Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tobacco rattle virus
(spraing of potato)

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Datasheet

Tobacco rattle virus (spraing of potato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tobacco rattle virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spraing of potato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Family: Unassigned virus family
  •     Genus: Tobravirus
  •       Species: Tobacco rattle virus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf naturally infected with TRV showing necrotic spots and rings.
TitleSymptoms on leaf
CaptionLeaf naturally infected with TRV showing necrotic spots and rings.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Leaf naturally infected with TRV showing necrotic spots and rings.
Symptoms on leafLeaf naturally infected with TRV showing necrotic spots and rings.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Necrotic spots and rings on tobacco leaf inoculated in greenhouse with TRV.
TitleSymptoms on tobacco leaf
CaptionNecrotic spots and rings on tobacco leaf inoculated in greenhouse with TRV.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Necrotic spots and rings on tobacco leaf inoculated in greenhouse with TRV.
Symptoms on tobacco leafNecrotic spots and rings on tobacco leaf inoculated in greenhouse with TRV.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Evident ringspots on tobacco leaf inoculated with TRV in greenhouse. TRV was isolated from pepper.
TitleSymptoms on tobacco leaf
CaptionEvident ringspots on tobacco leaf inoculated with TRV in greenhouse. TRV was isolated from pepper.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Evident ringspots on tobacco leaf inoculated with TRV in greenhouse. TRV was isolated from pepper.
Symptoms on tobacco leafEvident ringspots on tobacco leaf inoculated with TRV in greenhouse. TRV was isolated from pepper.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Leaves naturally infected showing necrotic spots and rings.
TitleSymptoms on tobacco leaves
CaptionLeaves naturally infected showing necrotic spots and rings.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Leaves naturally infected showing necrotic spots and rings.
Symptoms on tobacco leavesLeaves naturally infected showing necrotic spots and rings.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Pepper leaf with mosaic yellow symptoms elicited by TRV in greenhouse.
TitleSymptoms on pepper leaf
CaptionPepper leaf with mosaic yellow symptoms elicited by TRV in greenhouse.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Pepper leaf with mosaic yellow symptoms elicited by TRV in greenhouse.
Symptoms on pepper leafPepper leaf with mosaic yellow symptoms elicited by TRV in greenhouse.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Yellow ringspots on pepper leaf inoculated with TRV.
TitleSymptoms on pepper leaf
CaptionYellow ringspots on pepper leaf inoculated with TRV.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Yellow ringspots on pepper leaf inoculated with TRV.
Symptoms on pepper leafYellow ringspots on pepper leaf inoculated with TRV.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Tobacco rattle tobravirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from Rothampstead Experimental Station.
http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
TitleVirus particles
CaptionTobacco rattle tobravirus particles. Reproduced with permission from Rothampstead Experimental Station. http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
Copyright©IACR-Rothamsted
Tobacco rattle tobravirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from Rothampstead Experimental Station.
http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
Virus particlesTobacco rattle tobravirus particles. Reproduced with permission from Rothampstead Experimental Station. http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/ ©IACR-Rothamsted

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tobacco rattle virus

Preferred Common Name

  • spraing of potato

Other Scientific Names

  • aster ringspot virus
  • belladonna mosaic virus
  • paeony mosaic virus
  • paeony ringspot virus
  • peony mosaic virus
  • peony ringspot virus
  • potato corky ringspot virus
  • potato stem mottle virus
  • ratel virus
  • spinach yellow mottle virus
  • Tabakmauche Virus
  • Tabakstreifen- und Kra
  • tobacco rattle tobravirus
  • tulip white streak virus

International Common Names

  • English: corky ringspot of potato; internal rust of potato

English acronym

  • TRV

EPPO code

  • PEOMV0 (Peony mosaic virus)
  • TRV000 (Tobacco rattle tobravirus)

Subspecies

  • fraxinus virus
  • Oregon yellow virus
  • spinach yellow mottle

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Family: Unassigned virus family
  •         Genus: Tobravirus
  •             Species: Tobacco rattle virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentAkanda et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionTian and Zhang, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentZheng et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014; He and Chen, 2016; Zhu et al., 2017
-YunnanPresentZhang et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
IsraelAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentMatsunami and Suetsugu, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2004; Tomitaka et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofAbsent, intercepted onlyPark et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2004
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

