Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Trichodorus
(stubby root nematodes)

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Datasheet

Trichodorus (stubby root nematodes)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trichodorus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stubby root nematodes
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Trichodoridae
  •         Genus: Trichodorus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anterior end of Trichodorus sp. with the onchiostyle and anterior part of the pharyngeal gland as seen with differential interference contrast microscopy.
TitleAnterior end
CaptionAnterior end of Trichodorus sp. with the onchiostyle and anterior part of the pharyngeal gland as seen with differential interference contrast microscopy.
Copyright©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of Trichodorus sp. with the onchiostyle and anterior part of the pharyngeal gland as seen with differential interference contrast microscopy.
Anterior endAnterior end of Trichodorus sp. with the onchiostyle and anterior part of the pharyngeal gland as seen with differential interference contrast microscopy.©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
TitleTrichodorus sp.
Caption
Copyright©John Bridge/CABI BioScience
Trichodorus sp.©John Bridge/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trichodorus

Preferred Common Name

  • stubby root nematodes

International Common Names

  • English: paratrichodorids; trichodorids
  • Spanish: nematodo de cerda (Mexico)

Local Common Names

  • Japan: sentyubyo
  • Turkey: comak nematodlari

EPPO code

  • TRIHSP (Trichodorus sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Trichodoridae
  •                 Genus: Trichodorus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentHendy et al. (1989)
Cabo VerdePresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
Congo, Republic of thePresentDecraemer (1995)
Côte d'IvoirePresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
EgyptPresentHooper (1977)
GambiaPresentFortuner and Merny (1973)
GuineaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
KenyaPresentDecraemer (1995)
LibyaPresent, LocalizedSaadabi (1993)
MalawiPresentDecraemer (1995)
MauritaniaPresentHooper (1977); Decraemer (1995)
MozambiquePresentReis (1982)
NigeriaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. and (1984)
SenegalPresent, WidespreadHooper (1977); Decraemer (1995)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); Decraemer (1995)
TanzaniaPresentDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
TunisiaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentHeyns (1975)
BahrainPresentEl-Haidari and Katcho (1976)
ChinaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
-FujianPresent, LocalizedZheng et al. (1990)
-ShanxiPresent, LocalizedWang (1993)
-SichuanPresent, LocalizedYang et al. (1992)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1977); Decraemer (1995)
-Andhra PradeshPresentDecraemer (1995)
-AssamPresentDecraemer (1995)
-BiharPresentDecraemer (1995)
-DelhiPresentDecraemer (1995)
-KeralaPresent, LocalizedKoshy et al. (1977)
-Madhya PradeshPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentHooper (1977)
IranPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
IsraelPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
JapanPresent, WidespreadHooper (1977); Decraemer (1995)
JordanPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Maqbool and Nasira (1995)
Saudi ArabiaPresent, LocalizedEissa (1977); Al-Hazmi et al. (1993)
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1977); Decraemer (1995)
TurkeyPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: DiVito et al., 1994
UzbekistanPresentTuraev (1981)

