Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Triumfetta rhomboidea
(diamond burbark)

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Datasheet

Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Triumfetta rhomboidea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • diamond burbark
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Triumfetta rhomboidea is an environmental and agricultural weed widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. It is a competitive shrub species that disperses by means of its epizoochorous burs, a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
Copyright©J.M. Garg/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
HabitTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.©J.M. Garg/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); flowers. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
TitleFlowers
CaptionTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); flowers. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
Copyright©J.M. Garg/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); flowers. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
FlowersTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); flowers. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.©J.M. Garg/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); habit, showing leaves and flower buds. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); habit, showing leaves and flower buds. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
Copyright©J.M. Garg/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); habit, showing leaves and flower buds. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.
HabitTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark); habit, showing leaves and flower buds. Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. October 2008.©J.M. Garg/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Triumfetta rhomboidea

Preferred Common Name

  • diamond burbark

Other Scientific Names

  • Bartramia angulata Lam.
  • Bartramia crispifolia Stokes
  • Bartramia glandulosa Lam.
  • Bartramia indica L.
  • Bartramia lappago Gaertn.
  • Bartramia rhombifolia Stokes
  • Triumfetta glandulosa Lam.
  • Triumfetta indica Lam.
  • Triumfetta mollis Schumach. & Thonn.
  • Triumfetta rhombeifolia Sw.
  • Triumfetta riparia Hochst.
  • Triumfetta trilocularis Roxb.
  • Triumfetta vahlii Poir.
  • Triumfetta velutina Vahl

International Common Names

  • English: bur bush; bur weed; burr bush; burr weed; Chinese burr; hibiscus burr; triumfetta weed
  • Spanish: cadillo
  • French: herbe à paniers; herbe panier; hérisson blanc

Local Common Names

  • American Samoa: manutofu; mautofu; mautofu vao
  • Bangladesh: banokra; bon okra
  • Brazil: amor do campo
  • China: ci shuo ma
  • Cook Islands: piripiri; purumu; vavai tara tita
  • Cuba: guizazo de cochino
  • Dominican Republic: cadillo chiquito; cadillo de burro,; cadillo de perro,
  • East Africa: mchokochole; mchokochore; mfyokochore
  • Fiji: joan ne pija; nggatima; nggatima ni vavalangi; qatima
  • French Polynesia: aunehu; pilipili; pipili; piri piri; piripiri; piripiri takato; puehu; puehu pua pipii; punehe; punehu; punehu haoe; punehu haoé; pununehu; toceto; toketo; urio
  • Guam: dadangsi; masiksik lahe
  • India: agra; akra; bankathuthara; bon okhra; bun-ochra; chiki; chikti; chiriyari; horu-agra; kadu bende; karottai; oorpam; ottarai; ottu pullu; ottukayal
  • Indonesia: galopang; pungpurutan
  • Indonesia/Java: sukupan
  • Jamaica: paroquet bur
  • Kenya: murinda ungurue
  • Lesser Antilles: mahot-cousin
  • Malaysia: champadang; pulut-pulut
  • Mayotte: pakavoa
  • Micronesia: sacawer
  • Myanmar: katsine-galay
  • Nepal: bhende kuro; dalle kurro
  • Niue: mosipo; motipo
  • Pakistan: chikti
  • Papua New Guinea: gavana; siponi
  • Philippines: balanggót; bulagun; kollo-kolot; kolo-kolót; kulot-kulótan; kulutkulutan; moropoto; sauag-caballo
  • South Africa: klitsbossie; tshimbvumbvu
  • Thailand: po yumyuu; seng
  • Tonga: mo‘osipo
  • Trinidad and Tobago: cousine mahoe
  • Vietnam: đay ké; gai đầu hình thoi; ké đay vàng; ké hoa vàng
  • Zambia: mundambi; sindambe

