Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Trichoplusia ni
(cabbage looper)

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Datasheet

Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trichoplusia ni
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cabbage looper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Eggs and first-instar larva of T. ni on brassica leaf.
TitleEggs and small larva
CaptionEggs and first-instar larva of T. ni on brassica leaf.
CopyrightA. Shelton
Eggs and first-instar larva of T. ni on brassica leaf.
Eggs and small larvaEggs and first-instar larva of T. ni on brassica leaf.A. Shelton
Final-instar larva of cabbage looper moth (T. ni) on brassica leaf. Note larval attitude.
TitleLarva
CaptionFinal-instar larva of cabbage looper moth (T. ni) on brassica leaf. Note larval attitude.
CopyrightA. Shelton
Final-instar larva of cabbage looper moth (T. ni) on brassica leaf. Note larval attitude.
LarvaFinal-instar larva of cabbage looper moth (T. ni) on brassica leaf. Note larval attitude.A. Shelton
Fully-grown larva of T. ni, 30-35 mm long.
TitleLarva
CaptionFully-grown larva of T. ni, 30-35 mm long.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Fully-grown larva of T. ni, 30-35 mm long.
LarvaFully-grown larva of T. ni, 30-35 mm long.USDA-ARS
Pupa and cocoon (opened) of T. ni on brassica leaf.
TitlePupa
CaptionPupa and cocoon (opened) of T. ni on brassica leaf.
CopyrightA. Shelton
Pupa and cocoon (opened) of T. ni on brassica leaf.
PupaPupa and cocoon (opened) of T. ni on brassica leaf.A. Shelton
Adult of the cabbage looper moth (T. ni) at rest on brassica leaf.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult of the cabbage looper moth (T. ni) at rest on brassica leaf.
CopyrightA. Shelton
Adult of the cabbage looper moth (T. ni) at rest on brassica leaf.
AdultAdult of the cabbage looper moth (T. ni) at rest on brassica leaf.A. Shelton

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)

Preferred Common Name

  • cabbage looper

Other Scientific Names

  • Autographa brassicae (Riley)
  • Autographa ni (Hübner)
  • Noctua ni Hübner
  • Phytometra brassicae (Riley)
  • Phytometra brassicae ab. u-notata Strand
  • Phytometra ni (Hübner)
  • Plusia brassicae Riley
  • Plusia comma Schultz
  • Plusia echinocystidis Strecker
  • Plusia extrahens Walker
  • Plusia humilis Walker
  • Plusia innata Herrich-Schäfer
  • Plusia ni (Hübner)
  • Plusia significans Walker
  • Plusia u-aureum Guenée sensu Butler
  • Trichoplusia brassicae (Riley)
  • Trichoplusia ni brassicae (Riley) Kostrowicki

International Common Names

  • English: cabbage plusia; cabbage semi-looper; common cabbage looper; lettuce looper; ni moth; silver v moth
  • Spanish: falso medidor de la col (Mexico); gusano de la col; gusano falso medidor; lagarta del girasol; oruga geómetra
  • French: arpenteuse du chou; fausse-arpenteuse du chou; noctuelle des choux (america)
  • Portuguese: falsa-medideira-da-couve; lagarta-mede-palmo

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Eule, Amerikanische Gemuese-

EPPO code

  • PYTOBR (Phytometra brassicae)
  • TRIPNI (Trichoplusia ni)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Trichoplusia
  •                                 Species: Trichoplusia ni

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Cabo VerdePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentWalangululu and Mushagalusa (2000)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
GambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
LesothoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974); Waterhouse (1993)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-HebeiPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-JiangsuPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-ShandongPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-GujaratPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Madhya PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-MaharashtraPresentPatait et al. (2008)
-PunjabPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Tamil NaduPresentRaju and Sivaprakasam (1989)
-Uttar PradeshPresentPrashant Kumar et al. (2007)
IndonesiaPresentWaterhouse (1993)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-HokkaidoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-HonshuPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-KyushuPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
LaosPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MaldivesPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse (1993)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
SyriaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1974); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
VietnamPresentWaterhouse (1993)

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-SardiniaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-SicilyPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MaltaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1974)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Canary IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
SwedenPresentLindeborg (2008)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
United KingdomPresentKloet and Hincks (1967); UK, CAB International (1974)

