Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Thysanoplusia orichalcea
(slender burnished brass moth)

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Datasheet

Thysanoplusia orichalcea (slender burnished brass moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thysanoplusia orichalcea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • slender burnished brass moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleArtwork of adult
Caption
CopyrightD.P. Giga
Artwork of adultD.P. Giga

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius, 1775)

Preferred Common Name

  • slender burnished brass moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Autographa orichalcea
  • Diachrysia orichalcea (Fabricius)
  • Noctua aurifera Hübner, 1813
  • Noctua orichalcea Fabricius, 1775
  • Noctua orychalcea Hübner, 1803
  • Phalaena chrysitina Martyn, 1797
  • Phytometra aurifera
  • Phytometra orichalcea (Fabricius)
  • Phytometra orichalcea (Fabricius)
  • Plusia aurifera
  • Plusia orichalcea (Fabricius)
  • Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius)

International Common Names

  • English: cabbage semi-looper; fax caterpillar; golden wedge moth; golden wing moth; green semi-looper; pea semi-looper; Plusia looper; semi-looper; soyabean semi-looper; soybean semi-looper

EPPO code

  • PYTOOR (Phytometra orichalcea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Thysanoplusia
  •                                 Species: Thysanoplusia orichalcea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
AngolaPresentRoome (1974)
BotswanaPresentRoome (1974)
ComorosPresentDufay (1982)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1986)
EgyptPresent, WidespreadNazmi et al. (1980); UK, CAB International (1986)
EswatiniPresentRoome (1974)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Kravtchenko (1992)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
KenyaPresent, WidespreadKhaemba and Mutinga (1982); UK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
LesothoPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MaliPresentRoome (1974)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Mokhles (1989)
MozambiquePresentRoome (1974); UK, CAB International (1986)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
RéunionPresentDufay (1975)
Saint HelenaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadAnneke and Moran (1982); UK, CAB International (1986)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
UgandaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
ZambiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986)
ZimbabwePresent, WidespreadTaylor (1980); UK, CAB International (1986); Taylor (1995); CABI (Undated)

Asia

BangladeshPresentIslam et al. (1984); APPPC (1987); APPPC (1987a); Islam et al. (1987)
ChinaPresentHu (1987)
-TibetPresentHu (1987)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadDhuri et al. (1984); Yadav et al. (1984); CABI (Undated)
-Andhra PradeshPresent, WidespreadAyyanna et al. (1978); Basappa and Vijay Singh (1990)
-AssamPresentKeot et al. (2002)
-ChhattisgarhPresentPatel and Thakur (2005)
-DelhiPresent, WidespreadDhuri et al. (1984); Faleiro et al. (1986)
-HaryanaPresent, WidespreadPawar et al. (1983); Yadav et al. (1984)
-Himachal PradeshPresent, WidespreadDevi et al. (1991); Ranjeet Bhatia and Verma (1995)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhat et al. (2010)
-JharkhandPresentRabindra Prasad and Devendera Prasad (2007)
-Madhya PradeshPresent, WidespreadBasappa and Vijay Singh (1990); CABI (Undated)
-MaharashtraPresent, WidespreadBasappa and Vijay Singh (1990); CABI (Undated);
-ManipurPresentShantibala et al. (2007)
-MeghalayaPresent, WidespreadSachan and Gangwar (1980)
-PunjabPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);
-RajasthanPresent, WidespreadKhan et al. (1972)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadRangarajan et al. (1975)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadMalik and Parihar (1996); Vaishampayan and Singh (1996)
-West BengalPresent, WidespreadBiswas and Mandal (1992); Ranjeet Bhatia and Verma (1995)
IndonesiaPresentHolloway (1985); CABI (Undated)
MalaysiaPresentHolloway (1985)
-SabahPresentHolloway (1985)
-SarawakPresentHolloway (1985)
MyanmarPresentAPPPC (1987)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadHashmi and Arshad (1987); Khan (1992); Khan et al. (1993)