Summary of Invasiveness

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Triumfetta rhomboidea is an environmental and agricultural weed widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. It is a competitive shrub species that disperses by means of its epizoochorous burs, and can become invasive in pastures and disturbed areas where it can form dense stands. It has been listed as invasive in Cuba, Mayotte, India, Australia, American Samoa, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Hawaii, New Caledonia, Niue, Tonga and Wallis and Futuna.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Tiliaceae
  •                             Genus: Triumfetta
  •                                 Species: Triumfetta rhomboidea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Triumfetta is the second largest genus of the subfamily Grewioideae in the Malvaceae. It comprises about 150 species distributed throughout tropical America, Africa, Asia and Australia (Lay, 1950; Bayer and Kubitzky, 2003). Triumfetta was previously included in the Tiliaceae, and can still be found in the literature under this family. However, based on phylogenetic studies, the genera of the former Tiliaceae are now included in several subfamilies of Malvaceae sensu lato. The majority of genera were moved to the Grewioideae, while other genera have been transferred to Brownlowioideae, Dombeyoideae, Tilioideae, and other families (Brunken and Muellner, 2012).

Triumfetta is in the tribe Apeibeae, and is sister to the neotropical genus Heliocarpus (Brunken and Muellner, 2012). The genus honors Giovanni Battista Triumfetti, a 17th century Italian physician and botanist. Many species of Triumfetta are weeds (Bayer and Kubitzky, 2003), which appears to be related to the presence of animal-dispersed, spiny fruits.

Triumfetta rhomboidea was originally described as Bartramia indica by Linnaeus, who later transferred it to the genus Triumfetta, but failed to make the correct combination of Triumfetta indica (L.) L., instead calling it T. bartramia. This combination cannot be made now because the epithet in Triumfetta is occupied by T. indica Lam. Therefore, Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. is the earliest available legitimate name for this species (Bornstein, 1989).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Lay (1950), Halford (1997) and Raju and Rani (2017):

Shrub 1-2 m high, sparingly to much-branched. Branches often reddish-brown, moderately to densely stellate-tomentose, with or without simple hairs. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules triangular, 1-6 mm long; petiole 2-9 cm long, stellate-tomentose, sometimes also with simple hairs; blade typically broadly ovate to rhombic-ovate, obscurely to distinctly 3-lobed, 4-13 × 3-11 cm, acute to abruptly acuminate at the apex, obtuse or rounded at the base, the margins irregularly serrate, 3-5-palminerved, discolorous, glabrate with few scattered stellate hairs to moderately pubescent on both surfaces, with or without simple hairs. Inflorescence a cyme of 3-5 cymules, axillary, often forming terminal interrupted spiciform inflorescences by reduction of subtending leaves; peduncles 1-4 mm, bracts narrowly ovate, 3-4 mm long, pedicels 1-4 mm. Flowers hermaphrodite; sepals 5, free, linear, deeply cucullate, each with a short appendage at the apex, 4-7 × 1-2 mm, yellow or becoming reddish, stellate-pubescent to glabrescent outside, glabrous inside; petals 5, linear-obovate, 3-6 × 1.5-3 mm, yellow, ciliate on margin; androgynophore very short, ca. 0.3 mm long, bearing 5 small suborbicular glands, crowned by a ciliate urceolus surrounding the stamens; stamens 10-15, free, 3-5 mm long, yellow; ovary covered with uncinate spinules, style filiform, 3-6 m long, yellow. Fruit a dry, globose, indehiscent capsule, rarely ovoid-globose, 2-4-loculate, covered with many (75-100) spines, the body 3-4 mm in diam., cinereous-tomentose with stellate hairs, the spines uncinate, glabrous or nearly so, 1-2 mm long. Seeds 2-4 (1 per locule), ovoid, 1.5-2 x 1-1.5 mm, glabrous

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

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Triumfetta rhomboidea is a pantropical weed reported from more than 100 countries. The place of origin of T. rhomboidea is uncertain. It has been considered as either native to tropical America (Lay, 1950; Reddy, 2008; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012), or to the Old World tropics (Smith, 1981; Motooka, 2003).

