Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Trichogramma chilonis



Trichogramma chilonis


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trichogramma chilonis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Adult - line drawing.
CaptionAdult - line drawing.
Adult - line drawing.
AdultAdult - line drawing.IRRI


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trichogramma chilonis Ishii

Other Scientific Names

  • Trichogramma confusum Viggiani

EPPO code

  • TRIGCH (Trichogramma chilonis)
  • TRIGCO (Trichogramma confusum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Trichogrammatidae
  •                             Genus: Trichogramma
  •                                 Species: Trichogramma chilonis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BangladeshPresentNoyes, 2002
ChinaPresentNoyes, 2002
-FujianPresentCAB Abstracts
-HunanPresentCAB Abstracts
-JilinPresentCAB Abstracts
-SichuanPresentCAB Abstracts
IndiaPresentNoyes, 2002
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresentCAB Abstracts
-Indian PunjabPresent
-KeralaPresentCAB Abstracts
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresentCAB Abstracts
IndonesiaPresentNoyes, 2002
JapanPresentNoyes, 2002
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentGreathead pers. comm.
-SarawakPresentGreathead pers. comm.
NepalPresentNoyes, 2002
PakistanPresentNoyes, 2002
PhilippinesPresentNoyes, 2002
Sri LankaPresentGreathead pers. comm.
TaiwanPresentNoyes, 2002
ThailandPresentNoyes, 2002
VietnamPresentNoyes, 2002


Cape VerdePresent
ComorosPresentCAB Abstracts
South AfricaIntroduced, establishment uncertainKfir, 1994

North America


Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentNoyes, 2002
GrenadaIntroduced, establishment uncertainCock and, 1985
MontserratIntroduced, establishment uncertainCock and, 1985




GuamPresentNoyes, 2002
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentCAB Abstracts
Solomon IslandsPresentNoyes, 2002

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Achaea janataEggs
Agraulis vanillaeEggs
Agrius cingulatusEggs
Agrius convolvuliEggs
Algedonia coclesalisEggs
Anomis flavaEggs
Antheraea pernyiEggs
Antheraea yamamaiEggs
Atherigona soccata
Autographa nigrisignaEggs
Bactra venosanaEggs
Bissetia steniellaEggs
Cadra cautellaEggs
Caligula japonicaEggs
Catopsilia pyranthe
Chilo auriciliusEggs
Chilo infuscatellusEggs
Chilo partellusEggs
Chilo sacchariphagusEggs
Chilo suppressalisEggs
Cnaphalocrocis medinalisEggs
Cnephasia longanaEggs
Cnephasia pumicanaEggs
Corcyra cephalonicaEggs
Crocidolomia pavonanaEggsUelese et al., 2014
Daphnis neriiEggs
Dasychira baibaranaEggs
Dendrolimus punctatusEggs
Deudorix epijarbasEggs
Diaphania indicaEggs
Diatraea centrellaEggs
Diatraea saccharalisEggs
Earias insulanaEggs
Earias vittellaEggs
Eldana saccharinaEggs
Eoreuma loftiniEggs
Ephestia kuehniellaEggs
Eudocima fulloniaEggs
Helicoverpa armigeraEggs
Helicoverpa assultaEggs
Helicoverpa zeaEggs
Hippotion celerio
Hyblaea pueraEggs
Hydrellia philippina
Hypolimnas bolinaEggs
Ivela auripesEggs
Leguminivora glycinivorellaEggs
Leucinodes orbonalis
Mamestra brassicaeEggs
Melanaspis glomerataEggs
Omiodes indicataEggs
Ostrinia furnacalisEggs
Ostrinia nubilalis
Papilio demoleusEggs
Papilio polytesEggs
Papilio xuthusEggs
Parnara guttatusEggs
Pectinophora gossypiella
Pelopidas mathiasEggs
Penicillaria jocosatrixEggs
Phthorimaea operculella
Pieris brassicae
Pieris rapaeEggs
Plutella xylostellaEggs
Polyocha depressella
Raphimetopus ablutellus
Samia cynthia riciniEggs
Scirpophaga excerptalisLarvae
Scirpophaga incertulasEggs
Scirpophaga nivella
Sesamia inferensEggs
Sitotroga cerealellaEggs
Spilarctia obliqua
Spodoptera exigua
Spodoptera littoralisEggs
Spodoptera lituraEggs
Spodoptera mauritiaEggs
Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoidesEggs
Tetramoera schistaceanaEggs
Trichoplusia niEggs