Europe

BelgiumPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lhomme and Leraut (1980)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentKostrowicki (1961)
FrancePresentCABI (Undated);
-CorsicaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lhomme and Leraut (1980)
GermanyPresentStamm (1981)
GreecePresentKostrowicki (1961)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
ItalyPresentKostrowicki (1961); Parenzan (1984)
MaltaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Heath and Emmet (1983)
North MacedoniaPresentKostrowicki (1961)
PolandPresentBuszko (1983)
PortugalPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Heath and Emmet (1983)
-AzoresPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
RussiaPresentKostrowicki (1961)
SpainPresentSarto i Monteys (1984); Cabello (1988); CABI (Undated)
SwitzerlandAbsent, Intercepted onlyHächler (1986)
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted onlyClassey (1979)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentHassan (1984)
-New South WalesPresent, WidespreadBrown (1978); Brown (1978a)
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadBroadly (1980); CABI (Undated)
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadBeck and Cameron (1990); CABI (Undated)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acridotheres tristis Predator
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bubulcus ibis Predator
Campoletis chlorideae Parasite Bhat et al., 2010
Carcelia cosmophilae Parasite Larvae
Carcelia illota Parasite Larvae
Compsilura concinnata Parasite Larvae
Copidosoma floridanum Parasite Eggs/Larvae
Copidosoma maculata Parasite
Cotesia ruficrus Parasite Larvae New Zealand soyabeans
Euplectrus laphygmae Parasite Larvae
Linnaemya longirostris Parasite Larvae
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Paradrino laevicula Parasite Larvae
Passer domesticus Predator
Voria capensis Parasite Larvae
Voria ruralis Parasite Larvae
Winthemia lateralis Parasite Larvae

References

Top of page

Anneke DP; Moran V, 1982. Insects and Mites of Cultivated Plants in South Africa. Pretoria: Butterworths.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Ayyanna T; Subbaratnam GV; Dharmaraju E, 1978. Pest complex on sunflower, Helianthus annus Lin. in Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Entomology, 40(3):353-356

Bardner R; Mathenge WM, 1974. First record of Phytometra orichalcea (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on coffee foliage. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 40(2):214

Basappa H; Vijay Singh, 1990. Record of insect pests on niger (Guizotia abyssinnica). Journal of Oilseeds Research, 7(2):86-87

Beck NG; Cameron PJ, 1990. Developing an action threshold for lepidopterous pests of cabbage. Proceedings of the Forty Third New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference Palmerston North, New Zealand; New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc., 26-30

Beck NG; Herman TJB; Cameron PJ, 1992. Scouting for lepidopteran pests in commercial cabbage fields. Proceedings of the Forty Fifth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 11-13 August 1992 [edited by Popay, A. J.] Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 31-34

Bhardwaj SP; Panwar KS, 1990. Outbreak of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) and Plusia orichalcea (F.) on black zira in the dry temperate region of India. Tropical Pest Management, 36:73-76.

Bhat DM; Bhagat RC; Quresh AA, 2010. Newly recorded hymenopteran parasitoids of semilooper, Thysanoplusia orichalcea F. on some vegetable crops in Kashmir Valley (India). Journal of Entomological Research, 34(1):53-54. http://www.indianjournals.com

Biswas AK; Mandal SK, 1992. Occurrence of insect pests in different types of tobacco cultivated in West Bengal. Crop Research (Hisar), 5(1):169-171.

Broadley RH, 1978. Insect pests of sunflower. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 104(4):307-314

Broadly RH, 1980. Insect pests of sunflower. Part 2. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 106:6.

Brown GR, 1978. Light trapping of noctuid moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Rydalmere, New South Wales. General and Applied Entomology, 10:53-56

Brown GR, 1978. Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in N.S.W. General and Applied Entomology, 10:44

Buszko J, 1983. Moths Lepidoptera. Noctuidae. Klucze do Oznaczania Owadow Polski, 27(53e):170pp.

Cabello T, 1988. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the biology of Trichoplusia orichalcea F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 14(2):241-247

Caswell GH, 1962. Agricultural Entomology in the Tropics. London: Edward Arnold.

CIE, 1986. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A (Agricultural), No. 482. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Classey EW, 1979. Scarce migrant Lepidoptera in Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, October, 1978. Entomologist's Gazette, 30(1):72

Devi N; Raj D; Singh M, 1991. Seasonal abundance of two noctuid pests (Plusia orichalcea Fabr. and Heliothis armigera (Hubner)), in north-west Himalayas (India). Journal of Entomological Research, 15(2):120-124

Dhaliwal JS, 1993. Methods to control cabbage semi-looper on berseem. Indian Farming, 42(12):29-30

Dhuri AV; Singh KM, 1983. Pest complex and succession of insect pests in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Indian Journal of Entomology, 45(4):396-401

Dhuri AV; Singh KM; Singh RN, 1984. Incidence of insect pests in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Indian Journal of Entomology, 46(3):270-276

Dufay C, 1970. Faune de Madagascar: Insectes Lepidopteres, Notodontidae. Paris: ORSTOM, 31.