It is common in South America and in the Caribbean, but it is rare in Central America and North America where it is regarded as introduced (Lay, 1950). It is very widespread in continental Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and Oceania.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 14 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeFigueiredo and Smith (2008)
BeninPresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
BotswanaPresentNativeGermishuizen and Meyer (2003)
Burkina FasoPresentNativeThiombiano et al. (2012)
BurundiPresentNativeCOMITE EXÉCUTIF DE LA FLORE ET JARDIN BOTANIQUE DE L'ETAT, BRUXELLES. (1963)
Cabo VerdePresentIntroducedSánchez-Pinto et al. (2005)Naturalized
CameroonPresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
Central African RepublicPresentNativeBoulvert (1977)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeCOMITE EXÉCUTIF DE LA FLORE ET JARDIN BOTANIQUE DE L'ETAT, BRUXELLES. (1963)
Congo, Republic of thePresentNativeSita and Moutsamboté (1988)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
EgyptPresentNativeBoulos (2000)
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeFlora de Guinea Ecuatorial (2018)
EritreaPresentNativeAnon (1995)
EthiopiaPresentNativeAnon (1995)
GabonPresentNativePasqualet (1926)
GambiaPresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
GhanaPresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeCatarino et al. (2008)
KenyaPresentNativeWhitehouse et al. (2001)
LiberiaPresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
MadagascarPresentNativeMadagascar Catalogue (2018)
MalawiPresentNativeAnon (1963)
MaliPresentNativeBoudet et al. (1986)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedBarthelat et al. (2016)Potentially invasive
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedBarthelat et al. (2016)Potentially invasive
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasiveBarthelat et al. (2016)
MozambiquePresentNativeAnon (1963)
NamibiaPresentNativeGermishuizen and Meyer (2003)
NigeriaPresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
RéunionPresentIntroducedBarthelat et al. (2016)Potentially invasive
RwandaPresentNativeCOMITE EXÉCUTIF DE LA FLORE ET JARDIN BOTANIQUE DE L'ETAT, BRUXELLES. (1963)
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedCopeland (2011)Naturalized
São Tomé and PríncipePresentNativeFigueiredo et al. (2011)
SenegalPresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedFriedmann (2011)Naturalized
Sierra LeonePresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
South AfricaPresentNativeGermishuizen and Meyer (2003)
SudanPresentNativeDarbyshire et al. (2015)
TanzaniaPresentNativeWhitehouse et al. (2001)
TogoPresentNativeHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1958)
UgandaPresentNativeWhitehouse et al. (2001)
ZambiaPresentNativeAnon (1963)
ZimbabwePresentNativeAnon (1963)

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativePOWO (2020)
BhutanPresent, WidespreadNativeParker (1992)
CambodiaPresentNativeCho et al. (2016)
ChinaPresentNativeTang et al. (2007)
-FujianPresentNativeTang et al. (2007)
-GuangdongPresentNativeTang et al. (2007)
-GuangxiPresentNativeTang et al. (2007)
-YunnanPresentNativeTang et al. (2007)
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentDagar (1989)
-Andhra PradeshPresentRaju and Rani (2017)
-AssamPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-BiharPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-GujaratPresentForest Department Gujarat (2018)
-HaryanaPresentKaur et al. (2016)
-KarnatakaPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-KeralaPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagh and Jain (2015)Naturalized
-MaharashtraPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-OdishaPresentSahu et al. (2013)
-PunjabPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-RajasthanPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-Tamil NaduPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveSingh et al. (2010)
-West BengalPresentSit et al. (2007)
IndonesiaPresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
-JavaPresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
JapanPresentNativeWalker (1976)Ryukyu Islands
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeWalker (1976)
LaosPresentNativeNewman et al. (2007)
MalaysiaPresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
MyanmarPresentNativeKress et al. (2003)
NepalPresentNativePress et al. (2000)
PakistanPresentNativePOWO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentBrown (1919); Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)Different sources report as native or introduced
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)Naturalized
Sri LankaPresentNativePOWO (2020)
TaiwanPresentNativeTang et al. (2007)
ThailandPresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
VietnamPresentNativePOWO (2020)
YemenPresentNativeAl Khulaidi (2000)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BelizePresentIntroducedLay KK (1950)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Tortola, Virgin Gorda
CubaPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012)Different sources report as either native or as introduced and invasive
DominicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeLiogier (1982)Infrequent
GrenadaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuadeloupePresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HaitiPresentNativeLiogier (1982)Infrequent
JamaicaAbsent, Formerly presentAdams (1972)Rare and not recently collected
MartiniquePresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Saba
NicaraguaPresent, Few occurrencesMeijer (2009)Known from one collection from Playas de mar, Rio San Juan
Puerto RicoPresentNativeLiogier (1994)
Saint LuciaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeBaksh-Comeau et al. (2016)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Lay KK (1950)St. Croix
United StatesPresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedKral et al. (2011)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin et al. (2018)
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1910InvasiveMotooka (2003)Kauai, Oahu, Maui, Hawaii

