Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tribolium castaneum
(red flour beetle)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tribolium castaneum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red flour beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dorsal view of adult T. castaneum (museum set specimen).
TitleAdult
CaptionDorsal view of adult T. castaneum (museum set specimen).
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Dorsal view of adult T. castaneum (museum set specimen).
AdultDorsal view of adult T. castaneum (museum set specimen).©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tribolium castaneum Herbst

Preferred Common Name

  • red flour beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Colydium castaneum Herbst
  • Tribolium navale auct.
  • Tribolium testaceum F.

International Common Names

  • English: bran bug; flour beetle, rust red; grain beetle, red; meal beetle, red; red grain beetle; red meal beetle; rust red flour beetle
  • Spanish: escarabajo rojo de la harina; gorgojo castano de la harina; gorgojo cataño de la harina; gorgojo de la harina y del afrecho; tribolio castano
  • French: tribolium rouge de la farine; ver de la farine, petit

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kaefer, Gemeiner Dreispitz-; Mehlkaefer, Rotbrauner Reis-; Mehlkaefer, Roter Reis-; Rotbrauner Reismehlkafer
  • Japan: kokunusuto-modoki
  • Netherlands: bierkever; meelkevertje; meeltor
  • Norway: melbille, kastanjebrun
  • Turkey: un biti

EPPO code

  • TRIBCA (Tribolium castaneum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Tenebrionidae
  •                             Genus: Tribolium
  •                                 Species: Tribolium castaneum

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentHill (1975)
AngolaPresentHill (1975)
BeninPresentHill (1975)
BotswanaPresentHill (1975)
Burkina FasoPresentHill (1975)
BurundiPresentHill (1975)
CameroonPresentHill (1975)
Central African RepublicPresentHill (1975)
ChadPresentHill (1975)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentHill (1975)
Congo, Republic of thePresentHill (1975)
Côte d'IvoirePresentHill (1975)
DjiboutiPresentHill (1975)
EgyptPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: El-Halfawy et al. (1979)
Equatorial GuineaPresentHill (1975)
EswatiniPresentWalker (1979)
EthiopiaPresentHill (1975)
GabonPresentHill (1975)
GambiaPresentHill (1975)
GhanaPresentHill (1975)
GuineaPresentHill (1975)
Guinea-BissauPresentHill (1975)
KenyaPresentWarui (1979)
LesothoPresentHill (1975)
LiberiaPresentHill (1975)
LibyaPresentHill (1975)
MadagascarPresentHill (1975)
MalawiPresentHill (1975)
MaliPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Webley & Harris, 1979
MauritaniaPresentHill (1975)
MoroccoPresentHill (1975)
MozambiquePresentHill (1975)
NamibiaPresentHill (1975)
NigerPresentHill (1975)
NigeriaPresentIvbijaro (1980); CABI (Undated)
RwandaPresentHill (1975)
SenegalPresentHill (1975)
SeychellesPresentMATHIAS (1971)
Sierra LeonePresentHill (1975)
SomaliaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lavigne (1987)
South AfricaPresentViljoen et al. (1984)
SudanPresentCABI (Undated a)
TanzaniaPresentHodges and Meik (1986)
TogoPresentHill (1975)
TunisiaPresentHill (1975)
UgandaPresentEvans (1985)
Western SaharaPresentHill (1975)
ZambiaPresentHill (1975)
ZimbabwePresentGiga et al. (1991)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentHill (1975)
BahrainPresentHill (1975)
BangladeshPresentNandi et al. (1990)
BhutanPresentCABI (Undated a)
BruneiPresentHill (1975)
CambodiaPresentHill (1975)
ChinaPresentNi (1984)
-SichuanPresentQin ZhangGui et al. (2003)
Hong KongPresentHill (1975)
IndiaPresentBansode (1979); Khare et al. (1982)
-Andhra PradeshPresentVisalakshi Mahanthi et al. (2005)
-BiharPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ChandigarhPresentCABI (Undated a)
-DelhiPresentSinha and Chauhan (2004)
-HaryanaPresentChaudhary and Mahla (2001)
-Himachal PradeshPresentRamesh Lal et al. (2000)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-KeralaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MaharashtraPresentMen and Kandalkar (2001)
-OdishaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-PunjabPresentCABI (Undated a)
-RajasthanPresentKumawat (2007)
-West BengalPresentCABI (Undated a)
IndonesiaPresentHill (1975)
IranPresentHill (1975)
IraqPresentAl-Saffar et al. (1981)
IsraelPresentWool and Bergerson (1979)
JapanPresentImura (1991)
KuwaitPresentHill (1975)
LaosPresentHill (1975)
MalaysiaPresentYunus and Balasubramaniam (1981)
MyanmarPresentHill (1975)
NepalPresentCABI (Undated a)
PakistanPresentSaleem and Shakoori (1986)
PhilippinesPresentCarino and Morallo-Rejesus (1976)
QatarPresentHill (1975)
Saudi ArabiaPresentFaragalla et al. (1985)
SingaporePresent, WidespreadHill (1975); AVA (2001)
South KoreaPresentChon et al. (1991)
Sri LankaPresentHill (1975)
SyriaPresentHill (1975)
TaiwanPresentHung et al. (1990)
TajikistanPresentHill (1975)
ThailandPresentHill (1975)
TurkeyPresentHill (1975)
TurkmenistanPresentHill (1975)
United Arab EmiratesPresentHill (1975)
VietnamPresentHill (1975)
YemenPresentHill (1975)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentHill (1975)
BelgiumPresentCABI (Undated a)
BulgariaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tsvetkov & Atanosov, 1979
CzechoslovakiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentBoake and Wade (1984)
FrancePresentHill (1975)
GermanyPresentBahr and Prinz (1977)
GibraltarPresentHill (1975)
GreecePresentAthanassiou et al. (2001)
ItalyPresentSüss et al. (1991)
NetherlandsPresentRoorda et al. (1982)
PolandPresentPrus and Prus (1977)
PortugalPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Carmo-Pereira et al., 1983
RussiaPresentLabinov and Egorov (2003)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentPurrini (1976)
SpainPresentToro and Lopez-Fanjul (1979)
SwedenPresentCABI (Undated a)
United KingdomPresentCABI (Undated); Small (2009)Original citation: Wilkin (1984)

North America

BarbadosPresentHill (1975)
BelizePresentHill (1975)
CanadaPresentLoschiavo (1985)
-ManitobaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OntarioPresentCABI (Undated a)
Costa RicaPresentHill (1975)
CubaPresentReinecke et al. (1975)
Dominican RepublicPresentHill (1975)
El SalvadorPresentHill (1975)
GuatemalaPresentHill (1975)
HaitiPresentHill (1975)
HondurasPresentHill (1975)
MexicoPresentAdem and Watters (1985)
NicaraguaPresentGiles (1977)
PanamaPresentHill (1975)
Puerto RicoPresentHill (1975)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentHill (1975)
United StatesPresentSolomon (1985)
-AlabamaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-FloridaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-HawaiiPresentCABI (Undated a)
-IdahoPresentCABI (Undated a)
-IndianaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-KansasPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MainePresentToews et al. (2006)
-MichiganPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MontanaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OklahomaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-South DakotaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WisconsinPresentNansen et al. (2004)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-New South WalesPresentCABI (Undated a)
-QueenslandPresentCABI (Undated a)
-VictoriaPresentCABI (Undated a)
FijiPresentHill (1975)
New CaledoniaPresentHill (1975)
Papua New GuineaPresentHill (1975)
SamoaPresentHill (1975)
TongaPresentHill (1975)
VanuatuPresentHill (1975)

South America

ArgentinaPresentHill (1975)
BoliviaPresentHill (1975)
BrazilPresentPacheco et al. (1990)
-PernambucoPresentMachado et al. (2008)
-RoraimaPresentMarsaro Junior et al. (2006)
-Sao PauloPresentAthié and Mills (2005)
ColombiaPresentHill (1975)
EcuadorPresentHill (1975)
French GuianaPresentHill (1975)
GuyanaPresentHill (1975)
ParaguayPresentHill (1975)
PeruPresentHill (1975)
SurinamePresentHill (1975)
UruguayPresentHill (1975)
VenezuelaPresentHill (1975)