Africa

EgyptPresentEl Hammady et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014; El-Kammar et al., 2016
South AfricaPresentWhitlock, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresent, few occurrencesKawchuk et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Newfoundland and LabradorAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadWilliams et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-AlaskaPresentRobertson et al., 2009; Robertson, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentMayhew and Matsumoto, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaWidespreadWeingartner et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentDavis and Allen, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentLockhart et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentLockhart et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentLockhart et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentDavid et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentFisher, 2012; Fisher, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentJensen et al., 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

South America

BoliviaPresentHorvath and Hoekstra, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2004
BrazilRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentRodríguez et al., 2004

Europe

AustriaPresentSchiessendoppler, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentAmbrosof et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumWidespreadPelsmaeker et al., 1985; Pelsmaeker, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaWidespreadBakardzhieva et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentPolak, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2004
DenmarkWidespreadNielsen and Molgaard, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
FinlandRestricted distributionTapio, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadBedin, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentBarchend and Heidel, 1985; Langels, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentBrown et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespreadNemethy et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentMills, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2004
ItalyPresentMarte et al., 1979; Rana and Mondelli, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentNavalinskiene and Samuitiene, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
MacedoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsWidespreadNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; Ploeg et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
PolandWidespreadCiskowska, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionPloeg and Decraemer, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2004
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadGripwall, 1986; Erikkson, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentGugerli, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentRobinson et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentEvans et al., 2005
UkrainePresentKoroteyeva and Polishchuk, 2004
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentRobinson et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Growing point / distortion
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting

References

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Akanda AM, Tsuno K, Wakimoto S, 1991. Serodiagnosis of viruses infecting some crops of Bangladesh. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 35(3-4):121-129

Ambrosov AL, Sokolova LA, 1976. Against virus diseases of potato. Zashchita Rastenii, 12:22-23

Ambrosov AL, Sokolova LA, Puzankov OP, 1980. The protection of potato against virus diseases. Zashchita Rastenii, 11:11-12

Angenent GC, Ouweland JMW van den, Bol JF, 1990. Susceptibility to virus infection of transgenic tobacco plants expressing structural and nonstructural genes of tobacco rattle virus. Virology, 175(1):191-198

Angenent GC, Posthumus E, Brederode FT, Bol JF, 1989. Genome structure of tobacco rattle virus strain PLB: further evidence on the occurrence of RNA recombination among tobraviruses. Virology, 171(1):271-274

Ayala A, Allen MW, 1968. Transmission of the California tobacco rattle virus, CTRV. by three species of the nematode genus Trichodorus. Journal of Agriculture, University of Puerto Rico, 52:101-125

Bakardzhieva N, Svrakov K, Denkova S, 1995. Studies on viruses infecting Alstroemeria in Bulgaria. International Conference on Plant Virology, Apriltsi, Troyan, Bulgaria, Sep., 1994. Rasteniev"dni-Nauki, 32:121-122

Barchend G, Heidel W, 1985. Studies on the occurrence and virus aetiology of internal rust of potatoes in the GDR. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 39(5):109-111

Bedin P, 1995. Some enemies of potato tubers and methods of control. Phytoma, No. 472:7-9; 4 ref

Boning K, 1931. Zur Atiologe der Streifen und Kranselkrankheit des Tabaks. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 3:103-141

Brown DJF, Robertson WM, Neilson R, Bem F, Robinson DJ, 1996. Characterization and vector relation of a serologically distinct isolate of tobacco rattle tobravirus (TRV) transmitted by Trichodorus similis in northern Greece. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(1):61-68; 27 ref

CABI/EPPO, 2004. Tobacco rattle virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 938. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Carlsson H, 1986. Spraing in potato varieties. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 50(4/5):103-104

