Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytoplasma aurantifolia
(lime witches' broom phytoplasma)

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Datasheet

Phytoplasma aurantifolia (lime witches' broom phytoplasma)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytoplasma aurantifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lime witches' broom phytoplasma
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •         Family: Acholeplasmataceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Advanced symptoms of witches broom disease (defoliation and dry twigs) caused by Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.
TitleAdvanced symptoms of witches broom disease
CaptionAdvanced symptoms of witches broom disease (defoliation and dry twigs) caused by Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.
CopyrightD.K. Ghosh
Advanced symptoms of witches broom disease (defoliation and dry twigs) caused by Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.
Advanced symptoms of witches broom diseaseAdvanced symptoms of witches broom disease (defoliation and dry twigs) caused by Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.D.K. Ghosh

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytoplasma aurantifolia Zreik et al 1995

Preferred Common Name

  • lime witches' broom phytoplasma

Other Scientific Names

  • Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia Zreik et al 1995

International Common Names

  • English: witches' broom disease of lime

Local Common Names

  • India: blastomania, multiple sprouting

EPPO code

  • PHYPAF (Phytoplasma aurantifoliae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: Phytoplasma aurantifolia

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-YunnanPresentXu et al., 2013
IndiaRestricted distribution1995CABI/EPPO, 1999; Verma et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014; Naik et al., 2015
-Andhra PradeshPresentGhosh et al., 1999a; Ghosh et al., 1999b; Sharma and Singh, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Ragimekula et al., 2014
-DelhiPresentKumar et al., 2012a; Kumar et al., 2012b
-KarnatakaPresentGhosh et al., 1999a; Ghosh et al., 1999b; Sharma and Singh, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresent1995Ghosh et al., 1999b; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Verma et al., 2014; Yadav et al., 2016
-RajasthanPresentGhosh et al., 1999b
-Tamil NaduPresentGhosh et al., 1999a; Ghosh et al., 1999b; Sharma and Singh, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentHarling et al., 2009
-SumatraPresentHarling et al., 2009
IranRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 1999; Taher and Lee, 1999; Bové et al., 2000; Salehi et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentNaito et al., 2007
OmanWidespread1987Bove et al., 1986; Bove et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentAlhudaib and Rezk, 2011; EPPO, 2014
United Arab EmiratesWidespreadEl Shireiqi & Gassouma, 1993; Garnier et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentOchoa-Sánchez et al., 2009

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentArocha et al., 2006

South America

EcuadorPresentCaicedo et al., 2015

Europe

UKPresentReeder et al., 2010

Oceania

AustraliaPresentTairo et al., 2006
-Western AustraliaPresentTairo et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2010
-Western AustraliaPresentTairo et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2010
TongaPresentSouth Pacific Commissionpersonal communication

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / distortion
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Hishimonus phycitisSalehi et al., 2007. InsectIran

References

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Ahlawat YS, 1987. Association of mycoplasma like organisms with rubbery wood disease of citrus. Proc. 3rd Reg. Workshop on Plant Mycoplasma, IARI, New Delhi, Feb. 7-10, 1987.

Ahlawat YS; Chenulu VV, 1985. Rubbery wood and multiple sprouting - two newly discovered diseases of citrus. Indian Phytopathology, 38:625.

Alhudaib K; Rezk A, 2011. First report of a phytoplasma associated with a witches' broom disease in tomato in Alhasa, Saudi Arabia. New Disease Reports, 24:Article 20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=024020

Arocha Y; Echodu R; Talengera D; Muhangi J; Rockefeller E; Asher O; Nakacwa R; Serugga R; Gumisiriza G; Tripathi J; Kabuye D; Otipa M; Vutseme K; Lukanda M; Boa E, 2009. Occurrence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (16SrII group) in cassava and four other species in Uganda. Plant Pathology, 58(2):390. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Arocha Y; Piñol B; Picornell B; Almeida R; Jones P, 2006. First report of a 16SrII ('Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia') group phytoplasma associated with a bunchy-top disease of papaya in Cuba. Plant Pathology, 55(6):821. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa

Bove J, 1986. Outbreaks and new records. Oman. Witches' broom disease of lime. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 34(4):217-218

Bové JM; Danet JL; Bananej K; Hassanzadeh N; Taghizadeh M; Salehi M; Garnier M, 2000. Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) in Iran. In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists, Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 13-18 September 1998 [ed. by Graça, J. V. da\Lee, R. F.\Yokomi, R. K.]. Riverside, USA: International Organization of Citrus Virologists, 207-212.

