Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Toumeyella parvicornis
(pine tortoise scale)



Toumeyella parvicornis (pine tortoise scale)


  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Toumeyella parvicornis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pine tortoise scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    CAB International
    OX10 8DE
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell)

Preferred Common Name

  • pine tortoise scale

International Common Names

  • English: pine tortoise, scale (USA)
  • French: cochenille-tortue du pin

EPPO code

  • TOUMPA (Toumeyella parvicornis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Toumeyella
  •                                         Species: Toumeyella parvicornis

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


FrancePresent, Few occurrences
ItalyPresent, Localized

North America

Puerto RicoPresent
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)PinaceaeUnknown


Top of page

Segarra-Carmona AE; Cabrera-Asencio I, 2010. Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae): a new invasive pest of pine trees in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 94(1/2):175-177.

Distribution References

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

Bishop D B, Bristow C M, 2001. Effect of Allegheny mound ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) presence on homopteran and predator populations in Michigan jack pine forests. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 94 (1), 33-40. DOI:10.1603/0013-8746(2001)094[0033:EOAMAH]2.0.CO;2

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

Clarke S R, 2013. Pine tortoise scale. In: Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet 57, Portland, Oregon, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region.

Clarke S R, Negron J F, DeBarr G L, 1992. Effects of four pyrethroids on scale insect (Homoptera) populations and their natural enemies in loblolly and shortleaf pine seed orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology. 85 (4), 1246-1252. DOI:10.1093/jee/85.4.1246

Dani Sanchez M, Manco B N, Blaise J, Corcoran M, Hamilton M A, 2019. Conserving and restoring the caicos pine forests: the first decade. Plant Diversity. 41 (2), 75-83. DOI:10.1016/j.pld.2018.05.002

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp.

Fatzinger C W, Yates H O III, Barber L R, 1992. Evaluation of aerial applications of acephate and other insecticides for control of cone and seed insects in southern pine seed orchards. Journal of Entomological Science. 27 (2), 172-184.

Garonna A P, Foscari A, Russo E, Jesu G, Somma S, Cascone P, Guerrieri E, 2018. The spread of the non-native pine tortoise scale Toumeyella parvicornis (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Europe: a major threat to Pinus pinea in southern Italy. iForest. 628-634. DOI:10.3832/ifor2864-011

Garonna A P, Scarpato S, Vicinanza F, Espinosa B, 2015. First report of Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell) in Europe (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Zootaxa. 3949 (1), 142-146.

Hamon AB, Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). In: Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11 1-94.

Hodson A C, French D W, Jensen R A, Bartelt R J, 1982. The susceptibility of jack pine from Lake States seed sources to insect and disease pests. Research Paper, North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. 12 pp.

Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), 2010. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland.

Kondo T, Pellizzari G, 2011. Description of a new species of Toumeyella Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae) from Mexico, with a taxonomic key to Mexican species. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 55 (2), 229-233. DOI:10.1590/S0085-56262011005000019

Malumphy C, Hamilton M A, Manco B N, Green P W C, Sanchez M D, Corcoran M, Salamanca E, 2012. Toumeyella parvicornis (Hemiptera: Coccidae), causing severe decline of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Florida Entomologist. 95 (1), 113-119. DOI:10.1653/024.095.0118

Malumphy C, Hamilton M A, Sanchez M D, Green P W C, 2016. Trapping confirms aerial recruitment of pine tortoise scale (Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell)) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 152 (3), 193-200.

Myartseva S N, Ruíz-Cancino E, 2000. Annotated checklist of the Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of México. Folia Entomológica Mexicana. 7-33.

Nielsen D G, 1990. Evaluation of biorational pesticides for use in arboriculture. Journal of Arboriculture. 16 (4), 82-88.

Oliver A D, Chapin J B, 1988. An integrated insect pest management system for Louisiana Christmas tree growers. In: Bulletin, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, 30 pp.

Rajotte E, 2017. Striped Pine Scale., Penn State Extension.

Segarra-Carmona A E, Cabrera-Asencio I, 2010. Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae): a new invasive pest of pine trees in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 94 (1/2), 175-177.

Thomson M J, Czerwinski E J, MacLeod L S, Jansons V, 1984. Results of forest insect and disease surveys in the Northeastern Region of Ontario, 1983. In: Miscellaneous Report, Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Canada, [8+] 39 pp.

Van Driesche R G, LaForest J, Bargeron C, Reardon R, Herlihy M, 2021. Forest Pest Insects in North America: a Photographic Guide.,

Wilkinson R C, Bhatkar A P, Kloft W J, Whitcomb W H, Kloft E S, 1978. Formica integra. 2. Feeding, trophallaxis, and interspecific confrontation behavior. Florida Entomologist. 61 (3), 179-187. DOI:10.2307/3494236

Wilkinson R C, Chellman C W, 1979. Toumeyella scale, red imported fire ant, reduce slash pine growth. Florida Entomologist. 62 (1), 71-72. DOI:10.2307/3494048

Williams ML, Kosztarab M, 1972. The insects of Virginia : Research Division Bulletin 74. (Neolecanium carnuparvum (Thro) 1903). In: Morphology and systematics of the Coccidae of Virginia with notes on their biology (Homoptera: Coccoidea), 5 Blacksburg, Virginia, USA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 99-105.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Third party data sources: