Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Toxotrypana curvicauda
(papaya fruit fly)



Toxotrypana curvicauda (papaya fruit fly)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Toxotrypana curvicauda
  • Preferred Common Name
  • papaya fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Adult female, lateral view.
TitleLine drawing of adult
CaptionAdult female, lateral view.
CopyrightJohn McPartland
Adult female, lateral view.
Line drawing of adultAdult female, lateral view.John McPartland


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker

Preferred Common Name

  • papaya fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Mikimyia furcifera Bigot
  • Toxotrypana fairbatesi Munro

International Common Names

  • Spanish: gusano de la lechosa; mosca de la fruta de la lechoza; mosca de la papaya

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Papaya-Fruchtfliege

EPPO code

  • TOXTCU (Toxotrypana curvicauda)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Toxotrypana
  •                                 Species: Toxotrypana curvicauda

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

MexicoPresentFoote et al., 1993
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-FloridaWidespreadFoote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
-TexasRestricted distributionFoote et al., 1993

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentEPPO, 2014
BelizePresentUSDA, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Costa RicaPresentJiron and Hedstrom, 1991
CubaPresentMunro, 1984; EPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicPresentUSDA, 1999; EPPO, 2014
El SalvadorPresentUSDA, 1999
GuatemalaPresentFoote et al., 1993
HaitiPresentEPPO, 2014
HondurasPresentAdarva, 1979
Netherlands AntillesRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
NicaraguaPresentBorge and Basedow, 1997
PanamaPresentUSDA, 1999
Puerto RicoPresentUSDA, 1999
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentEPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentLaurence, 1976; EPPO, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsPresentFoote et al., 1993

South America

ColombiaPresentFoote et al., 1993
VenezuelaPresentFoote et al., 1993

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / odour
Fruit / ooze
Seeds / external feeding
Seeds / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Larvae
Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Jiménez-Pérez et al., 2007
Doryctobracon toxotrypanae Parasite Larvae
Opius hirtus Parasite Larvae

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsFruit in case or handbag. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo. Yes
Land vehiclesLorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
MailFruit in post. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Adarva RR, 1979. Observaciones sobre los habitos del Toxotripana curvicauda Gerst (Tephritidae) que ataca al Carica papaya. Ceiba, 23:63-75.

Aluja M; Jimenez A; Camino M; Aldana L; Castrejon V; Valdes ME, 1994. Determination of the susceptibility of three varieties of pawpaw (Carica papaya) to attack by Toxotrypana curvicauda (Diptera: Tephritidae). Folia Entomologica Mexicana, No. 90:33-42

Aluja M; JimTnez A; Camino M; Pinero J; Aldana L; Castrej=n V; ValdTs ME, 1997. Habitat manipulation to reduce papaya fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) damage: orchard design, use of trap crops and border trapping. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(6):1567-1576; many ref.

Borge MNR; Basedow T, 1997. A survey on the occurrence and flight periods of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a fruit growing area in southwest Nicaragua, 1994/95. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(4):405-412; 26 ref.

Butcher FG, 1952. The occurrence of papaya fruit fly in mango. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 65:196.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

FAO/IAEA, 2003. Trapping Guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, 47 pp.

Foote RH; Blanc FL; Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock.

Gould WP, 1996. Mortality of Toxotrypana curvicauda (Diptera: Tephritidae) in papayas exposed to forced hot air. Florida Entomologist, 79(3):407-413; 21 ref.

Heath RR; Epsky ND; Jimenez A; Dueben DB; Landolt PJ; Meyer WL; Aluja M; Rizzo J; Camino M; Jeronimo F; Baranowski RM, 1996. Improved pheromone-based trapping systems to monitor Toxotrypana curvicauda (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 79(1):37-48; 18 ref.

Jiménez-Pérez A; Villa-Ayala P; López-Martínez V, 2007. First record of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker (Diptera: Tephritidae). Neotropical Entomology, 36(3):482-483.

Jirón LF; Hedstrom I, 1991. Population fluctuations of economic species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) related to mango fruiting phenology in Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist, 74(1):98-105

Landolt PJ, 1994. Fruit of Morrenia odorata (Asclepiadaceae) as a host for the papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 77(2):287-294

Landolt PJ, 1999. Behavior of flies in the genus Toxotrypana (Trypetinae: Toxotrypetini). In: Aluja M, Norrbom AL, eds. Fruit Flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and Evolution of Behavior. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, 363-373.

Landolt PJ; Reed HC; Heath RR, 1992. Attraction of female papaya fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to male pheromone and host fruit. Environmental Entomology, 21(5):1154-1159

Laurence GA, 1976. The papaya fruit fly. Journal of the Agricultural Society, 76:359-360.

Munro HK, 1984. A taxonomic treatise on the Dacidae (Tephritoidea, Diptera) of Africa. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, South Africa, No. 61:ix + 313 pp.

Norrbom AL; Kim KC, 1988. A list of the reported host plants of the species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Hyattsville, MD, USA: US Dept. Agric., Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine.

Servicio para el Agricultor, 1973. Control of the papaya fly. Noticias Agricolas, 6(28):111

University of Florida, 2000. Papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker. Featured Creatures. University of Florida (Department of Entomology and Nematology) and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (Division of Plant Industry), USA. World Wide Web page at

USDA, 1999. Toxotrypana Gerstaecker (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Diptera Site. Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, USA. World Wide Web page at

Wharton RA, 1983. Variation in Opius hirtus Fischer and discussion of Desmiostoma Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 85(2):327-330

Wharton RA; Gilstrap FE; Rhode RH; Fischel-M M; Hart WG, 1981. Hymenopterous egg-pupal and larval-pupal parasitoids of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha spp. (Dip.: Tephritidae) in Costa Rica. Entomophaga, 26(3):285-290

White IM; Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance. Their Identification and Bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Distribution Maps

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