Dufay C, 1975. The Plusiinae of Reunion (Lep. Noctuidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 80(5/6):157-166

Dufay C, 1982. The Plusiinae of the Comoro archipelago (Lep. Noctuidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 87(5/6):220-228

Evans JW, 1952. The Injurious Insects of the British Commonwealth. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Faleiro JR; Singh KM, 1985. Yield-infestation studies associated with insects infesting cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Delhi. Indian Journal of Entomology, 47(3):287-291

Faleiro JR; Singh KM; Singh RN, 1986. Pest complex and succession of insect pests in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Indian Journal of Entomology, 48(1):54-61

Fitton MG; Gauld ID; Roberts LIN; Walker AK, 1983. An African ichneumonid (Hymenoptera) in Australasia. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 73(3):465-468

Hachler M, 1986. Notes on three pests of subtropical ornamental plants captured in western Switzerland: Trichoplusia orichalcea Fab., Syngrapha circumflexa L. and Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lep., Noctuidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 59(3-4):263-266

Hashmi AA; Arshad M, 1987. Chronological progression of semes in lepidopterous larvae. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 19(2):153-165

Hassan E, 1984. Insect pests and their control on soyabean (Glycine max L.) and sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) in Australia. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 57(3):48-50

Heath J; Emmet AM, ed. , 1983. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 10. Noctuidae (Cuculliinp to Hypeninp) and Agaristidae. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 10. Noctuidae (Cuculliinp to Hypeninp) and Agaristidae. Harley Books Colchester UK, 459 pp.

Hill MG; Cameron PJ; Dugdale JS; Allan DJ; Walker GP, 1987. Biology of Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist, 10:44-50

Holloway JD, 1985. The moths of Borneo. Part 14. Family Noctuidae: subfamilies Euteliinae, Stictopterinae, Plusiinae, Pantheinae. Malayan Nature Journal, 38:157-317

Holloway JD; Bradley JD; Carter DJ, 1987. CIE Guides to insects of importance to man. I. Lepidoptera. London, UK; CAB International, 262pp.

Hu SC, 1987. A preliminary report on the main pest insects on leguminous crops in Tibet. Plant Protection, 13(6):2-3

Islam W; Ahmed KN; Joarder OI, 1984. Timing and extent of damage caused by insect pests of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) in Bangladesh. Crop Protection, 3(3):343-348

Islam W; Ahmed KN; Nargis A, 1987. An investigation on the insect pests of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum L.). Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 22(1-4):175-179

Jack RW, 1941. Report of the division of entomology (Southern Rhodesia) for the period ending 31st December, 1940. Review of Applied Entomology, 30:160.

Jensen RL; Newsom LD; Herzog DC; Thomas JW Jr; Farthing BR; Martin FA, 1977. A method of estimating insect defoliation of soybean. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(2):240-242

Kalshoven LGE; Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Kamau AW, 1979. The biology of the golden-wing moth, Plusia orichalcea Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In: Lima CPFDe, ed. Bulletin of African Insect Science, 3:15

Keot S; Saikia DK; Nath RK, 2002. Insect pest complex of Brassica vegetables. Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North-East India, 15(1):28-33.

Khaemba BM; Mutinga MJ, 1982. Insect pests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Kenya. Insect Science and its Application, 3(4):281-286

Khan M, 1992. Integrated control of insect pests of sugarbeet. Pakistan Sugar Journal, 6(4):7-9

Khan M; Shahid M; Liaqatullah, 1993. Chemical control of lepidopterous pests of sugarbeet. Pakistan Sugar Journal, 7(4):7-10

Khan RM; Gupta BM; Sharma SK, 1972. Note on susceptibility of sugarbeet varieties to cutworms and leaf feeding caterpillars. Indian Journal of Entomology, 34(2):173

Kostrowicki, 1961. Acta Zoologica Cracow, 6:395.

Kravtchenko VD, 1992. Imago activity rhythms of some pest species of Noctuidae in Ethiopia (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Tropical Pest Management, 38(1):75-76

Lapointe R, 1992. Development of economic thresholds for semiloopers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on four soybean cultivars in Zimbabwe. Unpublished MSc Thesis, McGill University, Canada.

Lapointe R; Giga DP; Stewart RK; Canhao J, 1995. Determination of economic thresholds for semiloopers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on four soyabean cultivars in Zimbabwe. African Entomology, 3(1):13-22.

Leraut P, 1980. Systematic and synonymic list of the Lepidoptera of France, Belgium and Corsica. Liste systematique et synonymique des Lepidopteres de France, Belgique et Corse. Societe Entomologique de France. Paris France, 334 pp.

