Typha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Water Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Typha angustifolia L.
Preferred Common Name
- lesser bulrush
International Common Names
- English: lesser reedmace; narrowleaf cattail
- Spanish: abea; espadaña; junco de la pasion
- French: massette a feuilles etroites
- Portuguese: taboa; tabua-estreita
Local Common Names
- Argentina: totora
- Australia: cumbungi
- Belgium: kleine Lisdodde
- Brazil: taboa
- Colombia: enea
- Dominican Republic: enea
- Germany: Schmalblaettriger Rohrkolben
- Indonesia: purun
- Italy: stiancia minore
- Japan: himegama; hime-gama
- Malaysia: banat
- Netherlands: kleine Lisdodde
- Philippines: balangot
- Thailand: kok chaang; thoup susi
- Uruguay: totora
- Venezuela: enea
- Vietnam: co nen; thuy huong
- TYHAN (Typha angustifolia)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
T. angustifolia is distributed throughout the temperate northern hemisphere, occurring in at least 56 countries. There is some dispute over its native distribution. The Kew Database regards the species as native to both the Palearctic and Nearctic but the USDA Plants Database gives its status in the USA as introduced. Most reports of problems come from Eurasia and North America. It is not listed (in 2007) as a noxious weed on either the US Federal, nor any state listing, although it is included in some state manuals for control of invasive plants (e.g. Wisconsin). It is a competitive species occurring in aquatic to wetland habitats, primarily considered a nuisance in North America where it invades and displaces other, less competitive, wetland and emergent species, causing loss of biodiversity. Otherwise, its impact is generally low, and often as part of a mixed community of native species causing overgrowth of drainage channels.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Typhales
- Family: Typhaceae
- Genus: Typha
- Species: Typha angustifolia
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The taxonomy of Typhaceae is somewhat complex. Some authorities combine Typha angustifolia with Typha domingensis, under the former name, but both the USDA Plants Database, and the Kew Index separate the two species (Chambers et al., 2008), and only T. angustifolia, sensu stricto, is dealt with here. Some workers have suggested that T. angustifolia was early introduced from Europe into Atlantic Coastal North America and migrated westward (Stuckey and Salamon, 1987). In South America Fernández et al. (1990), consider T. domingensis to be a separate species, and isoenzyme studies by Sharitz et al. (1980) on North American material provide further evidence for this. At least eight other species are commonly recognized, although only three of these (Typha javanica, Typha orientalis and Typha elephantina are serious causes of weed problems (Sainty and Jacobs, 1988; Gopal, 1990).
Species of Typha are known to hybridize (Stace, 1975) and ecotype formation is common, particularly in Typha latifolia (Grace and Wetzel, 1983).
DescriptionTop of page
T. angustifolia is a slender perennial aquatic emergent plant, growing to 3 m tall, but usually smaller. It has branched creeping rhizomes, 2-4 cm in diameter, commonly 70 cm or even longer, with dense fibrous root masses occurring at the base of stems and at rhizome nodes. Stems are unbranched and round with long (60-80 cm), linear leaves, 3-12 mm wide and deep green. Leaves are strongly planoconvex, numbering <10 per stem, sheathing at the base, and commonly overtopping the inflorescence. The inflorescence is a thin, dense crowded cylindrical spike of male flowers (brown to yellowish) above a similar spike of female flowers (reddish to dark brown), with a gap of approximately 10 mm between the two. Very large numbers of small pendulous seeds, with a straight, narrow embryo are produced.
DistributionTop of page
T. angustifolia is distributed throughout the temperate northern hemisphere, occurring in at least 56 countries (Holm et al., 1997; Chambers et al., 2008). There is some dispute over its native distribution. The Kew Database regards the species as native to both the Palearctic and Nearctic but the USDA Plants Database gives its status in the USA as introduced. Most reports of problems come from Eurasia and North America. It is not listed (in 2007) as a noxious weed on either the US Federal, nor any State listing, although it is included in some state manuals for control of invasive plants (e.g. Wisconsin: Hoffman and Kearns, 1997).
Anderson (1990) reported T. angustifolia as a weed species throughout the southwestern USA, whereas species of Typha also caused problems in the northwestern states. In general, with the exception of Florida, Typha weeds appear to cause fewer problems in the eastern USA (Steward, 1990).