Europe

AustriaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
BelarusPresent, WidespreadAmbrosov et al. (1979)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Decraemer (1995)
BulgariaPresentPeneva (1988); Taylor and Brown (1997)
CroatiaPresentAlphey and Ivezic (1985)
CzechiaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
DenmarkPresentTaylor and Brown (1997)
FinlandPresentAlphey and Taylor (1986)
FrancePresentAlphey and Taylor (1986); Decraemer (1995)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
GreecePresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Koliopanos & Kalyviotis Gazelas, 1973
HungaryPresent, LocalizedJenser and Seljahudin (1978)
IrelandPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Decraemer (1995)
LithuaniaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Decraemer (1995)
NorwayPresent, LocalizedAlphey and Taylor (1986); Decraemer (1995)
PolandPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Decraemer (1995)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
-AzoresPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
-MadeiraPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
RomaniaPresent, LocalizedTaylor and Brown (1997)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)Present, WidespreadTaylor and Brown (1997)
-Russian Far EastPresentDecraemer (1995)
SlovakiaPresent, LocalizedDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
SpainPresent, LocalizedDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
-Canary IslandsPresentDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
SwedenPresent, LocalizedAlphey and Taylor (1986)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadTaylor and Brown (1997)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Taylor and Brown (1997)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresentDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
CubaPresentDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
El SalvadorPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
MartiniquePresentDecraemer (1995)
NicaraguaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1977); Decraemer (1995)
PanamaPresentDecraemer (1995)
Puerto RicoPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); Decraemer (1995)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentHooper (1977); Decraemer (1995)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-AlabamaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-AlaskaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
-ArkansasPresent, WidespreadTaylor and Brown (1997); CABI (Undated)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
-ColoradoPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-ConnecticutPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-DelawarePresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadTaylor and Brown (1997); CABI (Undated)
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); Decraemer (1995)
-IdahoPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-IllinoisPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-IndianaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-IowaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-KansasPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-LouisianaPresent, WidespreadTaylor and Brown (1997); CABI (Undated)
-MarylandPresent, WidespreadTaylor and Brown (1997); CABI (Undated)
-MassachusettsPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-MichiganPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-MontanaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-NebraskaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-New JerseyPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); Taylor and Brown (1997)
-New MexicoPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); CABI (Undated)
-New YorkPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); CABI (Undated)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadTaylor and Brown (1997)
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); CABI (Undated)
-South DakotaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
-TennesseePresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-TexasPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-UtahPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
-VirginiaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-West VirginiaPresent, WidespreadTaylor and Brown (1997); CABI (Undated)
-WisconsinPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); CABI (Undated)
-WyomingPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadHooper (1977)
-VictoriaPresentHooper (1977)
-Western AustraliaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
FijiPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995); Taylor and Brown (1997)
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); Decraemer (1995)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadHeyns (1975); Hooper (1977); Decraemer (1995)
-BahiaPresentDecraemer (1995)
-PernambucoPresent, LocalizedSharma (1973)
ChilePresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
EcuadorPresentDecraemer (1995)
GuyanaPresentDecraemer (1995)
PeruPresent, WidespreadDecraemer (1995)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1977); Decraemer (1995)

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / stubby roots
Whole plant / dwarfing

References

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Al-Hazmi AS; Ibrahim AAM; Abdul-Raziq AT, 1993. Distribution, frequency and population density of nematodes associated with potato in Saudi Arabia. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 3(1):107-111; 20 ref.

Alphey TJW; Boag B, 1976. Distribution of trichodorid nematodes in Great Britain. Annals of Applied Biology, 84(3):371-381

Alphey TJW; Cooper JI; Harrison BD, 1975. Chemical control of trichodorids and of transmission of tobacco rattle virus. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London & New York, USA UK, 441

Alphey TJW; Ivezic M, 1985. Atlas of Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Yugoslavia. Dundee, Scotland: Scottish Crop Research Institute.

Alphey TJW; Taylor CE, 1986. European Atlas of the Longidoridae and Trichodoridae. Dundee, Scotland: Scottish Crop Research Institute.

Ambrosov AL; Sokolova LA; Davidchik LYa; Ivanova BP, 1979. Potato stem mottle soil virus under Byelorussian conditions. Doklady Akademii Nauk BSSR, 23(3):269-272

Andrassy I, 1976. Evolution as a basis for the systematization of nematodes. Evolution as a basis for the systematization of nematodes. Pitman Publishing Ltd. London UK, 288 pp.

Asjes CJ, 1989. Tobacco rattle virus and other soil-borne viruses in ornamental bulb culture in The Netherlands. Aspects of Applied Biology, 22:83-86.

AYALA A; ALLEN MW; NOFFSINGER EM, 1970. Host range, biology, and factors affecting survival and reproduction of the stubby root nematode. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 54:341-369.

Birchfield W; Antonopoulos AA, 1977. Further observations on Duboscqia penetrans, a parasite of nematodes. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 4:221-222

Bird AF; Bird J, 1991. The Structure of Nematodes. Second edition. San Diego: Academic Press.

Boag B, 1983. Effect of rotary cultivation on plant parasitic nematodes. Crop Research, 23(1):33-37

Brodie BB, 1976. Vertical distribution of three nematode species in relation to certain soil properties. Journal of Nematology, 8(3):243-247

Brown DJF; Ploeg AT; Robinson DJ, 1989. A review of reported associations between Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus species (Nematoda : Trichodoridae) and tobraviruses with a description of laboratory methods for examining virus transmission by trichodorids. Revue de Nematologie, 12(3):235-241

Brown DJF; Robertson WM; Neilson R; Bem F; Robinson DJ, 1996. Characterization and vector relation of a serologically distinct isolate of tobacco rattle tobravirus (TRV) transmitted by Trichodorus similis in northern Greece. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(1):61-68; 27 ref.