North America

BarbadosPresentYaseen (1978)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Costa RicaPresentCABI (Undated a)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentYaseen (1978)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadMetcalf et al. (1962); UK, CAB International (1974)
-AlabamaPresentMaxwell et al. (2006)
-ArkansasPresentAllen and Kharboutli (2000)
-CaliforniaPresentThaler et al. (2001)
-FloridaPresentJohanowicz et al. (2002)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-MinnesotaPresentHines and Hutchison (2001)
-MississippiPresentSudbrink et al. (2003)
-New YorkPresentShelton et al. (2002)
-TexasPresentLiu et al. (2003)
-VirginiaPresentCordero et al. (2006)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Santa CatarinaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Sao PauloPresentRaga et al. (1990)
ChilePresentApablaza and Norero (1993)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / shredding
Leaves / webbing
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles hemitheae Parasite Larvae
Archytas californiae Parasite Larvae
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist Larvae
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis alesti Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis colmeri Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis indiana Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis tochigiensis Pathogen
baculo-like virus Pathogen
Banchus flavescens Parasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae
Bessa remota Parasite Larvae
Brachymeria ovata Parasite Pupae USA; Virginia cabbages
Brachymeria tibialis Parasite Larvae
Campoletis flavicincta Parasite Larvae
Campoletis sonorensis Parasite Larvae
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus formosanus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus insularis Parasite Larvae
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Chrysoperla externa Predator Larvae
Chrysoperla rufilabris Predator Larvae
Compsilura concinnata Parasite Larvae
Copidosoma floridanum Parasite Eggs/Larvae Honduras Brassica oleracea; Phaseolus vulgaris
Copidosoma truncatellum Parasite Eggs/Larvae USA; Virginia cabbages
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Larvae Cape Verde; Trinidad and Tobago Brassica; cabbages; tomatoes
Cotesia plutellae Parasite Larvae Barbados (1969), Jamaica (1969)
Cotesia ruficrus Parasite Larvae
Cotesia yakutatensis Parasite Larvae
cricket paralysis virus Pathogen
Entomophaga aulicae Pathogen
Eocanthecona furcellata Predator Nebapure and Meena, 2011
Erynia gammae Pathogen Larvae
Erynia radicans Pathogen Larvae
Euphorocera edwardsii Parasite Larvae
Euplectrus comstockii Parasite Larvae
Euplectrus platyhypenae Parasite Larvae
Gambrus ultimus Parasite Larvae USA; Virginia cabbages
Geocoris pallens Predator
Geocoris punctipes Predator
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite
Goniophthalmus halli Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Hippodamia convergens Predator
Hyposoter didymator Parasite Cape Verde cabbages; tomatoes
Hyposoter exiguae Parasite Larvae
Itoplectis conquisator Parasite Larvae
Labidura riparia Predator
Lyctocoris campestris Predator
Madremyia saundersii Parasite Larvae USA; Virginia cabbages
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Metarhizium brunneum Pathogen Larvae
Meteorus autographae Parasite Larvae
Microcharops bimaculata Parasite Larvae
Microchelonus blackburni Parasite Larvae
Microgaster brassicae Parasite Larvae
Microplitis rufiventris Parasite Larvae
Misumena ratia Predator
Misumena vatia Predator
Nabis alternatus Predator
Nabis americoferus Predator
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Larvae
Nosema trichoplusiae Pathogen Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Orius tristicolor Predator
Oxyopes salticus Predator
Patrocloides montanus Parasite
Perillus bioculatus Predator
Phidippus regius Predator
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Polistes metricus Predator
Ranzovius clavicornis Predator
Serratia marcescens Pathogen
Stenichneumon culpator cincticornis Parasite USA; Virginia cabbages
Stiretrus anchorago Predator
Sycanus indagator Predator
Telenomus solitus Parasite
Tenodera sinensis Predator
Thelohania sp. nr. diazoma Pathogen Larvae
Trichogramma achaeae Parasite Eggs Cape Verde Brassica; cabbages; tomatoes
Trichogramma brevicapillum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma browningi Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite Eggs Taiwan cabbages
Trichogramma chilotraeae Parasite Eggs Trinidad Brassica
Trichogramma deion Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs Missouri
Trichogramma exiguum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma fuentesi Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma funestum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma inyoense Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma platneri Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs California; Missouri
Trichogramma thalense Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea lutea Parasite Eggs Cape Verde cabbages; tomatoes
Trichospilus diatraeae Parasite Larvae Barbados Brassica; cotton; legumes; okras
Vespula pensylvanica Predator Larvae
Voria ruralis Parasite Larvae USA; Virginia cabbages
Vulgichneumon brevicinctor Parasite USA; Virginia cabbages
Winthemia rufiventris Parasite Larvae USA; Virginia cabbages

References

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Allen CT; Kharboutli MS, 2000. Evaluation of insecticides for control of soybean and cabbage loopers on cotton in southeast Arkansas. Special Report - Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 198:150-153.