Ciskowska E, 1992. Disease symptoms caused by tobacco rattle virus (TRV) on potato tubers and another types of potato spotting. Review. Biuletyn Instytutu Ziemniaka, No. 41:45-56; 30 ref

Cooper JI, Harrison BD, 1973. The role of weed hosts and the distribution and activity of vector nematodes in the ecology of tobacco rattle virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 73(1):53-66

David N, Mallik I, Gudmestad NC, 2010. First report of Tobacco rattle virus associated with corky ringspot in potatoes grown in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 94(1):130. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Davis JR, Allen TC, 1975. Weed hosts of the tobacco rattle virus in Idaho. American Potato Journal, 52(1):1-8

Dun CMP van, Bol JF, 1988. Transgenic tobacco plants accumulating tobacco rattle virus coat protein resist infection with tobacco rattle virus and pea early browning virus. Virology, 167(2):649-652

El-Hammady M, Girgis AN, Mazyad HM, Shafie MA, 1982. Virus diseases of some medicinal plants in Egypt VI. Effect of different viruses on growth and total alkaloids of Egyptian henbane (Hyoscyamus muticus L.). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 17(3/4):261-268

El-Kammar HF, El-Banna OM, Hamed AH, Abbas MS, El-Attar AK, 2016. Serological, molecular and ultrastructural studies on Tobacco rattle virus-infected potato plants in Egypt. Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(1):15-24. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3451

Engsbro B, 1973. Investigations and experiments concerning soil-borne viruses. I. Rattle virus, continued investigations on potato. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 77(1):103-117

Engsbro B, 1976. Investigations and experiments concerning soil-borne viruses. I. Rattle virus, continued investigations on potato 2. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 80(3):405-410

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erikkson B, 1996. Spraing in potato - a survey. 37th Swedish Crop Protection Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 26-27 January, 1996. Agriculture - pests, diseases and weeds., 185-191; 14 ref

Eriksson KB, Karlsson B, 1974. Nematodes as virus vectors in potato crops in Halland. Hallands lans Hushallningssallskaps Tidskrift, 17(3):9-13

Evans KA, Stanley K, Blackwell A, 2005. Tobacco rattle virus detection in Scottish trichodorid populations during 2004/2005. Aspects of Applied Biology [Production and protection of sugar beet and potatoes, Homerton College, Cambridge, UK, 15 to 16 December 2005.], No.76:117-120

Fisher JR, 2012. First report of Tobacco rattle virus associated with ring spot and line pattern disease of peony in Ohio. Plant Health Progress, No.July:PHP-2012-0711-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=10460&photo=5763

Fisher JR, 2013. Identification of two Tobacco rattle virus variants associated with line pattern disease of bleeding heart in Ohio. Plant Health Progress, No.March:PHP-2013-0325-01-RS. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=10616&photo=5928

Fritzsche R, Thiele S, Barchend G, 1986. Occurrence of nematodes of the genera Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus in the German Democratic Republic and correlations with the incidence of internal rust of potatoes. Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 22:329-335

Gripwall E, 1986. The effect of different preceding crops on the incidence of spraing in potatoes. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 50(4/5):94-96

Gugerli P, 1977. Investigations on a serological test for tobacco rattle virus in potato. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 89(4):317-329

Gupta VP, Garg ID, Naqvi QA, 1994. Immunosorbent electron microscopic studies on a tobamovirus causing brinjal necrotic mosaic. Acta Virologica, 38(1):43-45

Hamed AH, El-Banna OHM, Ghanem GAM, Elnagaar H, Shafie MS, 2012. Isolation and identification of Tobacco rattle tobravirus affecting onion (Allium cepa L.) plants in Egypt. International Journal of Virology, 8(1):39-49. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ijv.2012.39.49&org=10

Hamilton WDO, Boccara M, Robinson DJ, Baulcombe DC, 1987. The complete nucleotide sequence of tobacco rattle virus RNA-1. Journal of General Virology, 68(10):2563-2575

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Harrison BD, Robinson DJ, Mowat WP, Duncan GH, 1983. Comparison of nucleic acid hybridisation and other tests for detecting tobacco rattle virus in narcissus plants and potato tubers. Annals of Applied Biology, 102(2):331-338

