Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytoplasma aurantifolia
(lime witches' broom phytoplasma)

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Datasheet

Phytoplasma aurantifolia (lime witches' broom phytoplasma)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytoplasma aurantifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lime witches' broom phytoplasma
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •         Family: Acholeplasmataceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Advanced symptoms of witches broom disease (defoliation and dry twigs) caused by Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.
TitleAdvanced symptoms of witches broom disease
CaptionAdvanced symptoms of witches broom disease (defoliation and dry twigs) caused by Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.
CopyrightD.K. Ghosh
Advanced symptoms of witches broom disease (defoliation and dry twigs) caused by Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.
Advanced symptoms of witches broom diseaseAdvanced symptoms of witches broom disease (defoliation and dry twigs) caused by Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.D.K. Ghosh

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytoplasma aurantifolia Zreik et al 1995

Preferred Common Name

  • lime witches' broom phytoplasma

Other Scientific Names

  • Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia Zreik et al 1995

International Common Names

  • English: witches' broom disease of lime

Local Common Names

  • India: blastomania, multiple sprouting

EPPO code

  • PHYPAF (Phytoplasma aurantifoliae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: Phytoplasma aurantifolia

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 06 Aug 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HainanPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized1995
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent1995
-RajasthanPresentOriginal citation: Ghosh et al., 1999b
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent, Localized
IraqPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
MyanmarPresent
OmanPresent, Widespread1987
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent, Widespread
VietnamPresent

Europe

ItalyPresent
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaAbsent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CubaPresent
MexicoPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
FijiPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresentpersonal communication; Original citation: South Pacific Commission
VanuatuPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
EcuadorPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / distortion
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Hishimonus phycitisSalehi et al. (2007)InsectIran

References

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Acosta Pérez, K., Piñol, B., Rosete, Y. A., Wilson, M., Boa, E., Lucas, J., 2010. Transmission of the phytoplasma associated with Bunchy Top Symptom of papaya by Empoasca papayae Oman. Journal of Phytopathology, 158(3), 194-196. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2009.01590.x

Acosta, K., Piñol, B., Acosta, E., Countín, P., Arocha, Y., 2009. First report on detection of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (group 16SrII) affecting sapodilla in eastern Cuba. Plant Pathology, 58(2), 391. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01998.x

Ahlawat YS, 1987. Association of mycoplasma like organisms with rubbery wood disease of citrus. Proc. 3rd Reg. Workshop on Plant Mycoplasma, IARI, New Delhi, Feb. 7-10, 1987

Ahlawat YS, Chenulu VV, 1985. Rubbery wood and multiple sprouting - two newly discovered diseases of citrus. Indian Phytopathology, 38:625

Akhtar, K. P., Dickinson, M., Asghar, M. J., Ghulam Abbas, Nighat Sarwar, 2016. Association of 16SrII-C phytoplasma with lentil phyllody disease in Pakistan. Tropical Plant Pathology, 41(3), 198-202. doi: 10.1007/s40858-016-0087-3

Al-Abadi, S. Y., Al-Sadi, A. M., Dickinson, M., Al-Hammadi, M. S., Al-Shariqi, R., Al-Yahyai, R. A., Kazerooni, E. A., Bertaccini, A., 2016. Population genetic analysis reveals a low level of genetic diversity of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' causing witches' broom disease in lime. SpringerPlus, 5(1701), (3 October 2016). http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/820/art%253A10.1186%252Fs40064-016-3401-0.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fspringerplus.springeropen.com%2Farticle%2F10.1186%2Fs40064-016-3401-0&token2=exp=1481089034˜acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F820%2Fart%25253A10.1186%25252Fs40064-016-3401-0.pdf*˜hmac=556eba653565b0e6f8a7a0c9973eba70880478f73177ac624480c8ec13e38412

Alhudaib K, Rezk A, 2011. First report of a phytoplasma associated with a witches' broom disease in tomato in Alhasa, Saudi Arabia. New Disease Reports, 24:Article 20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=024020

Alhudaib, K., Arocha, Y., Wilson, M., Jones, P., 2009. Molecular identification, potential vectors and alternative hosts of the phytoplasma associated with a lime decline disease in Saudi Arabia. Crop Protection, 28(1), 13-18. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2008.08.007