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Vegetative organs / internal feeding

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acarophenax tribolii Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Acaropsellina docta Predator Larvae/Pupae
Adelina tribolii Pathogen Ghazavi, 2013
Amphibolus venator Predator Larvae/Pupae
Bacillus cereus Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen
Blattisocius tarsalis Predator
Carcinops troglodytes Predator
Cephalonomia tarsalis Parasite Larvae
Cephalonomia waterstoni Parasite
Chrysoperla rufilabris Predator
Enterobacter aerogenes Pathogen
Enterobacter cloacae Pathogen
Farinocystis tribolii Pathogen
Lyctocoris campestris Predator Eggs
Nosema whitei Pathogen
Proteus mirabilis Pathogen
Proteus vulgaris Pathogen
Pyemotes tritici Parasite
Teretrius nigrescens Predator
Tribolium confusum Predator
Xylocoris flavipes Predator Larvae/Pupae
Xylocoris galactinus Predator

References

Top of page

Abro GH, 1996. Relative resistance of commercially grown varieties of different cereals to Tribolium castaneum Herbst. attack. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 28(1):39-44; 27 ref

Adem E, Uribe RM, Watters FL, 1979. Responses of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to gamma radiation from 60Co. Canadian Entomologist, 111(10):1111-1114

Adem E, Watters FL, 1985. Response of malathion-susceptible and resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to a combination of Co gamma irradiation and malathion. Journal of Stored Products Research, 21(2):59-63

Adesuyi SA, 1980. The problems of insect infestation of stored yam chips in Nigeria. Review of Applied Entomology, 68:abst. no.3650

Al-Saffar ZY, Salit AM, Abdullah IA, 1981. Malathion and pirimiphos-methyl against three species of stored product insects, vectors of tapeworms, on different types of sacks' fibers. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 11(2):269-278

Amos TG, Williams P, Minett W, 1980. Non-uniform application of grain protectants in commercial storages. Review of Applied Entomology, 68:abst. no.3655

Atanasov H, 1977. Causes of the increase in the population density and economic importance of the red flour beetle in storehouses and silos. Rasteniev"dni Nauka, 14(9):124-132

Athanassiou CG, Palyvos NE, Eliopoulos PA, Papadoulis GT, 2001. Distribution and migration of insects and mites in flat storage containing wheat. Phytoparasitica, 29(5):379-392

Athié I, Mills KA, 2005. Resistance to phosphine in stored-grain insect pests in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 8(1/2):143-147

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Aviles Pacheco R, Stammler C, Herrera A, 1983. Effectiveness of phosphine on three pests of unhusked rice, stored in sacks. Ciencias de la Agricultura, No. 17:51-56

Bahr I, Prinz W, 1977. Insects in stored grain in the German Democratic Republic and the prevention of damage. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 31(10):200-204

Bandyopadhyay B, Ghosh MR, 1999. Loss of food grains by insect pests during storage in three agroclimatic zones of West Bengal. Environment and Ecology, 17(3):701-705; 5 ref

Bansode PC, 1979. Status of insecticidal resistance among field populations of stored product insects in India. Pesticides, 13(8):19-20, 23

Barak AV, Burkholder WE, 1985. A versatile and effective trap for detecting and monitoring stored-product Coleoptera. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 12(3):207-218

Bartels D, Schliesske J, 1997. Zur Problematik des Nachweises der Schadwirkung vorratsschadlicher Insekten am Beispiel von drei mit Rohkakao importierten Arten. Proceedings of the German Society for General and Applied Entomology, Bayreuth, Germany, 18-22 March 1997. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 11(1-6):323-326

Bell HA, Edwards JP, 1999. The activity of (S)-hydroprene space spray against three stored products pests in a simulated food production environment. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(2):117-126; 14 ref

Bengston M, Collins PJ, Daglish GJ, Hallman VL, Kopittke R, Pavic H, 1999. Inheritance of phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(1):17-20; 18 ref

Bengston M, Davies RAH, Desmarchelier JM, Phillips MP, Simpson BW, 1984. Organophosphorus and synergised synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as grain protectants for stored sorghum. Pesticide Science, 15(5):500-508

Bhatia SK, Nadarajan L, 1978. Inheritance of black body colour in a mutant of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) with notes on its biology. Journal of Entomological Research, 2(2):219-221

Bhatia SK, Yadav TD, Mookherjee PB, 1971. Malathion resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in India. Journal of Stored Products Research, 7(3):227-230

Bhattacharyya J, Khound JN, Handique R, 1999. Susceptibility of some processed cereal food products to Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) in storage. Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North East India, 12(1):118-119; 6 ref

Boake CRB, Wade MJ, 1984. Populations of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) differ in their sensitivity to aggregation pheromones. Environmental Entomology, 13(5):1182-1185

Bond EJ, 1984. Fumigation as part of an integrated pest management program. Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [edited by Ripp, B.E.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier, 723-738

Botella LM, Mensua JL, 1986. Larval arrest in development of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Environmental Entomology, 15(6):1264-1267

Britton EB, 1970. The insects of Australia. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Division of Entomology

Buchelos CT, Athanassiou CG, 1999. Unbaited probe traps and grain trier: a comparison of the two methods for sampling Coleoptera in stored barley. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(4):397-404; 25 ref

Carino FO, Morallo-Rejesus B, 1976. Control of Sitophilus zeamais and Rhizopertha dominica by pre-harvest sprays and sack treatment with three insecticides in three sorghum varieties. Philippine Agriculturist, 60(3/4):81-95

Carmo Pereira AP, 1983. A study of the effects of complex B vitamins on the behaviour of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) in the laboratory. Garcia de Orta, Estudos Agronomicos, 10(1/2):143-152

Chander H, Ahmed SM, 1985. Efficacy of natural embelin against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Insect Science and its Application, 6(2):217-220

Chander H, Nagender A, Ahuja DK, Berry SK, 1999. Laboratory evaluation of plant extracts as repellents to the rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), on jute fabric. International Pest Control, 41(1):18-20; 14 ref

Chaudhary SD, Mahla JC, 2001. Insect-pests infesting stored wheat in different climatic regions of Haryana. Crop Research (Hisar), 21(3):384-386

Chiam WanYee, Huang Yan, Chen ShaoXing, Ho ShuitHung, 1999. Toxic and antifeedant effects of allyl disulfide on Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(1):239-245; 31 ref

Chon WK, Hong YS, Ryoo MI, 1991. A note on the development of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on brown rice, Oryza sativa L. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 30(2):130-137

Collins DA, Binns TJ, 1996. Efficacy of different formulations of pirimiphos-methyl and etrimfos when admixed with oilseed rape, against susceptible storage insect and mite species. Crop Protection, 15(8):707-714; 32 ref

Collins DA, Binns TJ, 1996. Efficacy of surface dust treatments of pirimiphos-methyl and etrimfos when applied to commercially stored wheat and barley. Pesticide Science, 47(1):61-67; 21 ref

Collins DA, Cook DA, 1998. Periods of protection provided by different formulations of pirimiphos-methyl and etrimfos, when admixed with wheat, against four susceptible storage beetle pests. Crop Protection, 17(6):521-528; 27 ref

Collins PJ, 1998. Inheritance of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Journal of Stored Products Research, 34(4):395-401; 27 ref

Cuperus GW, Fargo WS, Flinn PW, Hagstrum DW, 1990. Variables affecting capture of stored-grain insects in probe traps. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 63(4):486-489

Daglish GJ, 1998. Efficacy of six grain protectants applied alone or in combination against three species of Coleoptera. Journal of Stored Products Research, 34(4):263-268; 16 ref

Da-Silva AAL, d' Antonino Faroni LR, Martins JH, Cecon PR, 1998. Influencia do processo de colheita na infestacao do milho (Zea mays L.) pelo besouro da farinha (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) durante o armazenamento. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental, 2(3):312-315