BROWN EB; SYKES GB, 1971. Studies on the relation between density of Longidorus elongatus and growth of sugar beet, with supplementary observations on Trichodorus spp. Annals of Applied Biology, 68(3):291-298.

Brown EB; Sykes GB, 1973. Control of tobacco rattle virus (spraing) in potatoes. Annals of Applied Biology, 75(3):462-464

Chen TA; Mai WF, 1962. The feeding of Trichodorus christei on individually isolated corn root cells. Phytopathology, 55:128.

Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes. Their Bionomics and Control. Gainesville, Florida: Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Florida.

Christie JR; Perry VG, 1951. A root disease caused by a nematode of the genus Trichodorus. Science, 113:491-493.

Christie JR; Perry VG, 1959. Mechanisms of nematode injury to plants. In: Holton CS, Fischer GW, Fulton RW, Hart H, McCallan SEA, eds. Plant Pathology and Progress 1908 - 1959. Madison, USA: The American Phytopathological Society, University of Wisconson, 419-426.

Clark WC, 1961. A revised classification of the order Enoplida (Nematoda). New Zealand Journal of Science, 4:123-150.

Cobb NA, 1913. New nematode genera found inhabiting fresh water and non-brackish soils. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 3:432-444.

Coiro MI; Sasanelli N, 1994. The life cycle and reproductive potential of individual Trichodorus sparsus (Nematoda) on S. Lucie cherry. Nematologia Mediterranea, 22(2):233-236; 8 ref.

Cooke DA; Draycott AP, 1971. The effects of soil fumigation and nitrogen fertilizers on nematodes and sugar beet in sandy soils. Annals of Applied Biology, 105:253-261.

Coomans A; De Grisse A, 1981. Sensory structures. In: : Zuckerman BM, Rohde RA, ed. Plant parasitic nematodes. Volume III. Academic Press, Inc. New York, USA & London UK, 127-174

Cooper JI; Harrison BD, 1969. Tobacco rattle virus in potato. Annual Report for 1968 of the Scottish Horticultural Research Institute, Dundee, Scotland: Scottish Horticultural Research Institute, 48-49.

Cooper JI; Harrison BD, 1973. The role of weed hosts and the distribution and activity of vector nematodes in the ecology of tobacco rattle virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 73(1):53-66

Cooper JI; Thomas PR, 1971. Chemical treatment of soil to prevent transmission of tobacco rattle virus to potatoes by Trichodorus spp. Annals of Applied Biology, 69:23-24.

Dale MFB, 1989. Advances in breeding for tobacco rattle virus insensitivity in potatoes. Aspects of Applied Biology, 22:87-92.

De Waele D; Coomans A, 1991. Occurrence and ecology of trichodorid nematodes in Belgium. Revue de Nematologie, 14:127-132.

Decraemer W, 1995. The family Trichodoridae: stubby root and virus vector nematodes. The family Trichodoridae: stubby root and virus vector nematodes., xvi + 360 pp.; [Developments In Plant Pathology 6]; 15 pp. of ref.

Decraemer W; Chaves E, 1988. Morphology of the reproductive system and structure of sperm cells in some species of the genus Paratrichodorus with uncommon males (Nematoda: Diphtherophorina). Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 11(4):405-409; 12 ref.

Decrpmer W, 1980. Distribution of Trichodoridae in a strongly infected field. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 45(3):783-793

Decrpmer W; Wple Dde, 1981. Taxonomic value of the position of oesophageal gland nuclei and of oesophageal gland overlap in the Trichodoridae (Diphtherophorina). Nematologica, 27(1):82-94

Dunning RA; Cooke DA, 1967. Docking disorder. British Sugarbeet Review, 36:23-29.