Amit Yadav, Vipool Thorat, Udhav Bhale, Yogesh Shouche, 2015. Association of 16SrII-C and 16SrII-D subgroup phytoplasma strains with witches' broom disease of Parthenium hysterophorus and insect vector Orosius albicinctus in India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1), 31. doi: 10.1007/s13314-015-0181-2

Arocha Y, Echodu R, Talengera D, Muhangi J, Rockefeller E, Asher O, Nakacwa R, Serugga R, Gumisiriza G, Tripathi J, Kabuye D, Otipa M, Vutseme K, Lukanda M, Boa E, 2009. Occurrence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (16SrII group) in cassava and four other species in Uganda. Plant Pathology, 58(2):390. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Arocha Y, Piñol B, Picornell B, Almeida R, Jones P, 2006. First report of a 16SrII ('Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia') group phytoplasma associated with a bunchy-top disease of papaya in Cuba. Plant Pathology, 55(6):821. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa

Arocha, Y., Almeida, R., Vigheri, N., Nkoy-Florent, Betts, P., Monger, W. A., Harju, V., Mumford, R. A., Bekele, B., Tadesse, D., Jones, P., 2008. Unveiling the aetiology of papaya diseases in Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Ethiopia. Revista de Protección Vegetal, 23(1), 21-25.

Arocha, Y., Plata, G., Franco, J., Maín, G., Veramendi, S., Lazcano, F., Crespo, J. L., Lino, V., Calderón, C., Llerena, R., Andrew, R., Antezana, O., Gutiérrez, A., Coca, M., Boa, E., 2010. Occurrence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (16SrII group) in Bolivia. Plant Pathology, 59(2), 396. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02169.x

Arocha, Y., Singh, A., Pandey, M., Tripathi, A. N., Chandra, B., Shukla, S. K., Singh, Y., Kumar, A., Srivastava, R. K., Zaidi, N. W., Arif, M., Narwal, S., Tewari, A. K., Gupta, M. K., Nath, P. D., Rabindran, R., Khirbat, S. K., Byadgi, A. S., Singh, G., Boa, E., 2009. New plant hosts for group 16SrII, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', in India. Plant Pathology, 58(2), 391. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01969.x

Ashwathappa, K. V., Venkataravanappa, V., Reddy, C. N. L., Swarnalatha, P., Reddy, M. K., 2019. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (16SrII-A) associated with strawflower phyllody. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 14(1), 28. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-019-0359-0

Askari, N., Salehi Jouzani, G., Mousivand, M., Foroutan, A., Hagh Nazari, A., Abbasalizadeh, S., Soheilivand, S., Mardi, M., 2011. Evaluation of Anti-Phytoplasma Properties of Surfactin and Tetracycline Towards Lime Witches' Broom Disease Using Real-Time PCR. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 21(1), 81-88. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1007.07047

Azimi, M., Farokhinejad, R., Mehrabi-Koushki, M., 2017. First report of Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia (16SrII group) associated with Conocarpus erectus disease in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 12(1), 27. doi: 10.1007/s13314-017-0253-6

Azimi, M., Mehrabi-Koushki, M., Farokhinejad, R., 2018. Association of two groups of phytoplasma with various symptoms in some wooden and herbaceous plants. Journal of Phytopathology, 166(4), 273-282. doi: 10.1111/jph.12684

Bhat, A. I., Jiby, M. V., Muthuswamy Anandaraj, Vemulapati Bhadramurthy, Patel, K. D., Patel, N. R., Jaiman, R. K., Agalodia, A. V., 2008. Occurrence and partial characterization of a phytoplasma associated with phyllody disease of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare mill.) in India. Journal of Phytopathology, 156(11/12), 758-761. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01442.x

Bove J, 1986. Outbreaks and new records. Oman. Witches' broom disease of lime. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 34(4):217-218

Bové JM, Danet JL, Bananej K, Hassanzadeh N, Taghizadeh M, Salehi M, Garnier M, 2000. Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) in Iran. In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists, Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 13-18 September 1998 [ed. by Graça, J. V. da\Lee, R. F.\Yokomi, R. K.]. Riverside, USA: International Organization of Citrus Virologists, 207-212