Deighton J, McCallum, Ali AD, 1980. The prevention of insect infestation in stored dates. Review of Applied Entomology, 68:abst. no.3659

Delaney NE, 1978. Sunflower growing - a changing industry. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 104(3):269-278

Desmarchelier JM, Allen SE, Yonglin R, Moss R, Le Trang Vu, 1998. Commercial-scale trials on the application of ethyl formate, carbonyl sulphide and carbon disulphide to wheat. Technical Report - CSIRO Division of Entomology, No. 75:iii + 63 pp.; 20 ref

Desmarchelier JM, Bengston M, 1980. The residual behaviour of chemicals on stored grain. Review of Applied Entomology, 68:abst. no.3635

Desmarchelier JM, Wohlgemuth R, 1984. Response of several species of insects to mixtures of phosphine and carbon dioxide. Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [edited by Ripp, B.E.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier, 75-81

Dharmaputra OS, Sunjaya, Muhammad Amad, Retnowati I, Wahyudi T, 1999. The occurrence of insects and moulds in stored cocoa beans at South Sulawesi. BIOTROPIA, No. 12:1-18; 22 ref

Donahaye EJ, Navarro S, Rindner M, Azrieli A, 1996. The combined influence of temperature and modified atmospheres on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 32(3):225-232; 20 ref

Dowdy AK, 1999. Mortality of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to high temperature and diatomaceous earth combinations. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(2):175-182; 14 ref

Dowdy AK, Mullen MA, 1998. Multiple stored-product insect pheromone use in pitfall traps. Journal of Stored Products Research, 34(1):75-80; 15 ref

Dunkel FV, Sears LJ, 1998. Fumigant properties of physical preparations from mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) beetle for stored grain insects. Journal of Stored Products Research, 34(4):307-321; 43 ref

El-Gougary OA, 1998. Insecticidal and synergistic activity of Atriplex halimus L. extracts. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 28(1):191-196

El-Halfawy MA, Essa NH, Nakhla JM, 1977. Ovicidal effect of certain inert dusts against some stored grain insects. Agricultural Research Review, 55(1):135-137

El-Kashlan IH, Abdel-Hamid M, Helal E, Abdel-Latif MA, El-Shazly L, Ali-El-Din Hamza M, 1997. Toxicity to mice fed on wheat flour infested with tenebrionid beetles. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 75(4):969-986; 21 ref

El-Lakwah FA, Darwish AA, Mohamed RA, 1997. Efficacy of a modified atmosphere of around 1% oxygen plus 99% nitrogen on some stored product insects. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 35(1):579-587; 11 ref

El-Lakwah FA, El-Kashlan IH, 1999. Efficiency of Neemazal (powder 10%) against some stored product insects. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 44(2):271-283; 26 ref

El-Lakwah FA, Halawa ZA, Abdel-Latif AM, 1997. Effect of the extracts of Withania somnifera leaves and fruits on some stored products insects. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 35(1):537-552; 19 ref

Emekci M, Navarro S, Donahaye J, Rinder M, Azrieli A, Adler-C (ed. ), Schoeller-M, 1998. Respiration rates of storage insects in airtight conditions. Integrated protection of stored products. Proceedings of the meeting at Zurich, Switzerland, 31 August-2 September, 1997. Bulletin OILB SROP, 21(3):165-168

Evans NJ, 1985. The effectiveness of various insecticides on some resistant beetle pests of stored products from Uganda. Journal of Stored Products Research, 21(2):105-109

Faragalla AA, Ibrahim MA, Mostafa SAS, 1985. Reproductive inhibition of F progeny of some stored grain pests (Tenebrionidae, Bostrichidae) fed on grains treated with the antimoulting inhibitor Dimilin. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 100(1):57-62

Feakin SD, 1973. Pest control in groundnuts (revised) 3rd. ed. PANS Manual No.3, London, UK: Centre for Overseas Pest Research

Feng GuoHua, Richardson M, Chen MingShun, Kramer KJ, Morgan TD, Reeck GR, 1996. -Amylase inhibitors from wheat: amino acid sequences and patterns of inhibition of insect and human -amylases. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 26(5):419-426; 40 ref

Fields P, Korunic Z, 2000. The effects of grain moisture content and temperature on the efficacy of diatomaceous earths from different geographical locations against stored-product beetles. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36(1):1-13

Fields PG, White NDG, 1997. Survival and multiplication of stored-product beetles at simulated and actual winter temperatures. Canadian Entomologist, 129(5):887-898; 22 ref

Fleurat-Lessard F, Vidal ML, Budzinski H, 1998. Modelling biological efficacy decrease and rate of degradation of chlorpyrifos-methyl on wheat stored under controlled conditions. Journal of Stored Products Research, 34(4):341-354; 3 pp. of ref

Fontes LS, Arthur V, Wiendl TA, Wiendl FM, 1996. Gamma radiation effects on pupae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology, 25(3):176-179; 5 ref

Gao CongFen, Zhang Xing, 1997. The fumigating insecticidal action of the essential oil from seeds of the savin juniper (Sabina vulgaris Ant.). Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 20(3):50-53; 5 ref

George J, Ravishankar GA, Pereira J, Divakar S, 1999. Bioinsecticide from swallowroot (Decalepis hamiltonii) Wight & Arn protects food grains against insect infestation. Current Science, 77(4):501-502; 17 ref

Ghazavi M, 2013. Introduction of four entomopathogenic protozoa, new to Iranian fauna. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 44(1):Pe61-Pe69. http://ijpps.ut.ac.ir/?_action=articleInfo&article=35623&vol=4599

Giga DP, Mutemerewa S, Moyo G, Neeley D, 1991. Assessment and control of losses caused by insect pests in small farmers' stores in Zimbabwe. Crop Protection, 10(4):287-292

Giles PH, 1977. Bean storage problems in Nicaragua. Tropical Stored Products Information, No. 34:63-67

Goodnight CJ, Graig DM, 1996. The effect of coexistence on competitive outcome in Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum. Evolution, 50(3):1241-1250; 55 ref

Gorham JR, 1991. Insect and mite pests in food. An illustrated key. Vol. 1 and 2. US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook Washington, DC, USA, No. 655:vii + 767 pp

Greening HG, 1984. Fumigation trials with farm-stored grain. Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [edited by Ripp, B.E.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier, 673-682

Gu YanFang, Shang FuDe, Xue JingZhong (et al), 1997. The repellencies of six plant substances to adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Henanensis, 31(3):277-279; 6 ref

Gueye MT, Delobel A, 1999. Relative susceptibility of stored pearl millet products and fonio to insect infestation. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(3):277-283; 16 ref

Hagstrum DW, Throne JE, 1989. Predictability of stored-wheat insect population trends from life history traits. Environmental Entomology, 18(4):660-664

Haines CP (ed.), 1991. Insects and arachnids of tropical stored products: their biology and identification (a training manual). Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute, Ed. 2, 246 pp.

