Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Trichogramma

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Datasheet

Trichogramma

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trichogramma
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Trichogramma adult on eggs of Ostrinia nubilalis.
TitleAdult
CaptionTrichogramma adult on eggs of Ostrinia nubilalis.
Copyright©S. Hassan
Trichogramma adult on eggs of Ostrinia nubilalis.
AdultTrichogramma adult on eggs of Ostrinia nubilalis.©S. Hassan
Pieris brassicae eggs parasitized by T. cacaeciae.
TitleParasitized eggs
CaptionPieris brassicae eggs parasitized by T. cacaeciae.
Copyright©S. Hassan
Pieris brassicae eggs parasitized by T. cacaeciae.
Parasitized eggsPieris brassicae eggs parasitized by T. cacaeciae.©S. Hassan
Ostrinia nubilalis (European maize borer); natural enemy. Parasitized eggs (left) and unparasitized (right).
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionOstrinia nubilalis (European maize borer); natural enemy. Parasitized eggs (left) and unparasitized (right).
Copyright©S. Hassan
Ostrinia nubilalis (European maize borer); natural enemy. Parasitized eggs (left) and unparasitized (right).
Natural enemyOstrinia nubilalis (European maize borer); natural enemy. Parasitized eggs (left) and unparasitized (right).©S. Hassan
Mamestra brassicae eggs; those on the right have been parasitized by T. evanescens.
TitleParasitized and unparasitized eggs
CaptionMamestra brassicae eggs; those on the right have been parasitized by T. evanescens.
Copyright©S. Hassan
Mamestra brassicae eggs; those on the right have been parasitized by T. evanescens.
Parasitized and unparasitized eggsMamestra brassicae eggs; those on the right have been parasitized by T. evanescens.©S. Hassan
Trichogramma releasing device with about 1500 parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella. The device provides protection from rain and from predators in the field.
TitleTrichogramma releasing device
CaptionTrichogramma releasing device with about 1500 parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella. The device provides protection from rain and from predators in the field.
Copyright©S. Hassan
Trichogramma releasing device with about 1500 parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella. The device provides protection from rain and from predators in the field.
Trichogramma releasing deviceTrichogramma releasing device with about 1500 parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella. The device provides protection from rain and from predators in the field.©S. Hassan
Egg-laying cylinders for mass-reared Sitotroga cerealella (left). Glass tubes for mass rearing Trichogramma (right).
TitleMass rearing - equipment
CaptionEgg-laying cylinders for mass-reared Sitotroga cerealella (left). Glass tubes for mass rearing Trichogramma (right).
Copyright©S. Hassan
Egg-laying cylinders for mass-reared Sitotroga cerealella (left). Glass tubes for mass rearing Trichogramma (right).
Mass rearing - equipmentEgg-laying cylinders for mass-reared Sitotroga cerealella (left). Glass tubes for mass rearing Trichogramma (right).©S. Hassan

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trichogramma

Other Scientific Names

  • Pentarthrum
  • Trichogrammanza
  • Xanthoatomus

International Common Names

  • Spanish: mosca tricograma

EPPO code

  • TRIGSP (Trichogramma sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Trichogrammatidae
  •                             Genus: Trichogramma

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

References

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Dijken MJ van; Kole M; Lenteren JC van; Brand AM, 1986. Host-preference studies with Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hym., Trichogrammatidae) for Mamestra brassicae, Pieris brassicae and Pieris rapae. Journal of Applied Entomology, 101(1):64-85

Doutt RL; Viggiani G, 1968. The classification of the Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4th series), 35:477-586.

Dysart RJ, 1973. The use of Trichogramma in the USSR. Tall Timbers Research Station: Proceedings Tall Timbers conference on ecological animal control by habitat management, No. 4, February 24-25 1972, Tallahassee, Florida. Tallahassee, Florida, Tall Timbers Research Station. USA, 165-173

FAO, 1996. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. Part 1 - Import Regulations. Code of Conduct for the Import and Release of Exotic Biological Control Agents. Publication No. 3. Rome: FAO.