Bove JM, Garnier M, 1997. Recent development in phloem-restricted wall-less bacteria of citrus: Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia and Spiroplasma citri, two mycoplasma plant pathogens. Proc. V Inter. Cong. Citrus Nurserymen, Montpellier, March 5-8, 1997

Bove JM, Garnier M, Mjeni AM, Khayrallah A, 1988. Witches' broom disease of small fruited acid lime trees in Oman: First MLO disease of citrus. In: Proc. Xth Conf. of IOCV, Valencia, Spain, Nov. 17-21, 1986, 307-309

Bove JM, Leyla Zreik, Danet J, Bonfils J, Mjeni AM, Garnier M, 1993. Witches' Broom disease of Lime trees: Monoclonal antibody and DNA probes for the detection of the associated MLO and the identification of a possible vector. Proc. XII Conf. of IOCV, IARI, New Delhi, Nov. 23-27, 1992, 342-348

Bove JM, Navarro L, Bonnet P, Zreik L, Garnier M, 1996. Reaction of citrus cultivars to graft inoculation of Phytoplasma aurantifolia - infected lime shoots. Proc. XIII Conf. of IOCV, Fugian Province, China, Nov. 16-23, 1995, 249-251

CABI/EPPO, 1999. Lime witches' broom phytoplasma. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 792. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Caicedo J, Crizón M, Pozo A, Cevallos A, Simbaña L, Rivera L, Arahana V, 2015. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (16SrII) associated with potato purple top in San Gabriel-Carchi, Ecuador. New Disease Reports, 32:20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=032020

Choueiri, E., Massad, R., Jreijiri, F., Danet, J. L., Salar, P., Bové, J. M., Foissac, X., 2005. First report of a 16SrII group phytoplasma associated with shoot proliferation of a cactus (Opuntia monacantha) in Lebanon. Plant Disease, 89(10), 1129. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1129B

Davis RE, Sinclair WA, 1998. Phytoplasma identity and disease etiology. Phytopathology, 88(12):1372-1376; 47 ref

Davis, R. I., Arocha, Y., Jones, P., Malau, A., 2005. First report of the association of phytoplasmas with plant diseases in the territory of Wallis and Futuna. Australasian Plant Pathology, 34(3), 417-418. doi: 10.1071/AP05033

Davis, R. I., Jones, P., Holman, T. J., Halsey, K., Amice, R., Tupouniua, S. K., Seth, M., 2006. Phytoplasma disease surveys in Tonga, New Caledonia and Vanuatu. Australasian Plant Pathology, 35(3), 335-340. doi: 10.1071/AP06029

Davis, R. I., Tsatsia, H., 2009. A survey for plant diseases caused by viruses and virus-like pathogens in the Solomon Islands. Australasian Plant Pathology, 38(2), 193-201. doi: 10.1071/AP08083

Djavaheri, M., Rahimian, H., 2004. Witches'-broom of bakraee (Citrus reticulata hybrid) in Iran. Plant Disease, 88(6), 683. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.6.683A

Dong JH, Zhang L, Li WH, McBeath JH, Zhang ZK, 2013. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia'-related strain associated with tomato yellows disease in China. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 79(5):366-369. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10327-013-0463-5

El Shireiqi RK, Gassouma S, 1993. Witches' broom disease of lime in the United Arab Emirates. In: Proc. 12th Conf. IOCV,IARI, New Delhi, Nov. 23-27, 1992, 453-454

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Faghihi, M. M., Bagheri, A. N., Bahrami, H. R., Hasanzadeh, H., Rezazadeh, R., Siampour, M., Samavi, S., Salehi, M., Izadpanah, K., 2011. Witches'-broom disease of lime affects seed germination and seedling growth but is not seed transmissible. Plant Disease, 95(4), 419-422. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-10-0400

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Ghosh DK, 2000. Prevalence of tristeza, exocortis and phytoplasma in citrus orchards of Maharastra, India. In: IX Congress of International Society of Citriculture, Dec. 3-7, 2000, Orlando, Florida

Ghosh DK, Das AK, Shyam Singh, Singh SJ, Ahlawat YS, 1999. Association of a phytoplasma with witches' broom, a new disease of acid lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). Current Science, 77(1):174-177; 11 ref