Halverson SL, Burkholder WE, Bigelow TS, Nordheim EV, Misenheimer ME, 1996. High-power microwave radiation as an alternative insect control method for stored products. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89(6):1638-1648; 21 ref

Harney M, 1993. A guide to the insects of stored grain in South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa; Plant Protection Research Institute, vii + 129 pp

Hill DS, 1975. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge UK, [12 +] 516 pp

Hinton HE, 1948. A synopsis of the genus Tribolium MacLeay, with some remarks on the evolution of its species groups (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 39:13-55

Ho SH, Fan L, Boon KS, 1997. Development of a PC-based automatic monitoring system for Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in a rice warehouse. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(4):277-281; 6 ref

Ho SH, Koh L, Ma Y, Huang Y, Sim KY, 1997. The oil of garlic, Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae), as a potential grain protectant against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 9(1):41-48; 19 ref

Ho SH, Ma Y, Huang Y, 1997. Anethole, a potential insecticide from Illicium verum Hook F., against two stored product insects. International Pest Control, 39(2):50-51; 8 ref

Ho SH, Ma Y, Tan HTW, Sidik M (ed. ); Rejesus-BM (ed.); Garcia-RP (ed.); Champ-BR (ed.); Bengston-M (ed.); Dharmaputa-OS (ed.); Halid-H, 1997. Repellency of some plant extracts to the stored products beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Proceedings of the symposium on pest management for stored food and feed, held at Bogor, Indonesia. BIOTROP Special Publication, 1997, No. 59:209-215

Hodges RJ, Grant IF (ed. ), Sear C, 1999. Decision-making tools for more cost-effective pest management in milled rice bag-stores. Decision tools for sustainable development, 129-142

Hodges RJ, Meik J, 1986. Lethal and sublethal effects of permethrin on Tanzanian strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Gnatocerus maxillosus (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. Insect Science and its Application, 7(4):533-537

Hodges RJ, Robinson R, Hall DR, 1996. Quinone contamination of dehusked rice by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 32(1):31-37; 20 ref

Holihosur SN, Kulkarni KA, 1977. Washerman's nut Semecarpus anacardium Linnpus host of red flour beetle. Entomologists' Newsletter, 7(5):20-21

Horowitz AR, Weintraub PG, Ishaaya I, 1998. Status of pesticide resistance in arthropod pests in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 26(3):231-240

Howard RW, Charlton M, Charlton RE, 1998. Host-finding, host-recognition, and host-acceptance behavior of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 91(6):879-889; 25 ref

Huang Y, Hee SK, Ho SH, 1998. Antifeedant and growth inhibitory effects of -pinene on the stored-product insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. International Pest Control, 40(1):18-20; 13 ref

Huang Y, Ho SH, 1998. Toxicity and antifeedant activities of cinnamaldehyde against the grain storage insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Journal of Stored Products Research, 34(1):11-17; 21 ref

Huang Y, Tan JMWL, Kini RM, Ho SH, 1997. Toxic and antifeedant action of nutmeg oil against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(4):289-298; 25 ref

Hung CC, Hsieh FK, Hwang JS, 1990. Stored grain insects monitoring and their chemical control. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 10(2):169-179

Husain MM, 1996. Effect of insecticide piperonylbutoxide combination on Tribolium confusum Duval and T. castaneum Herbst larvae. Annals of Entomology, 14(1):39-43; 9 ref

Hussain A, Phillips TW, AliNiazee MT, 1994. Responses of T. castaneum to different pheromone lures and traps. Proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection, Vol. I, 406-409

Hyari S, Kadoum AM, LaHue DW, 1977. Laboratory evaluations of emulsifiable and encapsulated formulations of malathion and fenitrothion on soft red winter wheat against attack by adults of four species of stored-product insects. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(4):480-482

Imura O, 1991. A comparative study of the feeding habits of Tribolium freemani Hinton and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 26(2):173-182

Ivbijaro MF, 1980. The deterioration of commercial maize (Zea mays) by insects and fungi. Review of Applied Entomology, 68:abst. no.3650

Ivbijaro MF, Osisanya EO, Akinlade EE, 1979. The deterioration of commercial maize (Zea mays) by insects and fungi. International Biodeterioration Bulletin, 15(3):74-76

Jafri RH, 1964. Influence of pathogens on the life span of irradiated insects. Rev. Path. VTg. Ent. Agric. Fr., 43:37-41

Khanna SC, 1977. Feeding potential of insect pests of stored wheat. Entomologists' Newsletter, 7(7/8):37

Khare BP, Chandra S, Sharma VK, 1982. Relative susceptibility of maize germplasms to red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 52(4):228-231

Khare BP, Singh KN, Chaudhary RN, Sengar CS, Agrawal RK, Rai PN, 1974. Insect infestation and quality deterioration of grain-I. Germination, odour and palatability in wheat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36(3):194-199

Khattack SUK, Jilani G, 1984. Gamma radiation sensitivity of eggs of various ages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 16(1):21-24

Khattak MK, Mian LS, Hussain N, Haq M, 1977. Residual toxicity of certain protectant insecticides against Rhizopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.). Journal of Science and Technology, 1(1):36-38

Korunic Z, 1997. Rapid assessment of the insecticidal value of diatomaceous earths without conducting bioassays. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(3):219-229; 18 ref

Krishnamurthy K, Raghunatha G, Rajashekara BG, Ali TMM, 1976. Differential resistance of sorghum genotypes to stored grain insect pests. Bulletin of Grain Technology, 14(3):206-210

Kumawat KC, 2007. Assessment of losses due to insect pests under wheat storage practices in semi arid region. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(1):97-100. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Labinov SA, Egorov VL, 2003. What the investigation showed. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.11:33-34

Lavigne RJ, 1991. Stored grain insects in underground storage pits in Somalia and their control. Insect Science and its Application, 12(5-6):571-578

Lima CPFde, 1984. Minimal fumigant requirements for long-term air-tight storage of grain. Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [edited by Ripp, B.E.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier, 665-671

Liu ZL, Ho SH, 1999. Bioactivity of the essential oil extracted from Evodia rutaecarpa Hook f. et Thomas against the grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(4):317-328; 29 ref

Loschiavo SR, 1985. Post-harvest grain temperature, moisture, and insect infestation in steel granaries in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 117(1):7-14

Machado EHL, Alves LC, Faustino MAG, Dezotti CH, 2008. Frequency of stored-insect products in pet food traded in the City of Recife-PE. (Freqüência de insetos-praga em alimento industrializado para cães comercializado na cidade de Recife-PE.) Medicina Veterinária (Brasil), 2(1):10-16. http://www.dmv.ufrpe.br/revista

Maheshwari HK, Dwivedi SC, 1996. Evaluation of botanicals for the management of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Insect Environment, 2(3):72-73; 1 ref

Marsaro Junior AL, Mourão Junior M, Pereira PRVda S, Paiva WRSCde, 2006. Effectiveness of different dosages of diatomaceous earth to control Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in corn stored in the state of Roraima. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, ABRAPOS, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, 15-18 October 2006 [ed. by Lorini, I.\Bacaltchuk, B.\Beckel, H.\Deckers, D.\Sundfeld, E.\Santos, J. P. dos\Biagi, J. D.\Celaro, J. C.\Faroni, L. R. D.\Bortolini, L. de O. F.\Sartori, M. R.\Elias, M. C.\Guedes, R. N. C.\Fonseca, R. G. da\Scussel, V. M.]. Passo Fundo, Brazil: Brazilian Post-Harvest Association (ABRAPOS), 1269-1273. http://bru.gmprc.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/pdf/9/6258.pdf

Mathias PL, 1972. Pest and disease problems in the Seychelles. London, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 835-841

Men UB, Kandalkar HG, 2001. First record of two insect pests on stored sunflower in India. Insect Environment, 6(4):176-177

Ministry of Health Malaysia Food Regulations, 1985. Schedule 16. Government Gazette, 27 April 1995, P.U.(A) 123

Misra HP, Bhatia P, 1997. Laboratory selection of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) for resistance to fenvalerate. Journal of Entomological Research, 21(3):223-228; 11 ref

Misra HP, Parvathy Bhatia, 1997. Biology of Tribolium castaneum strains resistant and susceptible to fenvalerate. Indian Journal of Entomology, 59(2):224-227; 14 ref

Misra HP, Parvathy Bhatia, 1997. Combined effect of gamma irradiation and fenvalerate treatment on susceptible and fenvalerate-resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology, 26(1):39-45; 19 ref

Misra HP, Parvathy Bhatia, 1998. Gamma radiation susceptibility of strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) resistant and susceptible to fenvalerate. International Journal of Pest Management, 44(3):145-147; 13 ref

Moermans R, Casteels H, van Hecke P, 1998. Evolution of cacao-pests over a six year period. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 71(8):149-151

Mondal KAMSH, 1985. Response of Tribolium castaneum larvae to aggregation pheromone and quinones produced by adult conspecifics. International Pest Control, 27(3):64-66

Mound LA(Editor), 1989. Common insect pests of stored food products. A guide to their identification. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), Ed. 7:ix + 68 pp

Mullen MA, 1999. Special use pheromone-baited trap for the red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 34(4):497-500

