Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Trialeurodes ricini
(castor bean whitefly)

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Datasheet

Trialeurodes ricini (castor bean whitefly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trialeurodes ricini
  • Preferred Common Name
  • castor bean whitefly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trialeurodes ricini (Misra)

Preferred Common Name

  • castor bean whitefly

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleyrodes ricini Misra
  • Trialeurodes desmodii Corbett
  • Trialeurodes lubia El Khidir & Khalifa
  • Trialeurodes rara Singh

International Common Names

  • English: castor whitefly

Local Common Names

  • India: castor mealy wing

EPPO code

  • TRIADE (Trialeurodes rara)
  • TRIARI (Trialeurodes ricini)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Trialeurodes
  •                                         Species: Trialeurodes ricini

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This whitefly was first fully described from specimens on Ricinus communis (castor bean) in India (Misra, 1924), although by then it had already been known for some years. The generic and specific classification of whiteflies is usually based upon pupal morphology. However, the morphology of the pupal stage can vary according to the host, hence this is a phenotypically variable species. Molecular studies are required to assist in clarifying the systematics of the group.

The taxonomic relationship between Trialeurodes ricini and Trialeurodes lauri was recently investigated using morphological and molecular data (Malumphy et al., 2007) . Molecular evidence, based on the sequence of a fragment of the COI gene, supported the hypothesis that  T. ricini and T. lauri are distinct valid species. 

Description

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Egg

Whitish-green with a smooth surface; oblong; approximately 0.2 mm long and 0.08 mm wide at the widest point; tapering at one end.

Larva

Greenish-yellow with red eyes; elliptical. The first-instar larvae are approximately 0.26 mm long by 0.13 mm wide, and slightly convex with a waxy fringe. The second-instar larvae are approximately 0.33 mm to 0.41 mm long and 0.19 mm to 0.25 mm wide, with a narrow waxy band. The third-instars are 0.48 mm to 0.51 mm long and 0.30 mm to 0.38 mm wide.

Fourth-Instar/Pupa

Yellow with red eyes; white waxy filaments at the margins; elliptical, thin and flat, but becoming thicker after 3 or 4 days. The female pupae are approximately 0.67 mm to 0.75 mm long and 0.39 mm to 0.60 mm wide. The males are much smaller: between 0.57 mm and 0.66 mm long, and 0.31 mm to 0.43 mm wide. The physical characteristics of the host leaf surface induce variation in the morphology of the puparia.

Shishehbor (1994) provides illustrations of the first-, second- and third-instar larvae, as well as the pupa.

Adult

Bright-yellow to cream body, with white legs and wings. At rest the wings are held 'tent-like', at an angle over the body.

Distribution

Top of page T. ricini is widely distributed within Africa, the Middle East and Asia. T. ricini has been intercepted by the National Plant Protection Organisation of the UK on plant material from Cameroon (EPPO, 2000).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Brunei DarussalamPresentNativeMartin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongPresentNativeMartin et al., 2000
IndiaPresentNativeMisra, 1924; Srivastava et al., 1972; Mound and Halsey, 1978; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentEPPO, 2014
-ManipurPresentSarma et al., 2005
-Tamil NaduPresentEPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
IranPresentNativeFarahbakhsh, 1961; Mound and Halsey, 1978; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentNativeMound and Halsey, 1978; Martin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentIntroduced Invasive Mound and Halsey, 1978; Martin, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentNativeMound and Halsey, 1978; Martin, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse, 1993
PakistanPresentNativeMartin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000
PhilippinesPresentNativeMartin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeMound and Halsey, 1978; Martin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
SingaporeWidespreadAVA, 2001
ThailandPresentNativeMartin, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
YemenPresentAbdullah and Martin, 2007

Africa

CameroonAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
Central African RepublicPresentEPPO, 2014
ChadPresentNativeMartin, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentEPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeLourens et al., 1972; Martin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentIntroduced Invasive Martin, 1987; Idriss et al., 1997; Abd-Rabou, 1999; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentNativeMartin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000
MadagascarPresentEPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentNativeMartin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000
MaliPresentMuniappan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentNativeMound and Halsey, 1978; Martin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentNativeCorbett, 1935; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Anon, 2000; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
SudanPresentNativeEl Khidir & Khalifa, 1962; Mound and Halsey, 1978; Martin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentNativeMartin, 1987; Martin et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentEPPO, 2014

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
SpainRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
UKAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2000

Risk of Introduction

Top of page T. ricini was added to the Alert List of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) in April 2000 as a result of its spread and establishment in the Canary Isles (Anon., 2000). This organism presents a risk mainly to tropical and sub-tropical regions. In warm countries, where this organism does not occur, the outdoor cultivation of crops such as castor bean (Ricinus communis), cotton (Gossypium spp.), pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), potato (Solanum tuberosum), melon (Cucumis melo) and French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are primarily at risk. Although it has not been reported from protected cultivation, this organism could be a threat to crops such as cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), and aubergines (Solanum melongena) grown in heated glasshouses in cooler countries.