According to the Kew Database, records from the following countries are highly likely to be T. domingensis: Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Belize, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Australia, Micronesia (K Murphy, University of Glasgow, UK, personal communication, 2007).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
HabitatTop of page
T. angustifolia is a plant of temperate drainage and irrigation channels, associated reservoir and pond systems, navigation canals, and natural freshwater and wetland systems (lakes, rivers, ponds, topogenous and soligenous mires, fens and other marsh systems). Because of its clonal growth pattern and high competitive ability, it tends to form monodominant stands in suitable habitats for growth. The related species T. latifolia occupies very similar habitats, but tends to be replaced by T. angustifolia in waters >15 cm deep (Grace and Wetzel, 1982). The optimal water depth is 11-25 mm, and neither species survives in water deeper than 60-80 cm under normal conditions. Neither plant is very tolerant of salinity, and only slightly more than mildly brackish conditions are tolerated (e.g. Crain et al., 2004). Salinity levels of even 1% causes leaf damage to T. latifolia, although there is some North American evidence that T. angustifolia is slighter more salt-tolerant than T. latifolia (Fossett and Calhoun, 1952). These observations match the known distribution of the two species in the UK (Grime et al., 1988). The plants prefer a soil pH of >5.5, and are absent from more acidic soils.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Irrigation channels||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Lakes||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Reservoirs||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rivers / streams||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Ponds||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Estuaries||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
T. angustifolia is a competitive species (Grime et al., 1988), occurring in aquatic to wetland habitats. Weisner (1993) provided evidence to show that under productive (eutrophic) conditions, T. angustifolia has a competitive edge over T. latifolia, displacing the latter in the long term. More recent work has confirmed this, especially at high latitudes in North America, with precise outcomes dependent upon the balance of solar radiation and nutrient availability to competing populations of the two species (Tanaka et al., 2004). A high competitive ability for T. angustifolia has also been demonstrated in tidal wetlands of the northeastern United States (Farnsworth and Meyerson, 2003). However Mal et al. (1997) showed that over time, in Michigan wetlands, T. angustifolia was susceptible to competition from the strongly invasive (in N. America) Lythrum salicaria. Both T. latifolia and T. angustifolia have many similar adaptations, such as the possession of well-developed aerenchyma to supply air to root and rhizome systems growing in anoxic substrates (Tornbjerg et al., 1994). They also have an element of disturbance-tolerance in their survival strategy (Wilcox, 1995), typified by the emphasis on prolific seed production from wind- or self-pollinated inflorescences. The seed is easily wind- or water-transported within tiny fruits, the pericarp of which opens to release the seed after a period of contact with water (Krattinger, 1975). There is some seed dormancy, with germination being influenced by light, low oxygen and fluctuating temperatures.
Despite the importance to the plant of seed production, there is a considerable resource allocation to rhizome production, which provides an effective mechanism of clonal advance of up to 4 m/year (Fiala, 1971). Rhizome fragments are usually viable, float easily and provide an alternative method of regeneration of new clones to seed dispersal. A comprehensive overview of the biology of both T. angustifolia and T. latifolia is provided by Grace and Harrison (1986) and Holm et al. (1997).
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Tolerated||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Depth (m b.s.l.)||Optimum||<0.45 preferred; 0.75 tolerated|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||Optimum||<1|
|Water pH (pH)||3.7||8.5||Optimum|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||5||20||Optimum|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Indigenous curculionid beetles (Yang and Zhang, 1988) and noctuid moth larvae, such as Bellura obliqua (Penko and Pratt, 1986) are known to consume Typha tissues. Species of Typha are among the aquatic weeds controlled by the introduction of cyprinid fishes into waterways around the world (Julien and Griffiths, 1998). The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) has been reported as significantly reducing biomass of T. angustifolia in coastal marshes of New York (Connors et al., 2000).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
T. angustifolia is primarily considered a nuisance in North America where it invades and displaces other, less competitive, wetland and emergent species, causing loss of biodiversity. Otherwise, its impact is generally low, and often as part of a mixed community of native species causing overgrowth of drainage channels.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Long lived
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Reproduces asexually
- Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of hydrology
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts tourism
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Rapid growth
UsesTop of page
Species of Typha have few uses for economic purposes, although the tubers are edible and have been used as food by indigenous peoples, notably in North America. Attempts have also been made to make paper with Typha pulp in the past, and Holm et al. (1991) state that a set of books published in 1765 with Typha paper still exists. They can be valuable components of constructed wetlands, for the purpose of wastewater cleanup, as they are efficient at accumulating heavy metals (Tjitrosoedirdjo and Sastroutomo, 1986), and also in removing nutrients and oils. Boyd (1970) calculated that Typha monocultures could (on a per hectare basis) remove up to 2600 kg of N and 400 kg of P per year from water, indicating a potentially high value for eutrophication control. Typha has been considered as a biomass crop for energy purposes (Yurukova and Kochev, 1993), but as in all aquatic plants its relatively high water content poses practical difficulties, particularly in harvesting.