Bove JM; Garnier M, 1997. Recent development in phloem-restricted wall-less bacteria of citrus: Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia and Spiroplasma citri, two mycoplasma plant pathogens. Proc. V Inter. Cong. Citrus Nurserymen, Montpellier, March 5-8, 1997.

Bove JM; Garnier M; Mjeni AM; Khayrallah A, 1988. Witches' broom disease of small fruited acid lime trees in Oman: First MLO disease of citrus. In: Proc. Xth Conf. of IOCV, Valencia, Spain, Nov. 17-21, 1986, 307-309.

Bove JM; Leyla Zreik; Danet J; Bonfils J; Mjeni AM; Garnier M, 1993. Witches' Broom disease of Lime trees: Monoclonal antibody and DNA probes for the detection of the associated MLO and the identification of a possible vector. Proc. XII Conf. of IOCV, IARI, New Delhi, Nov. 23-27, 1992, 342-348.

Bove JM; Navarro L; Bonnet P; Zreik L; Garnier M, 1996. Reaction of citrus cultivars to graft inoculation of Phytoplasma aurantifolia - infected lime shoots. Proc. XIII Conf. of IOCV, Fugian Province, China, Nov. 16-23, 1995, 249-251.

CABI/EPPO, 1999. Lime witches' broom phytoplasma. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 792. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Caicedo J; Crizón M; Pozo A; Cevallos A; Simbaña L; Rivera L; Arahana V, 2015. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (16SrII) associated with potato purple top in San Gabriel-Carchi, Ecuador. New Disease Reports, 32:20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=032020

Davis RE; Sinclair WA, 1998. Phytoplasma identity and disease etiology. Phytopathology, 88(12):1372-1376; 47 ref.

Dong JH; Zhang L; Li WH; McBeath JH; Zhang ZK, 2013. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia'-related strain associated with tomato yellows disease in China. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 79(5):366-369. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10327-013-0463-5

El Shireiqi RK; Gassouma S, 1993. Witches' broom disease of lime in the United Arab Emirates. In: Proc. 12th Conf. IOCV,IARI, New Delhi, Nov. 23-27, 1992, 453-454.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Garnier M; Zreik L; Bove JM, 1991. Witches' broom, a lethal mycoplasmal disease of lime trees in the sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates. Plant Disease, 75(6):546-551

Ghosh DK, 2000. Prevalence of tristeza, exocortis and phytoplasma in citrus orchards of Maharastra, India. In: IX Congress of International Society of Citriculture, Dec. 3-7, 2000, Orlando, Florida.

Ghosh DK; Das AK; Shyam Singh; Singh SJ; Ahlawat YS, 1999. Association of a phytoplasma with witches' broom, a new disease of acid lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). Current Science, 77(1):174-177; 11 ref.

Ghosh DK; Das AK; Shyam Singh; Singh SJ; Ahlawat YS, 1999. Occurrence of witches'-broom, a new phytoplasma disease of acid lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) in India. Plant Disease, 83(3):302; 2 ref.

Harling R; Arocha Y; Harju V; Tobing C; Boa E; Kelly P; Reeder R, 2009. First report of 16SrII 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' infecting chilli and tamarillo in Indonesia. Plant Pathology, 58(4):791. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Hashemi-Tameh M; Bahar M; Zirak L, 2014. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', new phytoplasma species infecting apple trees in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology, 162(7/8):472-480. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Kumar S; Singh V; Lakhanpaul S, 2012. First report of a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' isolate associated with a yellowing disease of Barleria prionitis. New Disease Reports, 25:8. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=025008

Kumar S; Singh V; Lakhanpaul S, 2012. First report of Mirabilis and Chrysanthemum little leaf associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' in India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):71-73. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0051-0/fulltext.html

Lee E; Wylie SJ; Jones MGK, 2010. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' associated with severe stunting and necrosis on the invasive weed Pelargonium capitatum in Western Australia. Plant Disease, 94(10):1264-1265. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mahadevakumar S; Thorat V; Yadav V; Yadav A; Janardhana GR, 2017. First report on the occurrence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (16SrII-D) associated with virescence and phyllody disease of China aster in India. Plant Disease, 101(1):241. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mali VR; Choudhari KG; Rane SD, 1975. Blastomania - a new bud transmissible disorder of citrus. Current Science, 44(17):627-628

Mitra DK, 1988. Little leaf disease of eggplant. Mycoplasma diseases of crops. Basic and applied aspects [edited by Maramorosch, K.; Raychaudhuri, S.P.] New York, USA; Springer-Verlag, 343-348