Ghosh DK, Das AK, Shyam Singh, Singh SJ, Ahlawat YS, 1999. Occurrence of witches'-broom, a new phytoplasma disease of acid lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) in India. Plant Disease, 83(3):302; 2 ref

Harling R, Arocha Y, Harju V, Tobing C, Boa E, Kelly P, Reeder R, 2009. First report of 16SrII 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' infecting chilli and tamarillo in Indonesia. Plant Pathology, 58(4):791. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Hashemi-Tameh M, Bahar M, Zirak L, 2014. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', new phytoplasma species infecting apple trees in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology, 162(7/8):472-480. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Hoat, T. X., Quan, M. V., Anh, D. T. L., Cuong, N. N., Vuong, P. T., Alvarez, E., Nguyen, T. T. D., Wyckhuys, K., Paltrinieri, S., Pardo, J. M., Mejia, J. F., Thanh, N. D., Dickinson, M., Duong, C. A., Kumasaringhe, N. C., Bertaccini, A., 2015. Phytoplasma diseases on major crops in Vietnam. Phytopathogenic Mollicutes, 5(1), S69-S70. doi: 10.5958/2249-4677.2015.00029.8

Hodgetts, J., Boonham, N., Mumford, R., Harrison, N., Dickinson, M., 2008. Phytoplasma phylogenetics based on analysis of secA and 23S rRNA gene sequences for improved resolution of candidate species of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma'. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 58(8), 1826-1837. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65668-0

Khalid Alhudaib, Adil Razq, 2011. First report of witches' broom disease of tomato associated with phytoplasmas in Saudi Arabia. Bulletin of Insectology, 64(Supplement), S237-S238. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Khan, A. J., Azam, K. M., Deadman, M. L., Al-Subhi, A. M., Jones P., 2001. First report of alfalfa witches broom disease in Oman caused by a phytoplasma of the 16Sr II group. Plant Disease, 85(12), 1287. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.12.1287A

Kumar S, Singh V, Lakhanpaul S, 2012. First report of a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' isolate associated with a yellowing disease of Barleria prionitis. New Disease Reports, 25:8. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=025008

Kumar S, Singh V, Lakhanpaul S, 2012. First report of Mirabilis and Chrysanthemum little leaf associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' in India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):71-73. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0051-0/fulltext.html

Lee E, Wylie SJ, Jones MGK, 2010. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' associated with severe stunting and necrosis on the invasive weed Pelargonium capitatum in Western Australia. Plant Disease, 94(10):1264-1265. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Li Yan, Chen Wang, 2018. Detection and identification of a 'Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia'-related strain (16SrII-A subgroup) associated with Corchorus aestuans phyllody in China. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 84(3), 243-245. doi: 10.1007/s10327-018-0773-8

Madhupriya, Renu Maurya, Rao, G. P., 2014. Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' related strains affecting two important medicinal plants (Cymbopogan citratus and Tylophora asthmatica) in India. Indian Phytopathology, 67(3), 303-307. http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IPPJ/article/view/43128/19347

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Naik DVK, Reddy BVB, Rani JS, Prasanthi L, Jayalakshmi RS, Shareef SM, Krishna TG, 2015. Association of a 16SrII 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' isolate with bud proliferation disease of Lablab purpureus (lablab bean) in India. New Disease Reports, 31:31. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=031031

Naito T, Tanaka M, Taba S, Toyosato T, Oshiro A, Takaesu K, Hokama K, Usugi T, Kawano S, 2007. Occurrence of chrysanthemum virescence caused by "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia" in Okinawa. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 73(2):139-141. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h33371hm42157163/?p=46937d3b82704670a8655a2a58aba001&pi=9

Nang Kyu Kyu Win, Back ChangGi, Kim YoungHwan, Jung HeeYoung, 2012. Desert rose witches' broom disease associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia'. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 78(1), 73-76. doi: 10.1007/s10327-011-0348-4

Ochoa-Sánchez JC, Parra-Cota FI, Aviña-Padilla K, Délano-Frier J, Martínez-Soriano JP, 2009. Amaranthus spp.: a new host of "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia". Phytoparasitica, 37(4):381-384. http://www.springerlink.com/content/b6784060075t158w/?p=192ddf70fd8248e587e94c91794381dc&pi=12