Typha vegetation plays a very important role in wetland ecology at sites where it occurs, by providing food, shelter and nesting sites for waterfowl, fish and other wildlife (Dvorak, 1996), and has a role in wetland restoration projects (Dobberteen and Nickerson, 1991), although excessive growth can cause problems even in natural wetland systems, such as Spanish lagoons (Dies-Jambrino and Fernandez-Anero, 1997). T. angustifolia is of value for protecting banks from erosion in navigable river systems (Bonham, 1980).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Wade (1990) provides a brief overview of Typha control by physical means. Cutting and dredging are common approaches used worldwide; cutting shoots below the waterline 2-3 times per year leads to depletion of rhizome carbohydrate reserves and can reduce growth by >90% (Sale and Wetzel, 1983; Husak et al., 1986). However, cutting above the water surface is much less efficient: in Czech fishponds a cut at 180 cm above the substrate had hardly any impact on stands of T. angustifolia, whereas cutting off stems at 80 cm above the substrate resulted in a reduction of about 65% in rhizome biomass compared with untreated controls. Burning of Typha foliage is counter-productive, and may even simulate growth of above-ground biomass (Holm et al., 1991).
Species of Typha are susceptible to the standard herbicides affecting emergent narrow-leaved weeds at the normal dose ranges, particularly dalapon (Barrett and Robson, 1974) and glyphosate (Seddon, 1981; Barrett, 1985; Schimming et al., 1987; Messersmith et al., 1992). However, they also respond to other herbicides, for example, fluridone (Parka et al., 1978) applied as a foliar spray. Arsenovic (1986) reported promising results using both imazapyr and glufosinate. In drainage channels in Serbia, glyphosate at 2.4 and 2.8 a.i. kg ha-1, glufosinate ammonium at 2.0 a.i. kg ha-1 and sulfosate [glyphosate] at 2.4 a.i. kg ha-1 were reported as effective against mixed emergent stands including T. angustifolia (Konstantininovic and Meseldija, 2005).
In nature reserves, for example in Spain, glyphosate has been used to manage invasive growths of T. angustifolia and other emergent species (Dies-Jambrino and Fernandez-Anero, 1997).
Relatively little work has been done on the biological control of species of Typha, probably because of the cosmopolitan occurrence of both T. angustifolia and T. latifolia, which makes classic biocontrol inappropriate (although not ruling out inundative methods). Species of Typha are listed as being target weeds of Aristichthys nobilis and Ctenopharyngodon idella, cyprinid fishes that have been released into waterways around the world (Julien and Griffiths, 1998). Certain curculionid beetles have been suggested as having potential (Yang and Zhang, 1988). Noctuid moth larvae, such as Bellura obliqua, are also known to infest Typha in parts of North America (Penko and Pratt, 1986), but have not been exploited as a means of practical control.
ReferencesTop of page
Anderson L, 1990. Aquatic weed problems and management in North America. (a) Aquatic weed problems and management in the western United States and Canada. In: Pieterse AH, Murphy KJ, eds. Aquatic Weeds. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 371-391.
Azan S; Webber D, 2007. The characterization and classification of the Black River Upper Morass, Jamaica, using the three-parameter test of vegetation, soils and hydrology. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 17(1):5-23. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/113488923/ABSTRACT
Bischof F, 1971. Weed control in rice in Gilan and Mazandaran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 7:48-55.