Mullen MA, Arbogast RT, 1979. Time-temperature-mortality relationships for various stored-product insect eggs and chilling times for selected commodities. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(4):476-478

Muthu M, Rajendran S, Krishnamurthy TS, Narasimhan KS, Rangaswamy JR, Jayaram M, Majumder SK, 1984. Ethyl formate as a safe general fumigant. Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [edited by Ripp, B.E.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier, 369-393

Nandi NN, Khan AR, Mondal KAMSH, 1990. Fecundity and fertility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) reared on red lentil and a mixture of wholemeal-red lentil flours. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 18(2):263-265

Nansen C, Phillips TW, Palmer MW, 2004. Analysis of the insect community in a maize storage facility. Ecological Research, 19(2):197-207

Nelson SO, Bartley PG Jr. , Lawrence KC, 1997. RF and microwave dielectric properties of stored-grain insects and their implications for potential insect control. ASAE Annual International Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 10-14 August, 1997. Paper American Society of Agricultural Engineers, No. 973072

Nelson SO, Bartley PGJr, Lawrence KC, 1998. RF and microwave dielectric properties of stored-grain insects and their implications for potential insect control. Transactions of the ASAE, 41(3):685-692; 22 ref

Ni ZZ, 1984. Fumigation trials with carbon disulphide:carbon tetrachloride (20:80) in silo bins. Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [edited by Ripp, B.E.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier, 657-662

Novo RJ, Viglianco A, Nassetta M, 1998. Actividad repelente de diferentes extractos vegetales sobre Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). AgriScientia, 14:31-36

Nwankwo FI, Nwogu EO, 1979. A survey of seasonal quality of bagged palm kernels and cocoa awaiting export from Port Harcourt. Report, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, 47-56

Obeng-Ofori D, Adler C, Reichmuth C, 1997. Toxizitat und Repellentwirkung von 1,8 Cineol, Eugenol und Kampfer gegen Vorratsschadliche Insekten. Proceedings of the German Society for General and Applied Entomology, Bayreuth, Germany, 18-22 March 1997. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 11(1-6):259-264

Obeng-Ofori D, Reichmuth C, 1997. Bioactivity of eugenol, a major component of essential oil of Ocimum suave (Wild.) against four species of stored-product Coleoptera. International Journal of Pest Management, 43(1):89-94; 21 ref

Obeng-Ofori D, Reichmuth C, 1999. Plant oils as potentiation agents of monoterpenes for protection of stored grains against damage by stored product beetle pests. International Journal of Pest Management, 45(2):155-159; 28 ref

Obeng-Ofori D, Reichmuth CH, Bekele AJ, Hassanali A, 1998. Toxicity and protectant potential of camphor, a major component of essential oil of Ocimum kilimandscharicum, against four stored product beetles. International Journal of Pest Management, 44(4):203-209; 20 ref

Obeng-Ofori D, Reichmuth CH, Bekele J, Hassanali A, 1997. Biological activity of 1,8-cineole, a major component of essential oil of Ocimum kenyense (Ayobangira) against stored product beetles. Journal of Applied Entomology, 121(4):237-243; 21 ref

Pacheco IA, Santori MR, Taylor RWD, 1990. Survey of phosphine resistance in stored grain insect pests in the state of Sao Paulo. Coletanea do Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, 20(2):144-154

Padin SB, Bello GMdal, Vasicek AL, 1997. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana for adults of Tribolium castaneum (Col.: Tenebrionidae) in stored grains. Entomophaga, 42(4):569-574; 18 ref

Padin SB, Dal-Bello GM, Vasicek AL, 1996. Potencial bioinsecticida de hongos entomopatogenos de plagas en granos almacenados. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia Universidad de Buenos Aires, 15

Pajni HR, Virk N, 1978. Irradiation-induced sterility in the males and females of Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera). Current Science, 47(5):175

Paliwal J, Jayas DS, Muir WE, White NDG, 1997. Effect of pneumatic conveying of wheat on mortality of insects. ASAE Annual International Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 10-14 August, 1997. Paper American Society of Agricultural Engineers, No. 976087

Paliwal J, Jayas DS, White NDG, Muir WE, 1999. Effect of pneumatic conveying of wheat on mortality of insects. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 15(1):65-68; 19 ref

Parker BL, Booth RH, Haines CP, 1981. Arthropods infesting stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Peninsular Malaysia. Protection Ecology, 3(2):141-156

Pascual-Villalobos MJ, 1996. Evaluacion de la actividad insecticida de extractos vegetales de Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 22(2):411-420

Pascual-Villalobos MJ, 1998. Repelencia, inhibicion del crecimiento y toxicidad de extractos vegetales en larvas de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 24(1):143-154

Pascual-Villalobos MJ, Robledo A, 1998. Screening for anti-insect activity in Mediterranean plants. Industrial Crops and Products, 8(3):183-194; 11 ref

Pascual-Villalobos MJ, Robledo A, 1999. Anti-insect activity of plant extracts from the wild flora in southeastern Spain. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 27(1):1-10; 15 ref

Paster N, Calderon M, Menasherov M, Barak V, Mora M, 1991. Application of biogenerated modified atmospheres for insect control in small grain bins. Tropical Science, 31(4):355-358

Pemonge J, Pascual-Villalobos MJ, Regnault-Roger C, 1997. Effects of material and extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. against the stored product pests Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(3):209-217; 29 ref

Peng WK, Yang CC, Lee TK, Cheng HY, 1999. Vertical penetration and distribution of phosphine in corn and sorghum stored in steel silos. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 19(3):279-291

Peng WuKang, 1998. Insects in domestic corn and sorghum stored in steel silos in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 40(4):309-314; 6 ref

Prates HT, Santos JP, Waquil JM, Raslan DS, Oliveira AB, Souza-Filho JD, Cruz ES, Caffini N (ed. ); Bernath-J (ed.); Craker-L (ed.); Jatisatienr-A (ed.); Giberti-G, 1999. Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Baccharis genistelloides against stored grain pests. Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, WOCMAP-2. Biological resources, sustainable use, conservation and ethnobotany, Mendoza, Argentina, 10-15 November, 1997. Acta-Horticulturae, No. 500:97-100

Press JW, Flaherty BR, Arbogast RT, 1975. Control of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, in a warehouse by a predaceous bug, Xylocoris flavipes. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 10(1):76-78

Prus M, Prus TB, 1977. Energy budget of Tribolium castaneum (Hbst) at the population level. Ekologia Polska, 25(1):115-134

Purrini K, 1976. On the insect fauna and their diseases in several old mills in Kosova County, Yugoslavia. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 11(3-4):305-315

Qin ZhangGui, Wu Xia, Deng Gang, Yan XiaoPing, He XueChao, Xi DeKe, Liao XingWen, 2003. Investigation of the use of ozone fumigation to control several species of stored grain insects. In: Advances in stored product protection. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, York, UK, 22-26 July 2002 [ed. by Credland, P. F.\Armitage, D. M.\Bell, C. H.\Cogan, P. M.\Highley, E.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 846-851

Rabindra RJ, Jayaraj S, Balasubramanian M, 1988. Farinocystis tribolii-induced susceptibility to some insecticides in Tribolium castaneum larvae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 52(3):389-392

Rahman SMM, Gupta CP, Sidik M, 1995. Application of neem oil and Bacillus thuringiensis preparations to control insects in stored paddy. Proc. Symp. pest manag. stored food and feed, Bogor, 59:173-197

Rajasekaran T, Pereira J, Ravishankar GA, Venkataraman LV, 1996. Repellency of callus derived pyrethrins to mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Herbst. International Pest Control, 38(5):154-156, 159

Rajkumar R, Anitha TN, 1998. Evaluation of the efficacy of 'stored grain insect trap'. Entomon, 23(3):227-231; 18 ref

Ramesh Lal, Vaidya DN, Mehta PK, 2000. Relative abundance and extent of losses in unhusked rice due to stored grain insect pests in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 8(2):129-132

