate to truncate, rarely subcordate, Petioles 0.5-(1.5-6)-9.5 cm long growing progressively shorter toward the plant apex. Flowers are 5 mm long, in leaf axils, with 5 yellow petals. Flower buds are cylindrical, ca. 4 mm, pubescent, pedicel 2-3 mm, sepals linear, 4-7 mm long, abaxially stellate pubescent, appendage subapical, ca. 0.5 mm, pubescent. Petals narrowly elliptic-obovate or oblanceolate, 3.5-6.5 mm long, about as long as the sepals, stamens 15-20, filaments glabrous. Ovary 3-loculed, spiny; style 3-5 mm; stigma ± 3-lobed. The fruits, with scattered reflexed hairs on the hooked spines, are round burs 6-8 mm in diameter, borne in groups of two or three. Each fruit has three compartments containing 1-3 brown seeds, 2 mm long and broadly oval. Capsule globose, body 3-5 mm in diameter, 3-loculed, indehiscent, glabrescent; spines 1.5-2 mm, retrorsely pilosulose at base, conical at base, tip hooked.

Plant Type

Top of page Biennial
Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

T. semitriloba has a very broad native range in the Americas, from Mexico and central Florida, down through the Caribbean and Central America, to northern and central South America as far as northern Argentina and Chile (USDA-ARS, 2015). Isolated records from the very south-east of Georgia, USA, are recorded as introduced (USDA-NRCS, 2015).

T. semitriloba is recorded as introduced throughout much of the Pacific region, as far as the Philippines and Taiwan (PIER, 2015). However, there are no records from mainland New Zealand or Australia, nor from any part of Africa or mainland Asia. Noting its morphological similarity to the much more widespread and naturalized weed T. rhomboidea, it is possible that it is present elsewhere but remains as yet unidentified. Unconfirmed herbarium records in GBIF (2015) in Cameroon, Papua New Guinea and West Papua, Indonesia, are examples where further work may yield additional records or clarify uncertainty.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015

North America

BermudaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-District of ColumbiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BahamasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BarbadosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
CubaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
DominicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GrenadaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GuadeloupePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
HaitiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
JamaicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MontserratPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
Saint LuciaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-BahiaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-GoiasPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-ParanaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Sao PauloPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
ChilePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-Easter IslandPresentPIER, 2015Possible introduction
ColombiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-Galapagos IslandsPresentNativePIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
VenezuelaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
NauruPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

It is assumed that the introduction of T. semitriloba throughout the Pacific occurred in the early twentieth century, if not before. The first record of its presence in the Pacific islands was on Maui, Hawaii, in 1910 (Motooka et al., 2003), and it was also noted as a noxious weed in Hawaii by the middle of the 1900s (Hosaka and Thistle, 1954).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The invasiveness of the closely related T. rhomboidea, and the lack of information on means of introduction and spread, indicate that T. semitriloba has a high risk of further introduction and invasion. In order to minimize the risk, this species should be included on prohibited species lists for countries with suitable tropical and subtropical climates.

Habitat

Top of page

PIER (2015) collate reports of T. semitriloba being naturalized and often common in dry, disturbed sites up to 1000 m altitude in Hawaii, and arid lowlands and moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands. In Florida it is found in pinelands and hammocks (Long and Lakela, 1976), while in Puerto Rico it is found growing in roadsides, neglected pastures, and wastelands up to around 700 m. Where naturalized in Taiwan and the Philippines, it is found in agricultural fields and wastelands (Flora of China, 2015).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

T. semitriloba has a chromosome count of 2n = 32 (Long and Lakela, 1976).

Reproductive Biology

T. semitriloba begins flowering and fruiting at about 6 months and produces fruit in abundant quantities (Long and Lakela 1976). Seed production is guaranteed by self-pollination, but cross-pollination increases seed set and probably seed quality, aided by solitary and social bees in Brazil (Collevatti et al., 1997). There are approximately 250,000 seeds per kg, and on filter paper, epigeal germination begins after 10 days, with 40% germination after 4 months.

Physiology and Phenology

T. semitriloba flowers and fruits continuously from six months of age until it dies (Long and Lakela, 1976), but in Florida, flowering tends to concentrate in the period from October to January. In seasonally dry habitats it behaves as an annual, but may live up to three years. Structural features of the floral nectaries and glands, located at the margins of the leaves of T. semitriloba, are typical of other taxa of the Malvales (Leitao et al., 2005). They secrete sucrose, glucose, and fructose and are of a specialized type, with a secretory epidermis comprising pluricellular and multiserial nectariferous trichomes, covering a nectariferous parenchyma, vascularized by phloem and xylem. Foliar and bract nectaries contain phenolic compounds, absent in floral nectaries, and also differ in their length and diameter.