Habitat

Top of page T. ricini is most commonly recorded from managed crop habitats, usually being recorded on castor (Ricinus communis).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page T. ricini is highly polyphagous, and feeds on hosts in at least thirteen plant families. The complete range of hosts could be greater than that provided in this datasheet, because T. ricini may be able to adapt to feed on other hosts as it expands its geographic distribution.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Annona glabra (pond apple)AnnonaceaeWild host
ArbutusEricaceaeOther
Aristolochia bracteata (wormkiller)Other
Bauhinia (camel's foot)FabaceaeOther
BegoniaBegoniaceaeOther
Boscia senegalensisCapparaceaeOther
BreyniaEuphorbiaceaeOther
Breynia rhamnoidesOther
CalopogoniumFabaceaeOther
Canavalia roseaWild host
Cichorium endivia (endives)AsteraceaeWild host
Cissampelos owariensisMenispermaceaeWild host
Corchorus (jutes)TiliaceaeOther
Cosmos bipinnatus (garden cosmos)AsteraceaeWild host
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeOther
Dalbergia sissooFabaceaeOther
Desmodium leiocarpumFabaceaeWild host
Euphorbia (spurges)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Gardenia erubescensOther
Gardenia jovis-tonantisOther
Gardenia ternifoliaRubiaceaeOther
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)FabaceaeOther
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
Morelia senegalensisRubiaceaeWild host
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)MoringaceaeOther
Murraya koenigii (curry leaf tree)RutaceaeOther
Peltophorum pterocarpum (copperpod)FabaceaeWild host
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
PhyllanthusEuphorbiaceaeOther
Phyllanthus acidus (star gooseberry)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Phyllanthus amarus (jamaicaweed)Other
Piper umbellatumPiperaceaeWild host
Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
Sesamum (Sesame)PedaliaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Infested hosts may show symptoms such as honeydew deposits, leading to the development of sooty mould, and leaf browning and withering.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page As with other whitefly species, the eggs are laid on the under surface of leaves (Nair, 1986) and form small clusters. In India, the eggs can be found from the beginning of February (Misra, 1924). This is a pest with a high threshold temperature for development and the climate in India has an important influence on population development (David et al., 1973). The eggs require a minimum of 17°C for development. The optimum temperature for development is 30°C (Shishehbor and Brennan, 1995). After hatching, a first-instar larva, which is the only mobile juvenile stage, will walk a short distance to find a suitable feeding location on the underside of the leaf on which it hatched. The stylet mouthparts pierce plant tissue and the larva feeds by sucking phloem sap. The larva has four instars (Nair, 1986). The second-, third- and fourth-instars are sessile. The adults emerge from the final larval stage called the puparium. The adults are active during the day and become torpid during cold evenings (Nair, 1986). In northern India, this pest can be seen on leaves between February and November. From July to September, the life cycle in India is completed in 19 to 21 days (Nair, 1986). There are overlapping generations.

Shishehbor and Brennan (1996a) conducted laboratory studies and measured development time from egg to adult on five hosts at fluctuating temperatures (day 25°C, night 17°C). Development on aubergine (Solanum melongena) took 18 days from egg to adult with 72% survival; on cotton (Gossypium spp.) development took 18 days (68% survival); on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), 21 days (58% survival); on potato (Solanum tuberosum), 20 days (41% survival); and on pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.), 30 days (59% survival). During September, under field conditions in northern India, the life cycle is completed in 19 to 21 days (Nair, 1986). In the field, El Khidir and Khalifa (1962) noted that adults lay an average of 100 eggs. However, in laboratory trials at 20°C, the females laid an average of 183 eggs, at 25°C an average of 224 eggs were laid, at 30°C an average of 294 eggs were laid and at 35°C an average of 132 eggs were laid (Shishehbor and Brennan, 1996b). Such data suggest that population development is optimal at temperatures between 25 and 30°C.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphytis proclia Parasite Larvae
Campylomma diversicornis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa Predator Adults/Larvae
Clitostethus arcuatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia formosa Parasite Larvae
Encarsia inaron Parasite Larvae
Encarsia lahorensis Parasite Larvae
Encarsia meritoria Parasite Larvae
Encarsia sophia Parasite Larvae
Eretmocerus Parasite Larvae
Eretmocerus mundus Parasite Larvae
Eretmocerus trialeurodis Parasite Larvae
Jauravia soror Predator Adults/Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Encarsia formosa is a parasite of T. ricini, and may be used as a biological control agent (Shishehbor and Brennan, 1996c, d).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

The adults are weak flyers and can disperse naturally.