Naik DVK; Reddy BVB; Rani JS; Prasanthi L; Jayalakshmi RS; Shareef SM; Krishna TG, 2015. Association of a 16SrII 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' isolate with bud proliferation disease of Lablab purpureus (lablab bean) in India. New Disease Reports, 31:31. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=031031

Naito T; Tanaka M; Taba S; Toyosato T; Oshiro A; Takaesu K; Hokama K; Usugi T; Kawano S, 2007. Occurrence of chrysanthemum virescence caused by "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia" in Okinawa. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 73(2):139-141. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h33371hm42157163/?p=46937d3b82704670a8655a2a58aba001&pi=9

Ochoa-Sánchez JC; Parra-Cota FI; Aviña-Padilla K; Délano-Frier J; Martínez-Soriano JP, 2009. Amaranthus spp.: a new host of "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia". Phytoparasitica, 37(4):381-384. http://www.springerlink.com/content/b6784060075t158w/?p=192ddf70fd8248e587e94c91794381dc&pi=12

Ragimekula N; Chittem K; Nagabudi VN; Mendoza LEdel R, 2014. First report of 16SrII-D phytoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' associated with mung bean phyllody in Andhra Pradesh, India. Plant Disease, 98(10):1424-1425. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Reddy BVB; Prasanthi L; Jayalaxmi RS; Saisruthi V; Shareef SM; Krishna TG, 2014. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' associated with phyllody of blackgram in India. New Disease Reports, 30:25. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030025

Reeder R; Kelly P; Arocha Y, 2010. First identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' infecting Fallopia japonica in the United Kingdom. Plant Pathology, 59(2):396. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Salehi M; Izadpanah K; Siampour M; Bagheri A; Faghihi SM, 2007. Transmission of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' to bakraee (Citrus reticulata hybrid) by feral Hishimonus phycitis leafhoppers in Iran. Plant Disease, 91(4):466. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Salehi M; Izadpanah K; Taghizadeh M, 2002. Witches' broom disease of lime in Iran: new distribution areas, experimental herbaceous hosts and transmission trials. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists, Paphos, Cyprus, 11-16 November 2001 [ed. by Duran-Vila, N.\Milne, R. G.\Graça, J. V. da]. Riverside, USA: International Organization of Citrus Virologists, 293-296.

Seemüller E; Schneider B; Maürer R; Ahrens U; Daire X; Kison H; Lorenz KH; Firrao G; Avinent L; Sears BB; Stackebrandt E, 1994. Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 44(3):440-446

Sharma SR; Singh SJ, 1988. Association of mycoplasma-like organisms with citrus blastomania. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(2):86-92

Smart CD; Schneider B; Blomquist CL; Guerra LJ; Harrison NA; Ahrens U; Lorenz KH; Seemller E; Kirkpatrick BC, 1996. Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(8):2988-2993; 33 ref.

Taher MM; Lee RF, 1999. Excerpts from a report on witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL). IOCV Newsletter, 15(2):2-3.

Tairo F; Jones RAC; Valkonen JPT, 2006. Phytoplasma from little leaf disease affected sweetpotato in Western Australia: detection and phylogeny. Annals of Applied Biology, 149(1):9-14. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00065.x

Verma R; Gaikwad P; Mungekar D; Tripathi S; Datar V; Singh J, 2014. First report of mixed infection of Papaya ringspot virus and phytoplasma in papaya in India. Journal of Plant Pathology, 96(2):438. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Verma R; Mungekar D; Gaikwad P; Tomer SPS; Datar VV, 2012. First report of a phytoplasma associated with an axillary shoot proliferation disease in papaya in India. New Disease Reports, 25:18. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=025018

Xu Xia; Mou HaiQing; Zhu ShuiFang; Liao XiaoLan; Zhao WenJun, 2013. Detection and characterization of phytoplasma associated with big bud disease of tomato in China. Journal of Phytopathology, 161(6):430-433. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Yadav A; Bhale U; Thorat V; Shouche Y, 2014. First report of a new subgroup 16Sr II-M 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' associated with witches'-broom disease of Tephrosia purpurea in India. Plant Disease, 98(7):990. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Yadav A; Thorat V; Shouche Y, 2016. Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia (16SrII group) associated with witches' broom disease of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) in India. Plant Disease, 100(1):209. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Zreik L; Carle P; Bove JM; Garnier M, 1995. Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches'-broom disease of lime and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 45(3):449-453

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