Eissa MFM, 1977. Status of plant parasitic nematodes and their control feasibility in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of the 1st Conference of biological aspects of Saudi Arabia, January 1977. Saudi Arabia, 257-263

El-Haidari HS; Katcho ZA, 1976. Outbreaks and new records. Bahrain. "Plant-parasitic nematodes attacking root crops.". FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 24(2):84

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org.

Fortuner R; Merny G, 1973. Nematode root-parasites associated with rice in lower Casamance (Senegal) and Gambia. Cahiers de l'Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Biologie, No. 21:3-20

French N; Wilson WR, 1976. Influence of crop rotation, weed control and nematicides on spraing in potatoes. Plant Pathology, 25(4):167-172

Harrison BD, 1966. Further studies on a British form of pea early-browning virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 57:121-129.

Hendy HH; Osman AA; Yengayenge J, 1989. Nematodes associated with vegetables, fruit and field crops in Buyenzi, Burundi, Africa. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 40(2):455-468; 13 ref.

Heyns J, 1975. Paratrichodorus christiei. CIH Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Set 5, No. 69. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Heyns J, 1977. Paratrichodorus christiei. CIH Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Set 5, No. 69, 4 pp.

Hirumi H; Chen TA; Lee KJ; Maramorosch K, 1968. Ultrastructure of the feeding apparatus of Trichodorus christiei. Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 24:434-453.

Hoof HA van, 1962. Trichodorus pachydermus and T. teres, vectors of the early-browning virus of peas. Tijdschrift Plziektenziekten, 68:391-396.

Hoof JK; Mai WF, 1962. Pathogenicity of the stubby root nematode to onion. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:24-25.

Hooper DJ, 1975. Virus vector nematodes - taxonomy and general introduction. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London & New York, USA UK, 1-12

Hooper DJ, 1976. Trichodorus viruliferus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 6, No. 86:3 pp.

Hooper DJ, 1977. Paratrichodorus (Nanidorus) minor. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Set 7, No. 103:3 pp.

Hooper DJ, 1978. Structure and classification of nematodes. In: JFSouthey, ed. Plant nematology. HM Stationery Office. London UK, 3-45

Hooper DJ; Siddiqi MR, 1972. Trichodorus primitivus. CIH Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Set 1, No. 15. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Hunt DJ, 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics., xx + 352 pp.; 46 pp. of ref.

Jairajpuri MS; Ahmad W, 1992. Dorylaimida - Free-living, predaceous and plant-parasitic nematodes. Dorylaimida - Free-living, predaceous and plant-parasitic nematodes., xii + 458 pp.; [Distributed outside India by E. J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands., Distributed outside India by E. J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands].

Jenser G; Seljahudin A, 1978. The occurrence of tobacco rattle virus and its vectors in Hungary (Preliminary report). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 13(3/4):297-298

Jones FGW; Larbey DW; Parrott DM, 1969. The influence of soil structure and moisture on nematodes, especially Xiphinema, Longidorus, Trichodorus and Heterodera spp. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 1:153-165.

Koliopanos CN; Kalyviotis Gazelas C, 1973. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their hosts identified for the first time in Greece. Annels de l'Institut Phytopathologique, Benaki, Nouvelle Serie, 10:301-306.

Koshy PK; Sosamma VK; Premachandran D, 1977. Nematodes associated with coconut. Indian Coconut Journal, 8(3):1-2

Kuiper K, 1977. Introduction and establishment of plant-parasitic nematodes in the New Polder region of Holland, in particular of Trichodorus teres. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool, No. 77-4:140 pp.

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Maqbool MA; Nasira K, 1995. Occurrence and host association of longidorid and trichodorid nematodes in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 13(1):9-18; 6 ref.

McSorley R; Gallacher RN, 1993. Effect of crop rotation and tillage on nematode densities in tropical corn. Journal of Nematology, 25:814-819.

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Peneva V, 1988. Nematodes of family Trichodoridae (Diphtherophorina) from forest nurseries in Bulgaria. Khelmintologiya, No. 26:47-66; 33 ref.

Pietler K, 1977. Population dynamics of virus-vector nematodes of the genera Longidorus, Xiphinema and Trichodorus in relation to the habitat and weather. 3 Vortragstagung zu Aktuellen Problemen der Phytonematologie am 2.6.1977 in Rostock. Manuskriptdruck der Vortrage. Biologische Gesellschaft der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Sektion Phytopathologie und Wilhelm-Pieck-Unitersitat, Rostock..., 70-80

Pitcher RS, 1967. The host-parasite relations and ecology of Trichodorus viruliferus on apple roots, as observed from an underground laboratory. Nematologica, 13:547-557.