Malik K; Parihar SBS, 1996. Lepidopterous pest build-up, as influenced by abiotic factors on turnip. Insect Environment, 2(3):97-98; 1 ref.

Mehto DN; Singh KM, 1983. Succession of insect pests in chickpea, Cicer arietinum Linn. Indian Journal of Entomology, 45(4):377-383

Men UB; Kanalkar HG, 1997. Pest complex of sunflower, Helianthus annus, Linn, in Maharashtra, India. PKV Research Journal, 21:61-63.

Mokhles A, 1989. Contribution to the knowledge of lepidopterous insects from Morocco. Entomological observations in the autumn in Azrou (Moyen-Atlas 1250-1500 m). SHILAP, Revista de Lepidopterologia, 17(65):153-158

Mundhe DR, 1980. Insect pest complex on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) in Marathwada region. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 5(3):259-260

Nazmi NH; El-Kady EA; Amin AH; Ahmed AA, 1980. Redescription and classification of subfamily Plusiinae in Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. 63:141-162

Odiyo PO, 1977. The use of insect light traps for monitoring changes in the distribution of crop pests in E. Africa. In: Lima CPFDe, ed. De Lima, C. P. F. : Advances in medical, veterinary and agricultural entomology in eastern Africa. Proceedings of the 1st E.A. Conference on Entomology and Pest Control, December 6-10, 1976, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Literature Bureau. Nairobi Kenya, 102-106

Parenzan P, 1984. Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Heterocera) of southern Italy (addenda). Entomologica, 19:97-134

Patel RK; Thakur BS, 2005. Insect pest complex and seasonal incidence in linseed with particular reference to bud fly (Dasineura lini Barnes). Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 2(2):102-107.

Pawar CS; Srivastava CP; Reed W, 1983. Phenylacetaldehyde: an attractant for Heliothis armigera. International Chickpea Newsletter, No. 8:27-28

Rabindra Prasad; Devendera Prasad, 2007. Occurrence and succession of insect pests of linseed under agro-climatic condition of Ranchi (Jharkhand). Indian Journal of Entomology, 69(1):7-10.

Ramji; Sagar P, 1990. Population abundance of Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Fab.) on different species/cultivars of mint at Ludhiana. Indian Perfumer, 34(1):26-29

Rangarajan AV; Mahadevan NR; Iyemperumal S, 1975. Pest complex of sunflower (Helianthus annus Linn.) in Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Entomology, 37(2):188-191

Ranjeet Bhatia; Verma AK, 1995. Seasonal incidence of major insect pests of summer cabbage in Himachal Pradesh. Annals of Agricultural Research, 16(3):278-281; 10 ref.

Roome RE, 1974. Preliminary report on the establishment of a light trap grid in southern Africa. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 37(1):63-66

Sachan JN; Gangwar SK, 1980. Vertical distribution of important pests of cole crops in Meghalaya as influenced by the environmental factors. Indian Journal of Entomology, 42(3):414-421

Sagar P; Ramji, 1990. Natural enemies of cabbage semilooper on Japanese mint crop at Ludhiana. Indian Perfumer, 34(1):44-46; 18 ref.

Sagar P; Ramji, 1991. A study on the host range of cabbage semilooper, Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Fab.) in Punjab. Indian Perfumer, 35(1):61-62

Sagar R; Sagar P, 1990. Development of cabbage semilooper larvae on different species of mint in Punjab. Indian Perfumer, 34(2):130-132

Sardana HR; Verma S, 1986. Preliminary studies on the prevalence of insect pests and their natural enemies on cowpea crop in relation to weather factors at Delhi. Indian Journal of Entomology, 48(4):448-458

Sarto i Monteys V, 1984. Estudio de los Lepidopteros Noctuidae del Macizo del Montseny (Barcelona).

Schmutterer H, 1969. Pests of Crops in Northeast and Central Africa with particular reference to the Sudan. Stuttgart, Germany: Gustav Fischer Verlag.

Sekhar PR; Rai PS, 1991. Incidence of different caterpillars on safflower and assessment of grain loss due to Prospalta conducta Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Karnataka, India. Tropical Pest Management, 37(1):9

Shantibala T; Singh TK; Shah MAS, 2007. Insect pest complex of pea crop (Pisum sativum Linn.) and their succession in agro-ecosystem of Manipur. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 27(1):75-81.