Harrison BD, Wood RD, 1966. Serotypes and particle dimension of tobacco rattle viruses from Europe and America. Virology, 28:610-620

He Z, Chen C, 2016. First report of Tobacco rattle virus infecting Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) in China. Plant Disease, 100(12):2543. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Hernßndez C, Carette JE, Brown DJF, Bol JF, 1996. Serial passage of tobacco rattle virus under different selection conditions results in deletion of structural and nonstructural genes in RNA 2. Journal of Virology, 70(8):4933-4940; 40 ref

Hernßndez C, Visser PB, Brown DJF, Bol JF, 1997. Transmission of tobacco rattle virus isolate PpK20 by its nematode vector requires one of the two non-structural genes in the viral RNA 2. Journal of General Virology, 78(2):465-467; 13 ref

Hoof HAvan, 1973. Control of tobacco rattle virus in tulips. Bloembollencultuur, 83(49):1225

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Horvath J, Hoekstra R, 1989. Reaction of some new Bolivian tuber-bearing Solanum species to different potato pathogenic viruses. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 24(3-4):351-362

Horvßth J, 1996. Ornamental Physalis species as perennial virus hosts. Acta Horticulturae, No. 432:204-210; 27 ref

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Langels E, 1994. Fallowing in potato rotations. Kartoffelbau, 45(3):129-130

Lihnell D, Bang H, Kvist K, Nilsson C, 1975. Varieties and diseases in Swedish table potato crops. Results of surveys in 1969-1971 in cooperation with the National Bureau of Statistics and the National Swedish Central Seed Testing Institute. Meddelanden Stations Vaxtskyddsanstalt, 16(168):149-213

Lockhart BE, Mason SL, 2010. First report of Tobacco rattle virus in Sedum in Minnesota. Plant Disease, 94(3):374. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Maas PWT, 1974. Soil disinfection to prevent transmission of tobacco rattle virus to potatoes and flower bulbs. Agriculture and Environment, 1:329-338

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Ploeg AT, Brown DJF, Robinson DJ, 1992. The association between species of Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus vector nematodes and serotypes of tobacco rattle tobravirus. Annals of Applied Biology, 121(3):619-630

Ploeg AT, Decraemer W, 1997. The occurrence and distribution of trichodorid nematodes and their associated tobraviruses in Europe and the former Soviet Union. Nematologica, 43(2):228-251; 10 pp. of ref

Ploeg AT, Mathis A, Bol JF, Brown DJF, Robinson DJ, 1993. Susceptibility of transgenic tobacco plants expressing tobacco rattle virus coat protein to nematode-transmitted and mechanically inoculated tobacco rattle virus. Journal of General Virology, 74(12):2709-2715

Ploeg AT, Robinson DJ, Brown DJF, 1993. RNA-2 of tobacco rattle virus encodes the determinants of transmissibility by trichodorid vector nematodes. Journal of General Virology, 74(7):1463-1466

Ploeg AT, Zoon FC, Bree Jde, Asjes CJ, 1996. Analysis of the occurrence and distribution of tobacco rattle virus in field soil and disease in a subsequent tulip crop. Annals of Applied Biology, 129(3):461-469; 24 ref

Polak Z, 1988. Further natural hosts of tobacco rattle virus. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 24(1):1-4

Polak Z, 1994. Plant viruses isolated from surface waters in the Czech Republic. Zahradnictvi, 21(4):279-285

Proeseler G, Stanarius A, Gippert R, Schnee H, 1990. Virus infection of rye. Nachrichtenblatt Pflanzenschutz, 44(11):273-274

Quanjer HM, 1943. Bijdrage tot de kennis van de in Nederland voorkomende ziekten van tabak en van de tabakstaelt op kleigrond. Tijdschrift Plantenziekten, 49:37-51

Ragozzino A, Romaso A, Policastro G, 1978. Pathogenic viruses of lettuce in Campania, II. Alfalfa mosaic virus, tobacco rattle virus, big vein. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 17(2):110-119

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