Rangaswamy JR, Sasikala VB, 1991. Sex pheromone properties of Z-2,nonenyl propionate isolated from virgin females of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 29(3):263-266

Rani PU, 1997. Bioactivity and residual toxicity of deltamethrin, incorporated into rice bran and rice husk, against the pests of stored products. International Pest Control, 39(6):186-188; 13 ref

Reddy MU, Reddy KA, Reddy DDR, 1999. Mineral salts as protectants in maida and suji against red flourbeetle, Tribolium castaneum herbst and their effect on the quality and acceptability. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 36(2):39-47; 17 ref

Reinecke D, Roche R, Ganem F, 1975. Control of pests of stored rice in Cuba. Revista de Agricultura, Cuba, 8(3):72-79

Rice WC, Cogburn RR, 1999. Activity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) against three coleopteran pests of stored grain. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(3):691-694; 15 ref

Roorda FA, Schulten GGM, Andriessen EAM, 1982. Laboratory observations on the development of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Col., Tenebrionidae) on millet at different temperatures and relative humidities. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 93(5):446-452

Saleem MA, Shakoori AR, 1986. Starvation and refeeding in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). I. Effect on some biochemical components of sixth instar larvae. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 64(8):1628-1632

Santos JP, Prates HT, Waquil JM, Oliveria AB, 1997. Avaliacao de substancias de origem vegetal no controle de pragas de graos armazenados. Pesquisa em Andamento Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo, No. 19, 8 pp

Sarala M, Arivoli S, Raja N, 1998. Effect of insecticide treated gunny bags against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) infestation in stored grains. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 18(1):59-63; 13 ref

Schoeller M, 1998. Biological control of arthropo pests in stored product protection with predators and parasitoids -Review and bibliography. Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land-Forstwirsch, Berlin-Dahlem, H.342:13-8385-189

Seenappa M, Stobbs LW, Kempton AG, 1979. The role of insects in the biodeterioration of Indian red peppers by fungi. International Biodeterioration Bulletin, 15(3):96-102

Shaaya E, Kostjukovski M, Eilberg J, Sukprakarn C, Shaaya E (ed. ), Bell C, 1997. Plant oils as fumigants and contact insecticides for the control of stored-product insects. Ecologically safe alternatives for the control of stored-product insects. Papers from the XIII International Plant Protection Congress, July 1995, The Hague, The Netherlands. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(1):7-15

Sharma RK, 1999. Efficacy of neem products against storage pests in maize. Annals of Agricultural Research, 20(2):198-201

Shawir MS, Mansee AH, 1997. The influence of temperature on the residual toxicity of deltamethrin and tralomethrin to Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 42(3):207-215; 18 ref

Sighamony S, Anees I, Chandrakala TS, Osmani Z, 1984. Natural products as repellents for Tribolium castaneum Herbst. International Pest Control, 26(6):156-157

Sinclair ER, Haddrell RL, 1985. Flight of stored products beetles over a grain farming area in southern Queensland. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 24(1):9-15

Sinclair ER, Howitt C, 1984. Tests of pheromones for monitoring infestations of stored products insects. Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Applied Entomological Research Conference, Adelaide 24-28 September 1984. Pest control: recent advances and future prospects [edited by Bailey, P.; Swincer, D.] Adelaide, Australia; South Australian Government Printer, 482-487

Sinha SR, Chauhan RS, 2004. Laboratory selection of dichlorvos resistant strain of Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Indian Journal of Entomology, 66(2):131-134

Small G, 2009. Evaluation of the impact of sulfuryl fluoride fumigation and heat treatment on stored-product insect populations in UK flour mills. International Pest Control, 51(1):43-46. http://www.researchinformation.co.uk

Smith LB, 1984. Control of stored grain insects with low temperatures. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-first Annual Meeting, Canadian Pest Management Society, Winnipeg, Manitoba 20-22 August, 1984. Canada: Canadian Pest Management Society, (1984?):44-49

Solomon B, 1985. Gene find may overcome resistance. Agricultural Research, USA, 33(3):4

Sridevi D, Dhingra S, 1999. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults to non-pyrethroid insecticides. Journal of Entomological Research, 23(3):201-207

Subramanyam B, Madamanchi N, Norwood S, 1998. Effectiveness of Insecto applied to shelled maize against stored-product insect larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91(1):280-286; 42 ref

Suss L, Locatelli DP, Cavalieri M, 1997. Valutazione dell'attivita di estratti di Azadirachta indica A. Juss su insetti delle derrate. Tecnica Molitoria, 48(10):1105-1112

Suss L, Locatelli DP, Frati M, 1991. The use of carbon dioxide in cereal pest control. Tecnica Molitoria, 42(4):333-338

Suzuki T, 1985. Presence of another aggregation substance(s) in the frass of the red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 20(1):90-91

Taneja VK, Chawla DS, George M, 1979. A note on the rate of egg production in Tribolium castaneum. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 49(7):594-596

Tariq Mahmood, Ahmad MS, Ahmad H, 1996. Dispersion of stored grain insect pests in a wheat-filled silo. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(4):321-324; 8 ref

Taylor RWD, 1991. Resistance to grain fumigants and future prospects for their use. Pesticide Outlook, 2(2):22-24

Teetes GL, Seshu Reddy KV Leuschner K, House LR, 1983. Sorghum insect identification handbook. Information Bulletin No. 12. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

Tikku K, Saxena BP, 1997. Induction of sterility in testis of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) by suboptimal temperature. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 35(12):1348-1352; 20 ref

Toews MD, Campbell JF, Arthur FH, Ramaswamy SB, 2006. Outdoor flight activity and immigration of Rhyzopertha dominica into seed wheat warehouses. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 121(1):73-85. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=eea

Toro MA, Lopez-Fanjul C, 1979. Genetic changes of pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum under domestication. Experientia, 35(10):1296-1298

Trematerra P, 1998. Capture of stored-grain Coleoptera with WB probe II trap: influence of grain type. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 71(7):135-137

Trematerra P, Fiorilli F, 1999. Occurrence of arthropods in a Central Italy feed-mill. Anzeiger fnr Schadlingskunde, 72(6):158-163

Trematerra P, Fontana F, Mancini M, 1996. Effects of accumulate dead and alive insects in trap on the capture of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Anzeiger fu^umlaut~r Scha^umlaut~dlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 69(1):3-9; 27 ref

Trematerra P, Lanzotti V, 1999. The activity of some compounds extracts by Allium on stored-product insects Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Anzeiger fu^umlaut~r Scha^umlaut~dlingskunde, 72(5):122-125; 27 ref

Trematerra P, Mancini M, Sciarretta A, 1996. Artropodi infestanti di farro immagazzinato. Informatore Agrario, 52(36):67-69

Trematerra P, Sciarretta A, Mancini M, 1999. Insect pests in traditional cereal warehouses. [Infestazioni da insetti in depositi tradizionali di cereali.] Tecnica Molitoria, 50(9):980-989

Trewin B, 1997. Wirksamkeit von Kieselgurpraparaten gegen vorratsschadliche Insekten. Proceedings of the German Society for General and Applied Entomology, Bayreuth, Germany, 18-22 March 1997. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 11(1-6):157-161

Trewin B, Adler C (ed. ), Schoeller-M, 1998. Efficacy of diatomaceous earth against stored product pest insects. Integrated protection of stored products. Proceedings of the meeting at Zurich, Switzerland, 31 August-2 September, 1997. Bulletin OILB SROP, 21(3):153-157

Trewin B, Reichmuth Ch, 1997. Wirksamkeit des kieselgurprSparates Dryacide gegen vorratsschSdliche Insekten. Anzeiger fnr SchSdlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz und Umweltshutz 70, 51-54

Tripathi AK, Prajapati V, Gupta R, Kumar S, 1999. Herbal material for the insect pest management in stored grains under tropical conditions. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 21(2):408-430

Tripathi AK, Sharma S, Kumar S, Edison S (ed. ), Ramana-KV (ed.), Sasikumar-B (ed.), Babu-KN (ed.), Eapen-SJ, 1997. Repellent and insecticidal properties of Piper retrofractum against insect pests of crops and stored grain. Biotechnology of spices, medicinal & aromatic plants. Proceedings of the national seminar on biotechnology of spices and aromatic plants, Calicut, India, 134-138