Andaloro JT; Shelton AM; Eckenrode CJ, 1982. Seasonal abundance of lepidopterous larvae in commercial cabbage fields. Environmental Entomology, 11(1):144-146

Anon., 1981. Cabbage looper. Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). Insect Identification Sheet No. 43. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture Canada.

Apablaza JU; Norero AL, 1993. Captures of Agrotis ipsilon, Heliothis zea and Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with synthetic pheromone traps in the Metropolitan region. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria, 20(1):73-81

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Banham FL; Arrand JC, 1970. Recognition and life history of the major insect and allied pests of vegetables in British Columbia. Ministry of Agriculture, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (Rev. Appl. Ent. 59: 2457), 43 pp.

Butler GB, 1984. Computer simulation of development. In: Lingren PD, Greene GL, eds. Suppression and management of cabbage looper populations. US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1684, 41-44.

CIE, 1974. Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A, No. 328. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cordero RJ; Kuhar TP; Speese J III; Youngman RR; Lewis EE; Bloomquist JR; Kok LT; Bratsch AD, 2006. Field efficacy of insecticides for control of lepidopteran pests on collards in Virginia. Plant Health Progress, January:1-9. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/sub/php/research/2006/collard/

Cuthbert FP; Kishaba AN, 1984. Host plant resistance. In: Lingren PD, Greene GL, eds. Suppression and management of cabbage looper populations. US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1684, 92-96.

Eigenbrode SD; Shelton AM; Dickson MH, 1990. Two types of resistance to the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in cabbage. Environmental Entomology, 19(4):1086-1090

Greene GL, 1972. Economic damage threshold and spray interval for cabbage looper control on cabbage. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65:205-208.

Harcourt DG, 1965. Spatial pattern of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, on crucifers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 58:89-94.

Harcourt DG, 1966. Sequential sampling for use in control of the cabbage looper on cauliflower. Journal of Economic Entomology, 59:1190-1192.

Hines RL; Hutchison WD, 2001. Evaluation of action thresholds and spinosad for lepidopteran pest management in Minnesota cabbage. Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(1):190-196.

Ignoffo CM; Hostetter DL, 1984. Diseases. In: Lingren PD, Greene GL, eds. Suppression and management of cabbage looper populations. US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1684, 45-55.

Johanowicz DL; Smith HA; Sourakov A; Mitchell ER, 2002. Lambsquarters in a maize agroecosystem: a potential refuge for natural enemies of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Journal of Entomological Science, 37(2):203-206.

Kloet GS; Hincks WD, 1967. A Check List of British Insects. Second edition (revised). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. Vol. XI, Parts 1-5. London, UK: Royal Entomological Society of London.

Kostrowicki AS, 1961. Studies on the Palaerctic species of the subfamily Plusiinae (Lepidoptera, Phalaenidae). Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 6:367-472.

Lindeborg M, 2008. Remarkable records of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden 2007. (Intressanta fynd av storfjärilar (Macrolepidoptera) i Sverige 2007.) Entomologisk Tidskrift, 129(1):43-52. http://www.sef.nu/

Liu TX; Hutchison WD; Chen W; Burkness EC, 2003. Comparative susceptibilities of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Minnesota and South Texas to -cyhalothrin and indoxacarb. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(4):1230-1236.

Martin PB; Lingren PD; Greene GL, 1984. Role of parasitoids and predators in regulating populations. In: Lingren PD, Greene GL, eds. Suppression and management of cabbage looper populations. US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1684, 76-91.

Maxwell EM; Fadamiro HY; McLaughlin JR, 2006. Suppression of Plutella xylostella and Trichoplusia ni in cole crops with attracticide formulations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99(4):1334-1344. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/00220493/v99n4s39.pdf

Metcalf CL; Flint WP; Metcalf RL, 1962. Destructive and useful insects. 4th ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

Metz TD; Roush RT; Tang JD; Shelton AM; Earle ED, 1995. Transgenic broccoli expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein: implications for pest resistance management strategies. Molecular Breeding, 1(4):309-317; 47 ref.

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería Servicio Fitosanitario del Estado (Costa Rica), 2009. Listado de Plagas (insectos y ácaros) en cultivos de importancia económica en Costa Rica (C). http://www.protecnet.go.cr/laboratorios/plagcul/cultivoc.htm

Mitchell ER; Chalfant RB, 1984. Biology, behavior and dispersal of adults. In: Lingren PD, Greene GL, eds. Suppression and management of cabbage looper populations. US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1684, 14-18.