Flanders SE, 1930. Mass production of egg parasites of the genus Trichogramma. Hilgardia, 4:465-501.

Flanders SE; Quednau W, 1960. Taxonomy of the geneus Trichogramma. Entomophaga, 4:285-294.

Gonzalez D; Orphanides G; Bosch R van den; Leigh TF, 1970. Field cage assessment to Trichogramma as parasites of Heliothis zea: Development of methods. - J. Econ. Entomol, 63(4):1292-1296.

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Hassan SA ed., 1988. Trichogramma News No. 4. Braunschweig, Germany: Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry.

Hassan SA ed., 1992. Guidelines for testing the effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin XV/3.

Hassan SA, 1977. Standardized techniques for testing side-effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods in the laboratory. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 84:158-163

Hassan SA, 1981. Mass-production and utilisation of Trichogramma. I. Production of the host Sitotroga cerealella.. Entomophaga, 26(4):339-347

Hassan SA, 1981. Mass-production and utilization of Trichogramma: 2. Four years successful biological control of the European corn borer. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 46(2):417-427

Hassan SA, 1984. Control of corn borers [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) and O. furnacalis (Gn.)] with Trichogramma in the German Federal Republic and in the Philippines. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 36(8):124-125

Hassan SA, 1989. Selection of suitable Trichogramma strains to control the codling moth Cydia pomonella and the two summer fruit tortrix moths Adoxophyes orana, Pandemis heparana (Lep.: Tortricidae). Entomophaga, 34(1):19-27

Hassan SA, 1989. Testing methodology and concept of the IOBC/WPRS working group. In: Jepson PC (ed.), Pesticides and Non-Target Invertebrates. Andover, UK: Intercept, 1-18.

Hassan SA, 1990. Trichogramma News 5. Braumschweig, Germany: Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry.

Hassan SA, 1994. Comparison of three different laboratory methods and one semi-field test method to assess the side effects of pesticides on Trichogramma cacoeciae. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 17(10):133-141

Hassan SA, 1996. Trichogramma News No. 9. Braumschweig, Germany: Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry.

Hassan SA; Bigler F; Bogenschutz H; Boller E; Brun J; Calis JNM; Coremans-Pelseneer J; Duso C; Grove A; Heimbach U; Helyer N; Hokkanen H; Lewis GB; Mansour F; Moreth L; Polgar L; Samse-Petersen L; , 1994. Results of the sixth joint pesticide testing programme of the IOBC/WPRS-working group 'Pesticides and beneficial organisms'. Entomophaga, 39(1):107-119

Hassan SA; Langenbruch GA; Neuffer G, 1978. The influence of the hosts used for mass-rearing on the quality of the egg parasite Trichogramma evanescens in relation to the control of the maize borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Entomophaga, 23(4):321-329

Hassan SA; Rost WM, 1993. Mass rearing and utilization of Trichogramma: 13. Optimizing the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. and the summer fruit tortrix moth Adoxophyes orana F. R. Gesunde Pflanzen, 45(8):296-300

Hassan SA; und Guo MF, 1991. Selection of effective strains of egg parasites of the genus Trichogramma (Hym., Trichogrammatidae) to control the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. (Lep., Pyralidae). Z. angew. Entomol, 111:335-341.

Kochetova HI, 1969. Adoption of parasitism by several egg parasites of the genus Trichogramma (Hym., Trichogrammatidae). Russian Zool. Zh., 48:1816-1823.

Lebedev GI, 1970. Utilisation des méthodes biologiques de lutte contre les insectes nuisibles et les mauvaises herbes en Union Soviétique. Ann.Zool.Ecol.Anim., no hors ser.,3:17-23.

Lenteren JC van; Glas PCG; Smits PH, 1982. Evaluation of control capabilities of Trichogramma and results of laboratory and field research on Trichogramma in the Netherlands. Les trichogrammes. Ier Symposium International, Antibes, 20-23 avril 1982 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Paris France, 257-268

Morrison RK; Stinner RE; Ridgway RL, 1976. Mass production of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of the Angoumois grain moth. Southwestern Entomologist, 1(2):74-80

Nagaraja H, 1978. Studies on Trichogrammatoidea (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Oriental Insects, 12(4):489-529.