Tsao R, Reuber M, Johnson L, Coats JR, 1996. Insecticidal toxicities of glucosinolate-containing extracts from crambe seeds. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 13(2):109-120

Tsvetkov D, Atanasov Kh, 1979. Promising pesticides for controlling stored grain pests by mixing with the grain. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 16(1):105-114

Tsvetkov D, Atanasov Kh, Obretenchev D, 1984. Improving the technology for disinfesting empty stores and silos. Rastitelna Zashchita, 32(12):32-37

Unruh LM, Xu RongDa, Kramer KJ, 1998. Benzoquinone levels as a function of age and gender of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 28(12):969-977; 30 ref

USDA/APHIS-PPQ, 1980. Pest identification notebook. In: Ripp BE, ed. United St in grain storages - Proceedings of an international symposium, 11-22 April 1983, Perth, Western Australia. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 395-417

Vazquez L, Jacas O, Aparicio S, Rodriguez G, 1998. Trampa de atrayentes naturales. Metodo para la inspeccion entomologica a los almacenes. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 24(3):507-510

Viljoen JH, Coetzer JJ, Vermaak CJ, 1984. Fumigation trials with a mixture of methyl bromide and carbon dioxide in larger type silo bins. Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [edited by Ripp, B.E.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier, 395-417

Visalakshi Mahanthi, Gour TB, Ramulu MS, 2005. Relative abundance of stored grain pests in maize. Journal of Research ANGRAU, 33(4):96-102

Walker DJ, 1979. Insects associated with stored maize and other harvested food crops in Swaziland. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 42(2):331-335

Warui CM, 1979. Screening Tribolium castaneum collected from Mombasa, Kenya for insecticide resistance. Review of Applied Entomology, 67:abst. no.1379

Watters FL, 1980. Potential of accelerated electrons for insect control in stored grains, Review of Applied Entomology, 68:abst. no.3648

Webley DJ, Harris AH, 1979. The fumigation of grain in 'banco' stores in the Sahel. Tropical Stored Products Information, 38:27-34

Weissenberg M, Levy A, Svoboda JA, Ishaaya I, 1998. The effect of some Solanum steroidal alkaloids and glycoalkaloids on larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Phytochemistry, 47(2):203-209; 43 ref

Werner P, 1997. Rezistence potemniku Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) vci insekticidum Ceske Republice. Ochrana Rostlin, 33(1):57-63

Weston PA, Barney RJ, 1998. Comparison of three trap types for monitoring insect populations in stored grains. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91(6):1449-1457; 21 ref

White GG, 1982. The effect of grain damage on development in wheat of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 18(3):115-119

White GG, 1987. Effects of temperature and humidity on the rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), in wheat grain. Australian Journal of Zoology, 35(1):43-59

White NDG, Arbogast RT, Fields PG, Hillmann RC, Loschiavo SR, Subramanyam B, Throne JE, Wright VF, 1990. The development and use of pitfall and probe traps for capturing insects in stored grain. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 63(4):506-525

White NDG, Barker PS, Demianyk CJ, 1996. Beetles associated with stored grain captured in flight by suction traps in Southern Manitoba. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Manitoba, No. 51:1-5; 9 ref

White NDG, Jayas DS, Demianyk CJ, 1997. Degradation and biological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl on stored wheat and pirimiphos-methyl on stored maize in western Canada. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(2):125-135; 33 ref

Wilkin DR, 1984. Ridding store grain of pests. Cereal Foods World. 29, 415-416, humidity on the rust-red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in wheat grain. Australian Journal of Zoology, 18:43-59

Wilkin DR, 1984. Ridding stored grain of pests. Cereal Foods World, 29(7):415-416

Wong-Corral F, Cortez-Rocha MO, Borboa-Flores J, 1996. Abundance and distribution of insect in stored wheat grain in Sonora, Mexico. Southwestern Entomologist, 21(1):75-81; 8 ref

Wongo LE, 1998. Biological activity of sorghum tannin extracts on the stored grain pests Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Insect Science and its Application, 18(1):17-23; 29 ref

Wool D, Bergerson O, 1979. Analysis of selection processes using the incompletely-penetrant mutant eu of Tribolium castaneum. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 21(3):405-415

Xu HH, Zhao SH, 1996. Studies on insecticidal activity of the essential oil from Cinnamomum micranthum and its bioactive component. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 17(1):10-17

Xu HH, Zhao SH, Zhuo J, Ding JK, Yu XJ, 1996. Studies on insecticidal activity of the anise oil and analysis of its components. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 23(4):338-342

Yadav TD, 1997. Evaluation of deltamethrin as fabric treatment in storage of wheat seed at farm level. Indian Journal of Entomology, 59(1):103-109; 10 ref

Yamanouchi M, Takano T, 1980. The effectiveness of milling and sifting of wheat in destruction and elimination of eggs of some stored-product insects. Research Bulletin of Plant Protection, Japan, 16:99-100

Yan GuiYun, Stevens L, Goodnight CJ, Schall JJ, 1998. Effects of a tapeworm parasite on the competition of Tribolium beetles. Ecology, 79(3):1093-1103; 47 ref

Yunus A, Balasubramaniam A, 1981. Major crop pests in Peninsular Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia

Zettler JL, 1991. Pesticide resistance in Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from flour mills in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(3):763-767

Zettler JL, Arthur FH, 1997. Dose-response tests on red flour beetle and confused flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) collected from flour mills in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(5):1157-1162; 31 ref

Distribution References

Adem E, Watters F L, 1985. Response of malathion-susceptible and resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to a combination of 60Co gamma irradiation and malathion. Journal of Stored Products Research. 21 (2), 59-63. DOI:10.1016/0022-474X(85)90021-9

Al-Saffar Z Y, Salit A M, Abdullah I A, 1981. Malathion and pirimiphos-methyl against three species of stored product insects, vectors of tapeworms, on different types of sacks' fibers. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 11 (2), 269-278.

Athanassiou C G, Palyvos N E, Eliopoulos P A, Papadoulis G T, 2001. Distribution and migration of insects and mites in flat storage containing wheat. Phytoparasitica. 29 (5), 379-392.

Athié I, Mills K A, 2005. Resistance to phosphine in stored-grain insect pests in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology. 8 (1/2), 143-147.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore, Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Bahr I, Prinz W, 1977. Insects in stored grain in the German Democratic Republic and the prevention of damage. (Insekten an Getreidevorraten in der DDR und Verhutung ihres Schadauftretens.). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR. 31 (10), 200-204.

Bansode P C, 1979. Status of insecticidal resistance among field populations of stored product insects in India. Pesticides. 13 (8), 19-20, 23.

Boake C R B, Wade M J, 1984. Populations of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) differ in their sensitivity to aggregation pheromones. Environmental Entomology. 13 (5), 1182-1185. DOI:10.1093/ee/13.5.1182

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carino F O, Morallo-Rejesus B, 1976. Control of Sitophilus zeamais and Rhizopertha dominica by pre-harvest sprays and sack treatment with three insecticides in three sorghum varieties. Philippine Agriculturist. 60 (3/4), 81-95.

Chaudhary S D, Mahla J C, 2001. Insect-pests infesting stored wheat in different climatic regions of Haryana. Crop Research (Hisar). 21 (3), 384-386.

Chon W K, Hong Y S, Ryoo M I, 1991. A note on the development of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on brown rice, Oryza sativa L. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 30 (2), 130-137.

Evans N J, 1985. The effectiveness of various insecticides on some resistant beetle pests of stored products from Uganda. Journal of Stored Products Research. 21 (2), 105-109. DOI:10.1016/0022-474X(85)90030-X

Faragalla A A, Ibrahim M A, Mostafa S A S, 1985. Reproductive inhibition of F1 progeny of some stored grain pests (Tenebrionidae, Bostrichidae) fed on grains treated with the antimoulting inhibitor Dimilin. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie. 100 (1), 57-62.