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Ashraf M; Fatima B; Hussain T; Ahmad N, 1999. Biological control: an essential component of IPM programme for sugarcane borers. Biological control in the tropics: towards efficient biodiversity and bioresource management for effective. biological control. In: Hong LW, Sastroutomo SS, eds. Proceedings of the symposium on biological control in the tropics, MARDI Training Centre, Serdang, Malaysia from 18-19 March, 1999. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 38-42.

Balikai RA; Yelshetty S; Kullaiswamy BY, 1998. Effect of dates of sowing in combination with different insecticides and bioagent on sorghum shootfly. Agricultural Science Digest (Karnal), 18(4):261-263; 6 ref.

Bharpoda TM; Patel HP; Patel UP; Patel GP; Patel JJ; Patel JR, 2000. Integrated pest management (IPM) in cotton H-6 cultivated in middle Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 62(4):327-331; 3 ref.

Brar KS; Varma GC; Shenhmar M, 1991. Effect of insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of sugarcane borers and cotton bollworms. Entomon, 16(1):43-48

Cai QN; Zhang QW; Li HS; Sun XZ; Cheo MS, 1997. The influence of avermectin to natural enemies in cotton fields. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 13:86-89.

Chu YI; Li JL, 1991. Interspecific competition between Trichogramma chilonis Ishii and T. ostriniae Pang et Chen under different number of parasitoids and egg host density. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 11(3):214-226

Cock MJW, ed. , 1985. A Review of Biological Control of Pests in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Bermuda up to 1982. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control Technical Communication No.9. Wallingford, UK: CABI International.

Dai KJ; Zhang LW; Ma ZJ; Zhong LS; Zhang QX; Cao AH; Xu KJ; Li Q; Gao YG, 1988. Research and utilization of artificial host egg for propagation of parasitoid Trichogramma. Colloques de l'INRA, No. 43:311-318

Feng JG; Tao X; Zhang AS; Yu Y; Zhang CW; Cui YY, 1999. Studies on using Trichogramma spp. reared on artificial host egg to control corn pests. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 15:97-99.

Feng JG; Tao X; Zhang AS; Zhuang QY, 1997. Study on using artificial eggs of Trichogramma chilonis to control Helicoverpa armigera. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 13:6-9.

Guzo D; Dougherty EM; Lynn DE, 1991. Effect of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virion component(s) on DNA synthesis and growth in several insect cell lines. Archives of Virology, 121(1-4):75-88

Hirai K, 1988. The parasitism of Trichogramma chilonis T. on eggs of the soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella M. in soybean field of Northern Japan. Colloques de l'INRA, No. 43:489-497

Ishii T, 1941. The species of Trichogramma in Japan, with descriptions of two new species. Kontyv, 14:169-176.

Juan CH; Chen CC; Cheng WY, 1994. Propagation of Trichogramma spp. on free Corcyra eggs. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute, No. 146:23-31

Kfir R, 1994. Attempts at biological control of the stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in South Africa. African Entomology, 2(1):67-68

Lakshminarayana M, 1992. Competitive ability of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii and Telenomus proditor Nixon in parasitizing the eggs of castor semilooper (Achaea janata L.). Journal of Oilseeds Research, 9:351-352.

Lee CY; Li SZ, 1988. A study on the reproductive system of Trichogramma confusum. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 31(4):346-350

Lee CY; Li SZ; Pu ZL, 1988. A study of the reproductive system of Trichogramma confusum. Colloques de l'INRA, No. 43:213-214

Lin NQ, 1994. Systematic studies of Chinese Trichogrammatidae. Contributions of the Biological Control Research Institute, Fujian Agricultural University. Chongqing, China: Chongqing Publishing House, Special Publication No 4 (Chinese with English summary).