Nebapure SM; Meena Agnihotri, 2011. Canthecona furcellata: a predator of Maruca vitrata. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 19(2):477-478. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Patait DD; Shetgar SS; Subhan S; Badgujar AG; Dhurgude SS, 2008. Seasonal abundance of Lepidopteran pests infesting cabbage in relation to weather parameters. Indian Journal of Entomology, 70(3):255-258.

Poe SL; Workman RB, 1984. Potential for dispersal by winter shipments of vegetables, ornamental plants and cut flowers. In: Lingren PD, Greene GL, eds. Suppression and management of cabbage looper populations. US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1684, 26-29.

Prashant Kumar; Prasad CS; Tiwari GN, 2007. Population intensity of insect pests of cabbage in relation to weather parameters. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(1):245-246. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Raga V; Gravena S; Bortoli SA de; Arai J; Wassano GN, 1990. Insect survey and arthropod predator activity in tomato crop of determined growth. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 19(2):253-271

Raju UJ; Sivaprakasam K, 1989. Survey on pests and diseases of cabbage. Madras Agricultural Journal, 76(4):192-196

Sears MK; Shelton AM; Quick TC; Wyman JA; Webb SE, 1985. Evaluation of partial plant sampling procedures and corresponding action thresholds for management of Lepidoptera on cabbage. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(4):913-916

Shelton AM; Andaloro JT; Barnard J, 1982. Effects of cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm, and diamondback moth on fresh market and processing cabbage. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(4):742-745

Shelton AM; Sears MK; Wyman JA; Quick TC, 1983. Comparison of action thresholds for lepidopterous larvae on fresh-market cabbage. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(1):196-199

Shelton AM; Wilsey WT; Hoebeke ER; Schmaedick MA, 2002. Parasitoids of cabbage Lepidoptera in Central New York. Journal of Entomological Science, 37(3):270-271.

Shepard M, 1973. A sequential sampling plan for treatment decisions on the cabbage looper on cabbage. Environmental Entomology, 2(5):901-903

Shepard M; Carner GR, 1976. Distribution of insects in soybean fields. Canadian Entomologist, 108(7):767-771

Shorey HH; Andres LA; Hale RL, 1962. The biology of Trichoplusia ni 1. Life history and behavior. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 55:591-597.

Southwood TRE, 1966. Ecological methods: with particular reference to the study of insect populatons. London, UK: Butler Tanner Ltd.

Sudbrink DL Jr; Harris FA; Robbins JT; English PJ; Willers JL, 2003. Evaluation of remote sensing to identify variability in cotton plant growth and correlation with larval densities of beet armyworm and cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomologist [Symposium: Armyworm - 2002.], 86(3):290-294. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Sutherland DW; Greene SGL, 1984. Culitvated and wild host plants. In: Lingren PD, Greene GL, eds. Suppression and management of cabbage looper populations. US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1684, 1-13.

Sutherland DWS, 1965. Biological investigations of Trichoplusia ni (Hubner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and related and associated species damaging cruciferous crops on Long Island, New York, 1960-1963. Ph.D. dissertation. Cornell University.

Thaler JS; Stout MJ; Karban R; Duffey SS, 2001. Jasmonate-mediated induced plant resistance affects a community of herbivores. Ecological Entomology, 26(3):312-324.

Walangululu JM; Mushagalusa GN, 2000. The major pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda) in Bukavu and around. (Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés (Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda) à Bukavu et ses environs.) Tropicultura, 18(2):55-57.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Waterhouse DF, 1998. Biological Control of Insect Pests: South-east Asian Prospects. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), 127 pp.

Yaseen M, 1978. The establishment of two parasites of the diamond-back moth Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) in Trinidad, W.I. Entomophaga, 23(2):111-114

Distribution References

Allen C T, Kharboutli M S, 2000. Evaluation of insecticides for control of soybean and cabbage loopers on cotton in southeast Arkansas. In: Special Report - Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Fayetteville, USA: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas. 150-153.

Apablaza J U, Norero A L, 1993. Captures of Agrotis ipsilon, Heliothis zea and Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with synthetic pheromone traps in the Metropolitan region. (Capturas de Agrotis ipsilon, Heliothis zea y Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) con trampas de feromonas sintéticas en la región metropolitana.). Ciencia e Investigación Agraria. 20 (1), 73-81.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cordero R J, Kuhar T P, Speese J III, Youngman R R, Lewis E E, Bloomquist J R, Kok L T, Bratsch A D, 2006. Field efficacy of insecticides for control of lepidopteran pests on collards in Virginia. Plant Health Progress. 1-9.

Hines R L, Hutchison W D, 2001. Evaluation of action thresholds and spinosad for lepidopteran pest management in Minnesota cabbage. Journal of Economic Entomology. 94 (1), 190-196. DOI:10.1603/0022-0493-94.1.190

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