Giga D P, Mutemerewa S, Moyo G, Neeley D, 1991. Assessment and control of losses caused by insect pests in small farmers' stores in Zimbabwe. Crop Protection. 10 (4), 287-292. DOI:10.1016/0261-2194(91)90007-E

Giles P H, 1977. Bean storage problems in Nicaragua. Tropical Stored Products Information. 63-67.

Hill D S, 1975. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. In: Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [12 +] 516 pp.

Hodges R J, Meik J, 1986. Lethal and sublethal effects of permethrin on Tanzanian strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Gnatocerus maxillosus (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. Insect Science and its Application. 7 (4), 533-537.

Hung C C, Hsieh F K, Hwang J S, 1990. Stored grain insects monitoring and their chemical control. Chinese Journal of Entomology. 10 (2), 169-179.

Imura O, 1991. A comparative study of the feeding habits of Tribolium freemani Hinton and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology. 26 (2), 173-182.

Ivbijaro MF, 1980. The deterioration of commercial maize (Zea mays) by insects and fungi. In: Review of Applied Entomology, 68.

Khare B P, Chandra S, Sharma V K, 1982. Relative susceptibility of maize germplasms to red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 52 (4), 228-231.

Kumawat K C, 2007. Assessment of losses due to insect pests under wheat storage practices in semi arid region. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 15 (1), 97-100. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Labinov S A, Egorov V L, 2003. What the investigation showed. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. 33-34.

Loschiavo S R, 1985. Post-harvest grain temperature, moisture, and insect infestation in steel granaries in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist. 117 (1), 7-14.

Machado E H L, Alves L C, Faustino M A G, Dezotti C H, 2008. Frequency of stored-insect products in pet food traded in the City of Recife-PE. (Freqüência de insetos-praga em alimento industrializado para cães comercializado na cidade de Recife-PE.). Medicina Veterinária (Brasil). 2 (1), 10-16. http://www.dmv.ufrpe.br/revista

Marsaro Junior A L, Mourão Junior M, Pereira P R V da S, Paiva W R S C de, 2006. Effectiveness of different dosages of diatomaceous earth to control Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in corn stored in the state of Roraima. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, ABRAPOS, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, 15-18 October 2006 [Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, ABRAPOS, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, 15-18 October 2006.], [ed. by Lorini I, Bacaltchuk B, Beckel H, Deckers D, Sundfeld E, Santos J P dos, Biagi J D, Celaro J C, Faroni L R D, Bortolini L de O F, Sartori M R, Elias M C, Guedes R N C, Fonseca R G da, Scussel V M]. Passo Fundo, Brazil: Brazilian Post-Harvest Association (ABRAPOS). 1269-1273. http://bru.gmprc.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/pdf/9/6258.pdf

MATHIAS P L, 1971. Pest and disease problems in the Seychelles. In: Proceedings of the Sixth British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference 1971 (Brighton 15th-18th November 1971). Vol. 3. Invited papers. Research reports. [Proceedings of the Sixth British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference 1971 (Brighton 15th-18th November 1971). Vol. 3. Invited papers. Research reports.], 835-841.

Men U B, Kandalkar H G, 2001. First record of two insect pests on stored sunflower in India. Insect Environment. 6 (4), 176-177.

Nandi N N, Khan A R, Mondal K A M S H, 1990. Fecundity and fertility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) reared on red lentil and a mixture of wholemeal-red lentil flours. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. 18 (2), 263-265.

Nansen C, Phillips T W, Palmer M W, 2004. Analysis of the insect community in a maize storage facility. Ecological Research. 19 (2), 197-207. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1703.2003.00624.x

Ni Z Z, 1984. Fumigation trials with carbon disulphide:carbon tetrachloride (20:80) in silo bins. In: Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia], [ed. by Ripp BE]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 657-662.

Pacheco I A, Santori M R, Taylor R W D, 1990. Survey of phosphine resistance in stored grain insect pests in the state of Sao Paulo. (Levantamento de resistência de insetos-praga de grãos armazenados à fosfina, no estado de São Paulo.). Coletânea do Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos. 20 (2), 144-154.

Prus M, Prus T B, 1977. Energy budget of Tribolium castaneum (Hbst) at the population level. Ekologia Polska. 25 (1), 115-134.

Purrini K, 1976. On the insect fauna and their diseases in several old mills in Kosova County, Yugoslavia. (Zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna und ihre Krankheiten in einigen alten Muhlen des Kosova Gebietes, Jugoslawien.). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 11 (3-4), 305-315.

Qin ZhangGui, Wu Xia, Deng Gang, Yan XiaoPing, He XueChao, Xi DeKe, Liao XingWen, 2003. Investigation of the use of ozone fumigation to control several species of stored grain insects. In: Advances in stored product protection. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, York, UK, 22-26 July 2002. [ed. by Credland P F, Armitage D M, Bell C H, Cogan P M, Highley E]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. 846-851. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20033123009 DOI:10.1079/9780851996912.0846

Ramesh Lal, Vaidya D N, Mehta P K, 2000. Relative abundance and extent of losses in unhusked rice due to stored grain insect pests in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. Pest Management and Economic Zoology. 8 (2), 129-132.

Reinecke D, Roche R, Ganem F, 1975. Control of pests of stored rice in Cuba. (Control de plagas en almacenes de arroz en Cuba.). Revista de Agricultura, Cuba. 8 (3), 72-79.

Roorda F A, Schulten G G M, Andriessen E A M, 1982. Laboratory observations on the development of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Col., Tenebrionidae) on millet at different temperatures and relative humidities. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 93 (5), 446-452.

Saleem M A, Shakoori A R, 1986. Starvation and refeeding in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). I. Effect on some biochemical components of sixth instar larvae. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 64 (8), 1628-1632. DOI:10.1139/z86-245

Sinha S R, Chauhan R S, 2004. Laboratory selection of dichlorvos resistant strain of Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Indian Journal of Entomology. 66 (2), 131-134.

Small G, 2009. Evaluation of the impact of sulfuryl fluoride fumigation and heat treatment on stored-product insect populations in UK flour mills. International Pest Control. 51 (1), 43-46. http://www.researchinformation.co.uk

Solomon B, 1985. Gene find may overcome resistance. Agricultural Research, USA. 33 (3), 4.

Süss L, Locatelli D P, Frati M, 1991. The use of carbon dioxide in cereal pest control. (L'anidride carbonica nella disinfestazione dei cereali.). Tecnica Molitoria. 42 (4), 333-338.

Toews M D, Campbell J F, Arthur F H, Ramaswamy S B, 2006. Outdoor flight activity and immigration of Rhyzopertha dominica into seed wheat warehouses. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 121 (1), 73-85. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=eea DOI:10.1111/j.1570-8703.2006.00462.x

Toro M A, Lopez-Fanjul C, 1979. Genetic changes of pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum under domestication. Experientia. 35 (10), 1296-1298. DOI:10.1007/BF01963968

Viljoen J H, Coetzer J J, Vermaak C J, 1984. Fumigation trials with a mixture of methyl bromide and carbon dioxide in larger type silo bins. In: Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia [Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. Proceedings of an international symposium 'Practical aspects of controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages' held from 11 to 22 April 1983 in Perth, Western Australia], [ed. by Ripp BE]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 395-417.

Visalakshi Mahanthi, Gour T B, Ramulu M S, 2005. Relative abundance of stored grain pests in maize. Journal of Research ANGRAU. 33 (4), 96-102.

Walker D J, 1979. Insects associated with stored maize and other harvested food crops in Swaziland. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. 42 (2), 331-335.

Warui CM, 1979. Screening Tribolium castaneum collected from Mombasa, Kenya for insecticide resistance. In: Review of Applied Entomology, 67 (1379)

Wool D, Bergerson O, 1979. Analysis of selection processes using the incompletely-penetrant mutant eu of Tribolium castaneum. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology. 21 (3), 405-415.

Yunus A, Balasubramaniam A, 1981. Major crop pests in Peninsular Malaysia., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map