Vector Transmission

T. ricini was not known to be a virus vector until Idriss et al. (1997) reported it as a vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Egypt. Idriss et al. (1997) reports that there are a number of biotypes, each of which is viruliferous. In a review of whitefly-transmitted viruses, Jones (2003) includes T. ricini as a vector of TYLCV, but points out that transmission studies in the UK have not confirmed that T. ricini is indeed a vector. Nelson et al. (2004) used a T. ricini population from the Canary Isles and conducted virus transmission experiments on beans, tomatoes and other hosts. Working with TYLCV and other viruses, they were not able to demonstrate virus transmission. There may be genetic differences between populations of T. ricini in Egypt and the Canary Isles causing differences in the ability to transmit viruses.

Agricultural Practices

The movement of infested plants or fruits can lead to long-distance spread.

Movement in Trade

The UK has found this pest during phytosanitary inspections of vegetables from Africa (Anon., 2003) indicating that this whitefly can spread in trade. Spread can occur via infected plants for planting, vegetables and fruits from countries where T. ricini is present. T. ricini has been found in the Canary Isles (Anon., 2000). Since there are strong transport and trading links between the Canary Isles and Spain and the rest of Europe, there is a good chance of further spread.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact

Top of page T. ricini is a serious pest of castor (Ricinus communis) in tropical regions of Africa and Asia (Mound and Halsey, 1978; Bink-Moenen, 1983; Vora et al., 1984; Abd-Rabou et al., 2000). It has been regarded as a minor pest in southern provinces of Iran (Farahbakhsh, 1961) and is a minor pest of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) and sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) in India (Hill, 1983). The larvae and adults suck sap from lower leaf surfaces and the resulting honeydew deposits lead to the development of sooty moulds. Heavy infestations can produce a large amount of honeydew and sooty moulds can cause a significant reduction in photosynthesis, which reduces plant growth. Seed yield may be reduced in castor due to sooty moulds (Patel et al., 1986). An excessive loss of sap, due to heavy infestations, reduces host vigour.

Many field vegetable crops can also be attacked. In Egypt, T. ricini occurs in all governates on many different crops in huge numbers during the summer (Idriss et al., 1997) and, with other whitefly species, can cause heavy losses.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Hosts showing symptoms such as growth of sooty mould or leaf browning or withering should be inspected. The adults can be seen when they flutter from the underside of leaves when a plant is disturbed. The underside of leaves should be closely visually examined for immature life stages.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page It is difficult to identify this organism; it may be confused with the glasshouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. T. ricini may be the senior synonym of Trialeurodes lauri, a native Mediterranean species, present in France, Greece, Italy, Turkey and the former Yugoslavia (Martin et al., 2000).

Prevention and Control

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Given suitable conditions, populations can rapidly grow. In India, dimethoate and quinalphos, both at 0.05%, are recommended for controlling T. ricini on castor bean (Ricinus communis) (Patel et al., 1986). Spays should be applied carefully because individuals inhabit the underside of leaves, which can provide some protection from chemical spray treatments.

References

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Abd-Rabou S, 1999. New records on whiteflies in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 77(3):1143-1146; 6 ref.

Abd-Rabou S; Hussein N; Sewify GH; Elnagar S, 2000. Seasonal abundance of the whitefly Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on some weeds and on castor plants in Qalyubia, Egypt. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 51(4):501-510; 6 ref.

Abdullah NMM; Martin J, 2007. New record for four additional whiteflies species from Yemen. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 25(1):33-34. http://www.asplantprotection.org/ASPP_Journal_Table.htm

Anon, 2000. Canary Islands results. European Whitefly Studies Network Newsletter, No. 3.

Anon, 2003. Plant Health Interception and Outbreak Chart 6 December 2003. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. http://www.defra.gov.uk/planth/interc/6dec03.pdf.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Bink-Moenen RM, 1983. Revision of the African whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), mainly based on a collection from Tchad. Revision of the African whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), mainly based on a collection from Tchad. Nederlandse Entomologische Vereniging Amsterdam Netherlands, 210 pp.

Corbett GH, 1935. On new Aleyrodidae (Hem.). Annals of the Magazine of Natural History, 10(16):240-252.