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2000)
AustraliaPresentIntroducedHalford (1997)Naturalized
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedHalford (1997)
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedHalford (1997)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveBatianoff and Butler (2002); Halford (1997)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveMcCormack (2007)Mild invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedWagner et al. (2012)
FijiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedSmith (1981)
French PolynesiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveFourdrigniez and Meyer (2008)Moderately invasive
GuamPresentIntroducedWagner et al. (2012)
New CaledoniaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced1983InvasiveGargominy et al. (1996)Very common weed
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace et al. (2004)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroduced1980Green (1994)Naturalized
PalauPresentIntroducedWagner et al. (2012)Babeldaob
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1997)
SamoaPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1997)
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1997)
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
VanuatuPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1997)Important locally
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMeyer (2007)

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeJørgensen et al. (2014)Beni, Santa Cruz
BrazilPresent, WidespreadNativeLay KK (1950)
-AcrePresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-AlagoasPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-AmazonasPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-BahiaPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-Distrito FederalPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-GoiasPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-ParaibaPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-ParanaPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-PernambucoPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeEsteves (2015)
ColombiaPresentNativeLay KK (1950)Magdalena
EcuadorPresentNativeJørgensen and León-Yánez (1999)Guayas
French GuianaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007)
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007)
ParaguayPresentNativeFerrucci and Lattar (2006)Amambay, San Pedro
PeruPresentNativeBrako and Zarucchi (1993)Junin, Loreto, San Mart?n
VenezuelaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007)Bolivar

History of Introduction and Spread

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The earliest name, Bartramia indica, was described from Sri Lanka in 1753, whereas T. rhomboidea was described in 1760 from the Caribbean, indicating that this species was already present in both hemispheres by the middle of the 18th century.

Triumfetta rhomboidea is generally considered as a recent introduction in Australia and the Pacific islands (Halford 1997; Smith, 1981). First records for French Polynesia and Hawaii are from 1877 and 1910, respectively (Florence, 2004; Motooka, 2003). By 1980-1983 it was reported in Norfolk Island and New Caledonia (Gargominy et al., 1996; Flora of Australia Online, 2018).

Risk of Introduction

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Triumfetta rhomboidea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, and thus further spread is likely considering that this species takes advantage of disturbance and that its spiny fruits can be easily transported in clothing and in the fur of animals.

Habitat

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Triumfetta rhomboidea grows in a wide range of habitats, typically in disturbed sites including cultivated fields, roadsides, pastures, wastelands, woodland margins, forest clearings and open hillsides. It can be a very persistent weed in agricultural areas, but has a minor impact as an invasive in undisturbed ecosystems (McCormack, 2007). It can be found from sea level to 2750 m (Whitehouse et al., 2001).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Reported as a weed in rice (Oryza sativa) in India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines (Moody, 1989). In Brazil it is a weed in maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata; da Silva et al., 2018).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome numbers reported for T. rhomboidea are 2n=32 and 2n=48 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020)

Reproductive Biology

The small yellow flowers of T. rhomboidea are visited and pollinated by bees, butterflies and wasps. In southeastern India, the bees include: Apis dorsata, A. cerana, A. florea, Tetragonula iridipennis, and Halictus sp. Butterflies include the hesperiid Borbo cinnara, and the lycaenids Castalius rosimon, Discolampa ethion, Neopithecops zalmara, Chilades lajus and Jamides celeno. The wasps belonged to the genus Stizus (Raju and Rani, 2017).