Pitcher RS; McNamara DJ, 1970. The effect of nutrition and season of year on the reproduction of Trichodorus viruliferus. Nematologica, 16:99-106.

Ploeg AT; Mathis A; Bol JF; Brown DJF; Robinson DJ, 1993. Susceptibility of transgenic tobacco plants expressing tobacco rattle virus coat protein to nematode-transmitted and mechanically inoculated tobacco rattle virus. Journal of General Virology, 74(12):2709-2715

Queensland; Sugar Experiment Stations Board\ Queensland; Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations, 1984. 84th Annual report to the Minister for Primary Industries, 1984. Annual Report of the Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations, Queensland, No. 84:49 pp.

Raski DJ; Jones NO; Roggen DR, 1969. On the morphology and ultrastructure of the oesophageal region of Trichodorus allius Jensen. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 36:106-119.

Rau J, 1976. The distribution of virus-transmitting nematodes in natural woodlands of Lower Saxony. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Zoologie, 63(4):427-443

Reis LGL, 1982. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with citrus in Mozambique. Agronomia Lusitana, 41(3/4):213-225

Rhoades HL, 1965. Parasitism and pathogenicity of Trichodorus proximus to St. Augustine grass. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:573-575.

Robbins RT; Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Vrain TC, 1995. Compendium of Longidorus juvenile stages with observations on L. pisi, L. taniwha and L. diadecturus (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Systematic Parasitology, 32(1):33-52; 40 ref.

Robbins RT; Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Vrain TC, 1996. Compendium of juvenile stages of Xiphinema species (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Russian Journal of Nematology, 4(2):163-171; 49 ref.

Robertson WM; Taylor CE, 1975. The ultrastructure of the feeding apparatus in trichodorids. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London & New York, USA UK, 195-201

Rodriguez M R; Sher SA; Siddiqi MR, 1978. Systematics of the monodelphic species of Trichodoridae (Nematoda: Diphtherophorina) with descriptions of a new genus and four new species. Journal of Nematology., 10(2):141-152

Rohde RA; Jenkins WR, 1957. Effect of temperature on the life cycle of stubby-root nematodes. Phytopathology, 47:29.

Rohde RA; Jenkins WR, 1958. The chemical basis of resistance of asparagus to the nematode Trichodorus christiei. Phytopathology, 48:463.

Rossner J, 1971. Einfluss des Austrocknung des Bodens auf Wandernde Wurzelnematoden. Nematologica, 17:127-144.

Rossner J, 1972. Vertical distribution of migratory root nematodes in soil in relation to water content and root growth. Nematologica, 18:360-372.

Saadabi AM, 1993. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with some ornamental plants in Libya. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 11:49-51.

Schilt HG; Cohn E, 1975. Pathogenicity and population increase of Paratrichodorus minor as influenced by some environmental factors. Nematologica, 21(1):71-80

Seinhorst JW, 1963. A redescription of the male of Trichodorus primitivus (de Man), and the description of a new species T. similis. Nematologica, 9:125-130.

Sharma RD, 1973. Plant parasitic nematodes in the Sao Francisco Valley, Pernambuco, Brazil. Nematropica, 3:51-54.

Siddiqi MR, 1973. Systematics of the genus Trichodorus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida), with descriptions of three new species. Nematologica, 19(3):259-278

Siddiqi MR, 1980. On the generic status of Atlantadorus Siddiqi, 1974 and Nanidorus Siddiqi, 1974 (Nematoda: Trichodoridae). Systematic Parasitology, 1(2):151-152

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Distribution References

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Yang Y Z, Deng X M, Liu G Z, 1992. Studies on species and genera of plant parasitic nematodes in cotton fields in Sichuan. Journal of Southwest Agricultural University. 14 (4), 292-295.

Zheng X Y, Lin Q Y, Xie L H, 1990. The identification of tobacco rattle virus isolated from Narcissus in Fujian. Journal of Fujian Agricultural College. 19 (1), 58-63.

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