Environmental Requirements

T. semitriloba is predominantly a neotropical species, but has a native range that also extends into the subtropics, where it will also tolerate dry and even temperate climates at the extremes of its range. In the native range in Puerto Rico, the diverse habitats populated by T. semitriloba are in areas with an annual rainfall within the range of 900-2200 mm. Where introduced in Hawaii, it grows from sea level to 1067 m and in areas with mean annual rainfall of 760-1500 mm (Haselwood and Motter 1966). T. semitriloba grows in a variety of soils from sands to clays, with pH values from approximately 5.5 to 8.0.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
28 28

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 15 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5 25

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7502200mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

T. semitriloba appears to require disturbance for successful establishment. Given an equal start, it competes well with other herbs, grasses and shrubs in full sun or partial shade (Motooka et al., 2003).

The fruit are burs with specially adapted hooks or barbs that cling to clothing and fur, and seeds are dispersed when the burs attach themselves to passing animals. The weed is also commonly known simply as ‘burweed’ which reflects this.

There is no information available on the reasons for international introduction, though having no real use, intentional introduction is considered unlikely. It is possible that T. semitriloba burs were introduced accidentally, hitchhiking on clothing and fur, either via people or livestock and their products.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes
Disturbance Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
Livestock Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

T. semitriloba is an alternative host of the leafhopper Empoasca formosana, which is a vector of cadang-cadang disease on coconuts. However, the plant was found not to be a reservoir for the actual virus responsible for cadang-cadang (Bigornia, 1963).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

T. semitriloba is generally found growing in small patches and as single, dispersed plants, but can be numerous in disturbed forest sites. In these situations, it can prevent the establishment of native species, such as in the Haleakala National Park in Hawaii (Motooka et al., 2003).

Social Impact

Top of page

The hooked burs are a nuisance to people and especially to livestock and other animals, in both pastures and forests, where the plant is present (Motooka et al., 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

T. semitriloba has no real use or value. Foliage is reported to have no forage value, and the stem is too small to be a meaningful source of fuelwood (Haselwood and Motter, 1966). Fibres extracted from the bark of larger stems are reported to have been used by the inhabitants of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to make fishing lines, and related species are reported to have medicinal value.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

T. semitriloba very easily confused with the more widespread T. rhomboidea, but is distinguished by having longer pedicels (2-3 mm compared to 1 mm in T. rhomboidea)and 15 stamens or more (10 in T. rhomboidea) (Flora of China, 2015). The former also tends to be larger (Motooka et al., 2003) and have longer, hairy spines (PIER, 2015).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Control

Because the burs stick to clothing and fur, sanitation measures and control before seed set is critical to prevent its spread (Motooka et al., 2003). 

Where introduced and invasive in parts of the Pacific, control is often needed in cropland and pastures. Treatments follow normal practice for coarse broadleaved weeds, such as manual digging, mechanical cultivation and spraying with herbicides such as 2,4-D and foliar drizzle applications of triclopyr and of glyphosate (Motooka et al., 2003).

References

Top of page

Bigornia AE, 1963. Toxaemic symptoms on some weeds caused by the leafhopper Empoasca formosana in the Philippines. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 11(5):103-6.

Collevatti RG; Amaral MEC; Lopes FS; 1997, publ. 1998. Role of pollinators in seed set and a test of pollen limitation hypothesis in the tropical weed Triumfetta semitriloba (Tiliaceae). Revista de Biología Tropical, 45(4):1401-1407.

Collevatti RG; Campos LAO; Schoereder JH, 1997. Foraging behaviour of bee pollinators on the tropical weed Triumfetta semitriloba: departure rules from flower patches. Insectes Sociaux, 44(4):345-352.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Haselwood EL; Motter GG, 1966. Handbook of Hawaiian weeds. Hawaii, USA: Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, 479pp.

Hosaka EY; Thistle A, 1954. Noxious plants of the Hawaiian ranges. Hawaii Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin 62. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii, College of Agriculture, 39 pp.

Howard RA, 1989. Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands. Volume 5. Jamaica Plain, MA, USA: Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, 604 pp.

Leitão CAE; Meira RMSA; Azevedo AA; Araújo JMde; Silva KLF; Collevatti RG, 2005. Anatomy of the floral, bract, and foliar nectaries of Triumfetta semitriloba (Tiliaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 83(3):279-286.

Liogier HA, 1994. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: Spermatophyta, 3. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 461 pp.

Long RW; Lakela O, 1976. A flora of tropical Florida - A manual of the seed plants and ferns of southern peninsular Florida, 2nd edn. Miami, Florida, USA: Banyan Books, xvii + 962 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Sao Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Motooka P; Castro L; Nelson D; Nagai G; Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Contributors

Top of page

Original text by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Agroforestry Enterprises, France

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map