Boyd CE, 1970. Vascular aquatic plants for mineral nutrient removal from polluted waters. Economic Botany, 24:95-103.
Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.
Connors LM; Kiviat E; Groffman PM; Ostfeld RS, 2000. Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) disturbance to vegetation and potential net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates in a freshwater tidal marsh. American Midland Naturalist, 143(1):53-63.
Crain CM; Silliman BR; Bertness SL; Bertness MD, 2004. Physical and biotic drivers of plant distribution across estuarine salinity gradients. Ecology, 85(9):2539-2549. http://www.esajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1890%2F03-0745
Dies Jambrino JI; Fernández-Anero F, 1997. Results of the recuperation of biodiversity in the Racó de l'Olla (l'Albufera de València) after the selective application of caculia and a low risk herbicide. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 23(1):17-37.
Dömötörfy Z; Reeder D; Pomogyi P, 2003. Changes in the macro-vegetation of the Kis-Balaton Wetlands over the last two centuries: a GIS perspective. Hydrobiologia [International Conference on Limnology of Shallow Lakes, Balatonfüred, Hungary, 25-30 May 2002.], 506-509:671-679.
Fernández OA; Sutton DL; Lallana VH; Sabbatini MR; Irigoyen J, 1993. Aquatic weed problems and management in South and Central America. In: Aquatic weeds: the ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation [ed. by Pieterse, A. H. \Murphy, K. J.]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fernández OA; Sutton DL; Lallana VH; Sabbatini MR; Irigoyen JH, 1993. Aquatic weed problems and management in South and Central America. In: Pieterse AH, Murphy KJ, eds. Aquatic Weeds (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 406-425.
Fiala K, 1971. Seasonal changes in the growth of clones of Typha latifolia. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica, 6:255-270.
Fossett N; Calhoun BM, 1952. Introgression between Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia. Evolution, 6:367-379.
Gopal B, 1990. Aquatic weed problems and management in Asia. In: Pieterse AH, Murphy KJ, eds. Aquatic Weeds: the Ecology and Management of Nuisance Aquatic Vegetation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 318-340.
Grace JB; Wetzel RG, 1983. Variations in growth and reproduction within populations of two rhizomatous plant species: Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia. Oecologia, 53:258-263.
Hoffman R; Kearns K, 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants, Publ. ER-090 97. Madison, WI, USA: Bur. Endangered Resources, Dept. Natural Resources, 103 pp.
Ibañez C; Day JW Jr; Pont D, 1999. Primary production and decomposition of wetlands of the Rhône delta, France: interactive impacts of human modifications and relative sea level rise. Journal of Coastal Research, 15(3):717-731.
Julien MH; Griffiths MW, 1998. Biological control of weeds: a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds. Biological control of weeds: a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds., Ed. 4:x + 223 pp.
Kim Changkyun; Shin Hyunchur; Choi HongKeun, 2003. A phenetic analysis of Typha in Korea and far east Russia. Aquatic Botany, 75(1):33-43. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4F-474DP1G-1&_user=10&_handle=W-WA-A-A-E-MsSAYVW-UUA-AUCAAZBAYY-WWUADBCUZ-E-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2003&_rdoc=4&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%234973%232003%23999249998%23369524!&_cdi=4973&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=48e33cc0f62fcc07a649a5839cd70a28
Kovács M; Turcsányi G; Kaszab L; Penksza K; Ötvös E, 1996. Distribution of chemical elements in the reed- and cattail beds of Lake Balaton. Bulletin of the University of Agricultural Sciences, Gödöllo´´, 1(No. 1995/96):21-28.
Martins D; Pitelli RA; Tomazella MS; Tanaka RH; Rodrigues ACP, 2009. Aquatic plant infestation assessment in Porto Primavera reservoir before final filling. (Levantamento da infestação de plantas aquáticas em Porto Primavera antes do enchimento final do reservatório.) Planta Daninha, 27(Especial):879-886. http://www.scielo.br/pd
Mehta I, 1979. Problem and control of Typha in the Chambal Command area. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 11:36-46.