An individual plant produces ca. 470 flowers. The flowers open in the afternoon (13:00-14:00 h), and close in the evening of the same day. They produce relatively abundant pollen, but only traces of nectar. The total protein content per 1 mg of pollen is 333.3 µg. The floral parts, except the ovary and style, fall off in the morning of the third day of anthesis (Raju and Rani, 2017).

As is common in many weed species, T. rhomboidea is self-compatible and capable of autogamy. In a pollination study, no differences in fruit set were observed between flowers covered with bags and the control (55% vs. 57%, respectively) (Shivanna, 2014).

Raju and Rani (2017) reported a very high natural fruit set (95%) in southeast India. The fruits mature within two weeks and change from green to dark brown when completely ripe. The seeds disperse within the fruits and are released upon decomposition of the pericarp (Raju and Rani, 2017).

Physiology and Phenology

In Australia, T. rhomboidea flowers and fruits more or less throughout the year, but mainly in March to July (Halford, 1997). In America, flowering and fruiting has been reported from July to November (Lay, 1950), and in West Africa from August-December (Bosch, 2012).

In Southeast India, where this species behaves as an annual, the plants emerge with the first rains of June, flower and fruit during September-January, and disappear in February (Raju and Rani, 2017).

Longevity

Annual and perennial forms have been recorded for this species (Halford, 1997).

Environmental Requirements

Triumfetta rhomboidea has a predominantly tropical distribution, although its native range also extends into the subtropical region. It is a very adaptable species capable of growing in a variety of soil types and environmental conditions. It has been reported to tolerate extreme coal-smoke pollution (Iqbal et al., 2009).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
31 29

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 15 37
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5 23

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7504000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Triumfetta rhomboidea is susceptible to the following fungal pathogens, which cause various damages on leaves: Cercospora triumfettae-rhomboideae, Pseudocercospora triumfettae, Pseudocercospora triumfettigena, Ramularia triumfettae, Corynespora trichoides, Pseudoidium tirumalense, Passalora abscondita, Phyllosticta stevensii, Pucciniosira pallidula, Irenopsis coronata, Odium sp. and Phomopsis sp. (Farr and Rossman, 2018).

The larvae of the nymphalid butterfly Junonia orithya feed on leaves and flowers of this species. The damaged flowers fall before developing into fruits, thus reducing reproductive success (Raju and Rani, 2017).

Other insects that have been reported to use T. rhomboidea as host plant are: the cotton stem weevil Pempherulus affinis (Ayyar, 1940), the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Nagrare et al., 2012), the cotton stainer Dysdercus cardinalis (Tengecho, 1994), and the nymphalid butterflies Acraea serena and Acraea viviana (Pierre and Bernaud, 1999; Jiggins et al., 2003).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Triumfetta rhomboidea disperses by animals (including humans). The small fruits are covered with hooked spines that adhere to the hair of animals and are thus transported to new locations (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; Raju and Rani, 2017).

Accidental Introduction

Triumfetta rhomboidea may be accidentally transported via clothing and fur of livestock, or as a contaminant in wool (Wells et al., 1986).