Liu ZC; Sun YR; Wang ZY; Liu JF; Zhang LW; Zhang QX; Dai KJ; Gao YG, 1985. Field release of Trichogramma confusum reared on artificial host eggs against sugarcane borers. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, No. 3:2-5

Malathi S; Sriramulu M; Babu TR, 1999. Effect of certain eco-friendly insecticides on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Journal of Research ANGRAU, 27(1/2):1-4; 11 ref.

Markandeya V; Divakar BJ, 1999. Effect of a neem formulation on four bioagents. Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad), 51(3/4):28-29; 7 ref.

Nagaraja H, 1973. On some new species of Indian Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Oriental Insects, 7:275-290.

Nagarkatti S; Nagaraja H, 1971. Redesriptions of some known species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) showing the importance of the male genitalia as a diagnostic character. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 61:13-31.

Nagarkatti S; Nagaraja H, 1979. The status of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae). Oriental Insects, 13(1/2):115-117

Noyes JS, 2002. Interactive Catalogue of World Chalcidoidea (2001 - second edition). CDrom. Taxapad and The Natural History Museum.

Pu TS; Liu ZH; Zhang YX, 1988. Studies on Trichogramma. Colloques de l'INRA, No. 43:551-556

Pu Z; Pang Y, 1984. Study of Staphylococcus, rickettsia-like and mycoplasma-like organisms in Trichogramma spp. and diseases caused by them. International Congress of Entomology, 17:749.

Reddy GVP; Manjunatha M, 2000. Laboratory and field studies on the integrated pest management of Helicoverpa armigera (Hnbner) in cotton, based on pheromone trap catch threshold level. Journal of Applied Entomology, 124(5/6):213-221; 26 ref.

Romeis J; Shanower TG; Zebitz CPW, 1998. Physical and chemical plant characters inhibiting the searching behaviour of Trichogramma chilonis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 87(3):275-284; 30 ref.

Saakyan-Baranova AA, 1990. Morphological study of preimaginal stages of six species of the genus Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 69(2):257-263

Sarode SV; Sonalkar VU, 1999. Influence of different insecticides on parasitization of Corcyra cephalonica by Trichogramma chilonis Ishii. Pesticide Research Journal, 11(1):99-101; 4 ref.

Saroj Jaipal, 2000. An IPM module for the management of major insect pests of sugarcane in Indian subtropics. Sugar Tech, 2(3):1-8; 28 ref.

Schuld M; Madel G; Schmuck R, 1999. Impact of Vairimorpha sp. (Microsporidia: Burnellidae) on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae), a Hymenopteran parasitoid of the cabbage moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 74(2):120-126; 29 ref.

Srinivasan G; Babu PCS, 2000. Influence of Bacillus thuringiensis products on Trichogramma spp. Pesticide Research Journal, 12:120-122.

Stouthamer R; Luck RF; Hamilton WD, 1990. Antibiotics cause parthenogenetic Trichogramma (Hymenoptera/Trichogrammatidae) to revert to sex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87(7):2424-2427

Stouthamer R; Pinto JD; Platner GR; Luck RF, 1990. Taxonomic status of thelytokous forms of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 83(3):475-481

Suzuki Y, 1984. Mating systems and sex ratio control in trichogrammatid egg parasitoids. News Bulletin, Entomological Society of Queensland, 12:27-33.

Tanaka M, 1985. Early embryonic development of the parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). In: Anod H, Miya K, eds. Recent Advances in Insect Embryology in Japan. Tsukuba, Japan: Isebu Co., 171-179.

Thakur JN; Pawar AD, 2000. Comparative toxicity of different insecticides against Trichogramma chilosis Ishii. Journal of Biological Control, 14(2):51-53; 9 ref.

Yousuf M; Shafee SA, 1988. Taxonomy of Indian Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Indian Journal of Systematic Entomology, 4:55-200.

Zhang F, 1998. Reaction of Trichogramma chilonis to some pesticides commonly used in cotton fields. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 20:43-45.

Zhang ML, 1997. Effects of 14 insecticides on adults, larvae, eggs, and pupae of Trichogramma confusum. Natural Enemies of Insects, 19:11-14.

Distribution Maps

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