Omar, A. F., Alsohim, A. S., 2016. Identification of new plant hosts of 16SrII group phytoplasmas in Saudi Arabia. Phytopathogenic Mollicutes, 6(2), 71-76. doi: 10.5958/2249-4677.2016.00017.7

Ragimekula N, Chittem K, Nagabudi VN, Mendoza LEdel R, 2014. First report of 16SrII-D phytoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' associated with mung bean phyllody in Andhra Pradesh, India. Plant Disease, 98(10):1424-1425. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Rao, G. P., Chaturvedi, Y., Priya, M., Mall, S., 2011. Association of a 16SrII group phytoplasma with dieback disease of papaya in India. Bulletin of Insectology, 64(Supplement), S105-S106. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Reddy BVB, Prasanthi L, Jayalaxmi RS, Saisruthi V, Shareef SM, Krishna TG, 2014. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' associated with phyllody of blackgram in India. New Disease Reports, 30:25. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030025

Reeder R, Kelly P, Arocha Y, 2010. First identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' infecting Fallopia japonica in the United Kingdom. Plant Pathology, 59(2):396. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Reeder, R., Kelly, P., Arocha, Y., 2009. First identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' infecting Fallopia japonica in the United Kingdom. Plant Pathology, 19, 396-396. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02168.x

Salehi M, Izadpanah K, Siampour M, Bagheri A, Faghihi SM, 2007. Transmission of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' to bakraee (Citrus reticulata hybrid) by feral Hishimonus phycitis leafhoppers in Iran. Plant Disease, 91(4):466. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Salehi M, Izadpanah K, Taghizadeh M, 2002. Witches' broom disease of lime in Iran: new distribution areas, experimental herbaceous hosts and transmission trials. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists, Paphos, Cyprus, 11-16 November 2001 [ed. by Duran-Vila, N.\Milne, R. G.\Graça, J. V. da]. Riverside, USA: International Organization of Citrus Virologists, 293-296

Salehi, M., Esmailzadeh, S. A., Salehi, E., 2015. Characterisation of a phytoplasma associated with sunflower phyllody in Fars, Isfahan and Yazd provinces of Iran. New Disease Reports, 31, 6. doi: 10.5197/j.2044-0588.2015.031.006

Salehi, M., Nejat, N., Tavakkoli, A. R., Izadpanah, K. A., 2005. Reaction of Citrus Cultivars to Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolla in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 41(3), 363-376. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=87892

Salem, N. M., Tahzima, R., Abdeen, A. O., Bianco, P. A., Massart, S., Goedefroit, T., De Jonghe, K., 2019. First Report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia'-Related Strains Infecting Potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Jordan. Disease Notes, 103(6), doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0705-PDN

Samavi, S., Faghihi, M. M., Hasanzadeh, H., Bagheri, A. N., Salehi, M., Sotoudehnia, P., 2012. First report of the natural occurrence of group 16SrII 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' in two Solanum species in Iran. New Disease Reports, 26, 23. doi: 10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.026.023

Saqib, M., Bayliss, K. L., Dell, B., St J. Hardy, G. E., Jones, M. G. K., 2005. First record of a phytoplasma-associated disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 34(3), 425-426. doi: 10.1071/AP05047

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Xu Xia, Mou HaiQing, Zhu ShuiFang, Liao XiaoLan, Zhao WenJun, 2013. Detection and characterization of phytoplasma associated with big bud disease of tomato in China. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (6), 430-433. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 DOI:10.1111/jph.12065

Yadav A, Bhale U, Thorat V, Shouche Y, 2014. First report of a new subgroup 16Sr II-M 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' associated with witches'-broom disease of Tephrosia purpurea in India. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 990. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-13-1183-PDN

Yadav A, Thorat V, Shouche Y, 2016. Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia (16SrII group) associated with witches' broom disease of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) in India. Plant Disease. 100 (1), 209. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-15-0534-PDN

Zreik L, Carle P, Bové J M, Garnier M, 1995. Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches'-broom disease of lime and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 45 (3), 449-453.

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