Intentional Introduction

This species is used at local level only, and thus intentional, international introduction, is unlikely.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionBurs attach to animals’ fur Yes Raju and Rani, 2017
DisturbanceA weed of disturbed sites Yes Lay, 1950
Harvesting fur, wool or hairBurs can be transported as a contaminant in wool Yes Yes Wells et al., 1986
Medicinal useUsed in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsBurs attach to clothing Yes Yes Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001
Hides, trophies and feathersBurs can be transported as a contaminant in wool Yes Yes Wells et al., 1986
LivestockBurs attach to animals’ hair Yes Yes Raju and Rani, 2017

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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Triumfetta rhomboidea is listed among the major weeds of agriculture in the southern and western Pacific (Waterhouse, 1997), and as a common weed in rice (Oryza sativa) in south and Southeast Asia (Moody, 1989). Since plants are woody at the base and strong rooting, they are very difficult to remove (McCormack, 2007).

Environmental Impact

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Triumfetta rhomboidea is a competitive species that invades pastures and disturbed areas in forests. It can form almost pure stands preventing the establishment of native species (Wells et al., 1986; Motooka, 2003).

Social Impact

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Triumfetta rhomboidea can grow forming dense stands and become a nuisance to people and livestock in pastures and forest sites where these plants abound (Motooka, 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

The stems of T. rhomboidea yield a strong, jute-like fiber that has been used for making rope, string, ties, thread and fishing nets (Pasqualet, 1926; Bosch, 2012). The species was at one time cultivated in Malawi (Bosch, 2012) and Cuba (Fuentes Fiallo, 1999) for fiber production.

Social Benefit

Triumfetta rhomboidea is widely used in traditional African and Asian medicine to treat a broad range of illnesses (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; Bosch, 2012; Quattrocchi, 2012). The leaves are commonly used as emollient for treating burns, eczema, scabies, skin infections and snakebites (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; Bosch, 2012). A decoction of the plant in rice water is taken to treat diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea and high blood pressure. The decoction of the roots is used for internal ulcerations (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). The roots are also used to treat conjunctivitis and as pain-killer against headache, toothache and circumcision wounds (Bosch, 2012). The fruits and pounded roots are believed to facilitate childbirth (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001).

Phytochemical analyses have reported the presence of a number of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, polysterols, triterpenes, polyphenols, alkaloids and tannins (Uche and Okunna, 2009; Devmurari et al., 2010). Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of different parts of the plant have shown to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory (Uche and Okunna, 2009), lactogenic (Sahoo et al., 2016), antibacterial (Devmurari et al., 2010), antioxidant and antitumor activity (Sivakumar et al., 2010).

The leaves and roots are consumed as a cooked vegetable. The stems are a source of mucilage used to make soups and sauces, and to prepare a food for babies and young children not yet able to eat coarse starchy foods. This mucilaginous soup is often the first dish given to women who have given birth (Bosch, 2012).

The plant is also used as fodder (Roothaert and Franzel, 2001; Bosch, 2012). In some African countries, the leaves are fed to horses to treat constipation and worms (Bosch, 2012).

Triumferol (4-hydroxyisoxazole), a plant growth regulator that inhibits seed germination, was isolated from this species (Kusumi et al., 1981).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Gum/mucilage
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore
  • Veterinary

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Triumfetta rhomboidea is extremely variable in leaf shape and in the density of its indumentum, and can therefore be confused with several other Triumfettas, often with T. semitriloba and T. pentandra. It can be distinguished by the deeply cucullate sepals, and by the stellate tomentum on the fruit surface along with the glabrous spines, which are constant characters throughout its range (Lay, 1950).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Triumfettarhomboidea propagates by means of its epizoochorous burs, and therefore sanitary measures and control before the plants set seeds are critical to prevent its spread (Motooka, 2003).

Chemical Control

Triumfettarhomboidea is sensitive to foliar drizzle applications of dicamba, picloram and probably triclopyr (Motooka, 2003).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

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Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Dagar, H. S., 1989. Plant folk medicines among Nicobarese tribals of Car Nicobar Island, India. Economic Botany, 43(2), 215-224. doi: 10.1007/BF02859863

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Distribution References

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07/04/18 Original text by:

Dr. Fabiola Areces-Berazain, Herbarium UPRRP, University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras

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