Nishihiro J; Araki S; Fujiwara N; Washitani I, 2004. Germination characteristics of lakeshore plants under an artificially stabilized water regime. Aquatic Botany, 79(4):333-343. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4F-4CSG582-2&_user=10&_handle=B-WA-A-W-E-MsSAYWW-UUW-AUEDBUUWYZ-AUEVYYAUYZ-ZUECDDBDB-E-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2004&_rdoc=5&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%234973%232004%23999209995%23510936!&_cdi=4973&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=0542fa9b0f1c5d8e5c49494d6c479edb
Parka SJ; Arnold WR; McCowen MC; Young CL, 1978. Fluridone: a new herbicide for use in aquatic weed control systems. Proceedings 5th EWRS International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds, Amsterdam., 179-187.
Sainty GR; Jacobs SWL, 1988. Water Plants in Australia. Sydney, Australia: Australian Water Resources Council.
Soerjani M, 1980. Aquatic plant management in Indonesia. In: Furtado JI, ed. Tropical Ecology and Development. Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Tropical Ecology 1979. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: BIOTROP, 725-737.
Soerjani M; Parker C; Tjitrosemito S; Allen GE; Varshney CK; Mitchell DS; Pancho JV, 1976. Proceedings South-east Asian Workshop on Aquatic Weeds, BIOTROP Special Publication No. 1. Bogor, Indonesia: BIOTROP.
Somodi I; Botta-Dukát Z, 2004. Determinants of floating island vegetation and succession in a recently flooded shallow lake, Kis-Balaton (Hungary). Aquatic Botany, 79(4):357-366. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4F-4CSP4PB-3&_user=10&_handle=B-WA-A-W-E-MsSAYWW-UUW-AUEDBUUWYZ-AUEVYYAUYZ-ZUECDDBDB-E-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2004&_rdoc=7&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%234973%232004%23999209995%23510936!&_cdi=4973&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=648f9a7fdfafc78c2b8dc49161c0bac9
Stace CA, 1975. Introduction. In: Stace CA, ed. Hybridisation and the Flora of the British Isles. London, UK: Academic Press, 1-90.
Steward KK, 1993. Aquatic weed problems and management in the eastern United States. In: Pieterse AH, Murphy KJ, eds. Aquatic Weeds (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford Scientific Press, 391-405.
Szabo M; Lakatos G; Toth A; Kiss MK, 2002. Study on the aquatic weeds and periphyton in the dead arms of River Tisza (Hungary). In: Study on the aquatic weeds and periphyton in the dead arms of River Tisza (Hungary) [ed. by Dutartre, A. \Montel, M. -. H.]., France: Moliets et Maa, 323-326.
Tanaka N; Asaeda T; Hasegawa A; Tanimoto K, 2004. Modelling of the long-term competition between Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia in shallow water - effects of eutrophication, latitude and initial advantage of belowground organs. Aquatic Botany, 79(4):295-310. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4F-4CTTMH9-1&_user=10&_handle=B-WA-A-W-E-MsSAYWW-UUW-AUEDBUUWYZ-AUEVYYAUYZ-ZUECDDBDB-E-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2004&_rdoc=2&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%234973%232004%23999209995%23510936!&_cdi=4973&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=9e909487a6afddb75f76c38b2f9352f2
Tornbjerg T; Bendix M; Brix H, 1994. Internal gas transport in Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L. 2. Convective throughflow pathways and ecological significance. Aquatic Botany, 49(2/3):91-105.
Tsyusko OV; Smith MH; Oleksyk TK; Goryanaya J; Glenn TC, 2006. Genetics of cattails in radioactively contaminated areas around Chornobyl. Molecular Ecology, 15(9):2611-2625. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=mec
Wade PM, 1990. Physical control of aquatic weeds. In: Pieterse AH, Murphy KJ, eds. Aquatic Weeds. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 93-135.
Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.
Yang ZS; Zhang XQ, 1987. Sphenophorus sp. (Col.: Curculionidae), a potential biological control agent of the weed Typha angustifolia L. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 3(1):44.
Ye Chun; Yu HaiChan; Song XiangFu; Zou GuoYan, 2008. Effects of substrate condition and cultivated way on the growth of Phragmites australis Trin. and Typha angustifolia L. Research of Environmental Sciences, 21(1):59-63. http://www.hjkxyj.org.cn
ContributorsTop of page
29/10/2007 Updated by:
Kevin Murphy, University of Glasgow, IBLS - DEEB, Graham Kerr Building, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/