Singh KM; Singh RN, 1977. Succession of insect-pests in green gram and black gram under dryland conditions at Delhi. Indian Journal of Entomology, 39(4):365-370

Singh OP; Rawat RR, 1980. Alternative food-plants of the soyabean semilooper, Plusia orichalcea F. (Lep., Noctuidae) in Jabalpur, India. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 53(2):25

Singh OP; Singh KJ, 1987. Green semilooper, Chrysodeixis acuta, as a pest of flowers and pods and its effect on the grain yield of soybean in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 57(11):861-863

Stamm, 1981. Prodromus der Lepidopteren-Fauna der Rheinlande und Westfalens. Dusseldorf.

Taylor DE, 1980. Soyabean semi-loopers. Zimbabwe Agricultural Journal, 77(3):111-112

Taylor DE, 1995. Pests and their control (Section F). In: Soyabeans in Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe: Commercial Oilseeds Producers Association, F1-12.

Taylor DE; Kunjeku E, 1983. Development of an economic threshold for semi-loopers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soya-beans in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research, 21(1):89-100

Turner JW, 1978. Pests of grain legumes and their control in Australia. In: Singh SR, Emden HF van, Taylor TA, ed. Van Emden, H. F. : Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. London UK, 73-81

Vaishampayan SJr; Singh HN, 1996. Seasonal change in the activity and reproductive potential of Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Fab.) adults collected on light trap at Varanasi. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 30(1):17-21; 9 ref.

Vaishampayan SJr; Vaishampayan SM, 1995. Seasonal changes in the activity of adults of Heliothis armigera Hub.; Agrotis ipsilon Huf. and Plusia orichalcea Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) collected on light trap at Varanasi. Advances in Agricultural Research in India, No. 3:11-21; 8 ref.

Verma R; Vaishampayan SM, 1983. Seasonal activity of major insect pests on light trap equipped with mercury vapour lamp at Jabalpur. In: Goel SC, ed. Insect ecology and resource management Sanatan Dharm College Muzaffarnagar India, 173-180

Yadav LS; Chaudhary JP; Yadav PR, 1984. Relative abundance of important noctuid moths on light trap infesting chickpea in Haryana. Bulletin of Entomology, 25(2):103-110

Distribution References

Anneke DP, Moran V, 1982. Insects and Mites of Cultivated Plants in South Africa., Pretoria, Butterworths.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

APPPC, 1987a. nsect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135., Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Ayyanna T, Subbaratnam G V, Dharmaraju E, 1978. Pest complex on sunflower, Helianthus annus Lin. in Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Entomology. 40 (3), 353-356.

Basappa H, Vijay Singh, 1990. Record of insect pests on niger (Guizotia abyssinnica). Journal of Oilseeds Research. 7 (2), 86-87.

Beck N G, Cameron P J, 1990. Developing an action threshold for lepidopterous pests of cabbage. In: Proceedings of the Forty Third New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference [Proceedings of the Forty Third New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference], Palmerston North, New Zealand: New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc. 26-30.

Bhat D M, Bhagat R C, Quresh A A, 2010. Newly recorded hymenopteran parasitoids of semilooper, Thysanoplusia orichalcea F. on some vegetable crops in Kashmir Valley (India). Journal of Entomological Research. 34 (1), 53-54. http://www.indianjournals.com

Biswas A K, Mandal S K, 1992. Occurrence of insect pests in different types of tobacco cultivated in West Bengal. Crop Research (Hisar). 5 (1), 169-171.

Broadly RH, 1980. Insect pests of sunflower. Part 2. In: Queensland Agricultural Journal, 106 6.

Brown G R, 1978. Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in N.S.W. General and Applied Entomology. 44.

Brown G R, 1978a. Light trapping of noctuid moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Rydalmere, New South Wales. General and Applied Entomology. 53-56.

Buszko J, 1983. Moths - Lepidoptera. Noctuidae. (Motyle - Lepidoptera. Sówki - Noctuidae.). In: Klucze do Oznaczania Owadów Polski, 27 (53e) 170pp.

Cabello T, 1988. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the biology of Trichoplusia orichalcea F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). (Influencia de la temperatura y el fotoperiodo en la biología de Trichoplusia orichalcea F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. 14 (2), 241-247.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Classey E W, 1979. Scarce migrant Lepidoptera in Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, October, 1978. Entomologist's Gazette. 30 (1), 72.

Devi N, Raj D, Singh M, 1991. Seasonal abundance of two noctuid pests (Plusia orichalcea Fabr. and Heliothis armigera (Hubner)), in north-west Himalayas (India). Journal of Entomological Research. 15 (2), 120-124.

Dhuri A V, Singh K M, Singh R N, 1984. Incidence of insect pests in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Indian Journal of Entomology. 46 (3), 270-276.

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