David BV; Radha NV; Seshu KA, 1973. Influence of weather factors on the population of the castor Aleyrodid Trialeurodes rara Singh. Madras Agricultural Journal, 60(7):496-499

El Khidir E; Khalifa A, 1962. A new aleyrodid from the Sudan. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Series B, 31:47-51.

EPPO, 2000. Additions to the EPPO Alert List, Trialeurodes ricini (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) - Castor whitefly, EPPO Reporting Service, 2000, No. 4.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farahbakhsh G, 1961. A Checklist of Economically Important Insects and other Enemies of Plants and Agricultural Products in Iran. Tehran, Iran: Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture.

Hill DS, 1983. Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and their Control. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Idriss M; Abdallah N; Aref N; Haridy G; Madkour M, 1997. Biotypes of the castor bean whitefly Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Hom., Aleyrodidae) in Egypt: biochemical characterization and efficiency of geminivirus transmission. Journal of Applied Entomology, 121(9/10):501-509; 43 ref.

Jones DR, 2003. Plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109(3):195-219; 253 ref.

Lourens JH; Brader L; van der Laan PA, 1972. Contribution à l’étude d’une ‘mosaïque’ du cotonnier au Tchad; distribution dans un champ; Aleurodidae communs; essais de transmission de cotonnier à cotonnier par les Aleurodidae. Coton et Fibres Tropicales, 27(2):225-230.

Malumphy C; Suarez MB; Glover R; Boonham N; Collins DW, 2007. Morphological and molecular evidence supporting the validity of Trialeurodes lauri and T. ricini (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae). European Journal of Entomology, 104(2):295-301. http://www.eje.cz/scripts/content.php

Martin JH, 1987. An identification guide to common whitefly pest species of the world (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Tropical Pest Management, 33:298-322.

Martin JH; Mifsud D; Rapisarda C, 2000. The whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 90(5):407-448; Many ref.

Misra CS, 1924. The citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri in India and its parasite, together with the life history of Aleurodes ricini, n. sp. Report of Proceedings of an Entomological Meeting, Pusa 1923:129-135.

Mound LA; Halsey SH, 1978. Whitefly of the world. A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Muniappan R; Watson GW; Vaughan L; Gilbertson R; Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 28(1):1-7. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/28/28001.pdf

Nair MRGK, 1986. Insects and mites of crops in India. New Delhi, India; Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Ed. 2:v + 408pp.

Nelson D; Hatt G; Nelson C; Bedford ID, 2004. Trialeurodes ricini (Misra): A begomovirus vector? In: Proceedings of the 2nd European Whitefly Studies Network Symposium, Cavtat, Croatia, 5-9 October, 2004.

Parviz Shishehbor; Brennan PA, 1995. Environmental effects on pre-imaginal development and survival of the castor whitefly, Trialeurodes ricini Misra. Insect Science and its Application, 16(3/4):325-331; 24 ref.

Patel MM; Naik MM; Vyas HN; Patel AT, 1986. Evaluation of certain insecticides against whitefly (Trialeurodes ricini Misra) and jassid (Empoasca kerri Pruthi) infesting castor. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 14(1):81-82

Sarma AK; Singh MP; Singh KI, 2005. Studies on insect-pests of castor in the agro-ecosystem of Manipur. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 16(2):164-165.

Shishehbor P, 1994. Investigations on the morphology, biology and ecology of the castor whitefly, Trialeurodes ricini Misra (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). PhD Thesis. Ireland: University of Dublin.

Shishehbor P; Brennan PA, 1996. Adult longevity, fecundity, and population growth rates for Trialeurodes ricini Misra (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) at different constant temperatures. Canadian Entomologist, 128(5):859-863; 19 ref.

Shishehbor P; Brennan PA, 1996. Functional response of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) parasitizing castor whitefly, Trialeurodes ricini Misra (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 120(5):297-299; 14 ref.

Shishehbor P; Brennan PA, 1996. Life history traits of castor whitefly, Trialeurodes ricini Misra (Hom., Aleyrodidae), on eight host plant species. Journal of Applied Entomology, 120(9):519-522; 21 ref.

Shishehbor P; Brennan PA, 1996. Parasitism of the castor whitefly, Trialeurodes ricini (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) by Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): bionomics in relation to temperature. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(1):67-72; 34 ref.

Srivastava AS; Srivastava JL; Tripathi RA, 1972. Incidence of pests on castor. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology, 10-B(1):47-48

Vora VJ; Bharodia RK; Kapadia MN, 1984. Pests of oilseed crops and their control castor. Pesticides, 18(11):3-5

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

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