Nagarkatti S; Nagaraja H, 1968. Biosystematic studies on Trichogramma species: experimental hybridization between Trichogramma australicum Girault, T. evanescens Westwood and T. minutum Riley: CIBC Technical Bulletin, 10:81-96.

Nagarkatti S; Nagaraja H, 1971. Redesriptions of some known species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) showing the importance of the male genitalia as a diagnostic character. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 61:13-31.

Need JT; Burbutis PP, 1979. Searching efficiency of Trichogramma nubilale. Environmental Entomology, 8(2):224-227

Pinto JD, 1995. Trichogrammatidae. In: Hanson PE, Gauld ID, eds. The hymenoptera of Costa Rica. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 383-388.

Pinto JD; Platner GR; Oatman ER, 1978. Clarification of the identity of several common species of north American Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 71(2):169-180

Pintureau B, 1987. Systématique évolutive du genre Trichogramma Westwood en Europe. Thesis, niversité Paris VII.

Pintureau B, 1993. Enzyme polymorphism in some African, American and Asiatic Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 21(5):557-573

Quednau W, 1955. Fber einige neue Trichogramma-Wirte und ihre Stellung im Wirt-Parasit-VerhStnis. Ein Beitrag zur Analyse des Parasitismus bei Schlupfwespen. - Nachrichtenbl. Deut. Pflanzenschutzd. (Braunschweig), 7:145-148.

Quednau W, 1956. Die biologischen Kriterien zur Unterscheidung von Trichogramma-Arten. - Z. Pflanzenkrankh., Pflanzensch, 63:333-344.

Rulz ER; Korytkowski CA, 1978. Contribución al conocimiento de los Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) del Peru. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 22:1-8.

Schieferdecker H, 1969. Zur Eignung von Lepidoptereneiern als Wirte der Eiparasiten Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal und Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hym., Trichogrammatidae). - Bericht 10. Wanderversammlung deutscher Entomologen, Dresden, 3:495-511.

Sugonyaev ES, 1986. New systematic data on the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Entomological Review, 143-148.

Tran LC; Bustamente R; Hassan SA, 1986. Release and recovery of Trichogramma evanescens Westw. in corn fields in the Philippines. - Proceedings 2nd International Symposium (Guangzhou, China, 1986). Les Colloques de l'INRA no 43. Paris, France: INRA, 597-607.

Tran LC; Hassan SA, 1986. Preliminary results on the utilization of Trichogramma evanescens Westw. to control the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) in the Philippines. J. Appl. Ent., 18-23.

Voegelé J; Bergé JB, 1976. Les Trichogrammes (Insectes Hymenop.Chalcidiens, Trichogrammatidae), caractéristiques isoestérasiques de deux espFces: Trichogramma evanescens Westw. et T. achaeae agaraja, Nagarkatti. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Scieces, Paris, 283:1501-1503.

Voegele J; Stengel M; Schubert G; Daumal J; Pizzol J, 1975. Trichogramma. V (a). - First results of the introduction in Alsace in the form of seasonal releases of the Moldavian ecotype of Trichogramma evanescens Westw. against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubn. Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, 7(4):535-551

Wackers FL; Groot IJM de; Noldus LPJJ; Hassan SA, 1987. Measuring host preference of Trichogramma egg parasites: an evaluation of direct and indirect methods. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 52(2a):339-348

Westwood JO, 1833. Descriptions of several new British forms amongst the parasitic Hymenopterous insects. The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 2:443-445.

Wührer B; Hassan SA, 1993. Selection of effective species /strains of Trichogramma (Hym., Trichogrammatidae) to control the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lep., Plutellidae). Z. angew. Entomol, 116:80-89.

Yousuf M; Shafee SA, 1986. Checklist of species and bibliography of the world Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera). Indian Journal of Systematic Entomology, 3:29-82.

Zerova MD; Fursov VN, 1989. A catalogue of species of the genus Trichogramma Westwood of the world (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Institute of Zoology of the Science Academy of the Ukrainian SSR. Publication 89:(4).

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