Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Tobacco ringspot virus

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Datasheet

Tobacco ringspot virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tobacco ringspot virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Picornavirales
  •         Family: Secoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms on Nicotiana clevelandii: localized necrotic ringspots on the lower inoculated leaves and systemic necrosis on the upper leaves.
TitleSymptoms on N. clevelandii
CaptionSymptoms on Nicotiana clevelandii: localized necrotic ringspots on the lower inoculated leaves and systemic necrosis on the upper leaves.
CopyrightS.W. Macdiarmid
Symptoms on Nicotiana clevelandii: localized necrotic ringspots on the lower inoculated leaves and systemic necrosis on the upper leaves.
Symptoms on N. clevelandiiSymptoms on Nicotiana clevelandii: localized necrotic ringspots on the lower inoculated leaves and systemic necrosis on the upper leaves.S.W. Macdiarmid
Necrotic lesions in inoculated Nicotiana tabacum Waranova leaf.
TitleSymptoms on N. tabacum
CaptionNecrotic lesions in inoculated Nicotiana tabacum Waranova leaf.
CopyrightS.W. Macdiarmid
Necrotic lesions in inoculated Nicotiana tabacum Waranova leaf.
Symptoms on N. tabacumNecrotic lesions in inoculated Nicotiana tabacum Waranova leaf.S.W. Macdiarmid
Electron micrograph of Epon-resin-embedded, infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaf tissue. Typical tubular structures containing virus-like particles are shown with the arrows. (Mt: mitochondria, Va: vacuole, CW: cell wall, Nc: nucleus).
TitleTEM of infected N. clevelandii
CaptionElectron micrograph of Epon-resin-embedded, infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaf tissue. Typical tubular structures containing virus-like particles are shown with the arrows. (Mt: mitochondria, Va: vacuole, CW: cell wall, Nc: nucleus).
CopyrightHelene Sanfacon
Electron micrograph of Epon-resin-embedded, infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaf tissue. Typical tubular structures containing virus-like particles are shown with the arrows. (Mt: mitochondria, Va: vacuole, CW: cell wall, Nc: nucleus).
TEM of infected N. clevelandiiElectron micrograph of Epon-resin-embedded, infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaf tissue. Typical tubular structures containing virus-like particles are shown with the arrows. (Mt: mitochondria, Va: vacuole, CW: cell wall, Nc: nucleus).Helene Sanfacon
Electron micrographs of Epon-resin-embedded, infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaf tissue. Typical tubular structures containing virus-like particles are shown with the arrows. CW: cell wall.
TitleTEM of infected N. clevelandii
CaptionElectron micrographs of Epon-resin-embedded, infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaf tissue. Typical tubular structures containing virus-like particles are shown with the arrows. CW: cell wall.
CopyrightHelene Sanfacon
Electron micrographs of Epon-resin-embedded, infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaf tissue. Typical tubular structures containing virus-like particles are shown with the arrows. CW: cell wall.
TEM of infected N. clevelandiiElectron micrographs of Epon-resin-embedded, infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaf tissue. Typical tubular structures containing virus-like particles are shown with the arrows. CW: cell wall.Helene Sanfacon
TitleInfected soyabean plant
Caption
CopyrightW.F. Moore
Infected soyabean plantW.F. Moore

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tobacco ringspot virus

Other Scientific Names

  • anemone necrosis virus
  • Annulus tabaci
  • blueberry necrotic ringspot virus
  • nicotiana virus 12
  • soybean bud blight virus
  • tobacco Brazilian streak virus
  • tobacco ringspot nepovirus
  • tobacco ringspot virus No. 1

International Common Names

  • Spanish: virus de la mancha annular del tabacco
  • French: virus de la tache annulaire du tabac
  • Chinese: yancao huanban bindu

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Ringfleckenvirus: Soja; Ringfleckenvirus: Tabak

English acronym

  • TRSV

EPPO code

  • TRSV00 (Tobacco ringspot nepovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Picornavirales
  •                 Family: Secoviridae
  •                     Subfamily: Comovirinae
  •                         Genus: Nepovirus
  •                             Species: Tobacco ringspot virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 15 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentEPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentLana (1980); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentMayunga and Kapooria (2003)

Asia

ChinaPresent, LocalizedSprague (1975); UK, CAB International (1984); Xu et al. (1986); EPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentShangguan KePan et al. (2006)
-GuangxiPresentCai JianHe et al. (2009)
-HebeiPresentEPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentXiao et al. (1993); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-JilinPresentEPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentEPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentQi JuLong et al. (2008)
-ShandongPresentEPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentEPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentEPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentMadhusudan and Govindu (1985); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentBidari and Reddy (1983); Bidari and Reddy (1990); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Tamil NaduPresentBidari and Reddy (1990); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentTewari (2002)
IndonesiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-SumatraPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentEbrahim-Nesbat (1974); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IsraelAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentFukumoto et al. (1982); UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
KyrgyzstanPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Cho & Chung, 1996
OmanPresentZouba et al. (1997)
Saudi ArabiaPresentAl-Shahwan et al. (1997); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentShivanathan (1977); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentYorgancı and Sekin (1984); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaAbsent, Formerly presentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
BelgiumAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
BulgariaAbsent, Formerly present1983UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
DenmarkAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
FranceAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
GermanyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
GreeceAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1984); Sorrentino et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
LithuaniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresent, Transient under eradicationEPPO (2020); Asjes (1974); Asjes (1979); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
RomaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Russian Far EastPresentReifman (1974); UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Southern RussiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SerbiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
SlovakiaPresentŠubíková et al. (2002)
SloveniaAbsentEPPO (2020)
SpainAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Jaswal (1990); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Tu (1986); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentEPPO (2020)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentCampodonico and Montelongo (1988); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentEPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentMcGuire and Wickizer (1980); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-DelawarePresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentBaker and Adkins (2007)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-KansasPresentEPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentFernandes et al. (1991); Khankhum et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentEPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-MississippiPresentEPPO (2020); Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic et al. (2014)
-MissouriPresentMilkus (2001); EPPO (2020)
-NebraskaPresentEPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentEPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Shiel and Castello (1985); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentLucas and Harper (1972); UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Fisher (2013); EPPO (2020)
-OklahomaPresentEPPO (2020)
-OregonPresentConverse and Ramsdell (1982); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Powell et al. (1990); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-South DakotaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentHalliwell and Johnson (1988); Miller (1989); EPPO (2020)
-VermontPresentEPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentEPPO (2020)
-West VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentSinclair and Walker (1956); EPPO (2020)
-WyomingPresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentReynolds and Teakle (1976); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentRANDLES and FRANCO (1965); UK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentThomas and Procter (1973); Kearns and Mossop (1984); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: SENASA, personal communication, 2009
BrazilPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentAlmeida (1980); Almeida (1993); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Almeida (1993); EPPO (2020)
ChilePresentEPPO (2020)
PeruPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Frigbourg, 1977
UruguayPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentEPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / rot
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Whole plant / dwarfing

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Xiphinema americanumBrown et al., 1993. Nematode
Xiphinema rivesiTaylor and Brown, 1981. Nematode

References

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?ubíková V; Kollerová E; Slováková L, 2002. Occurrence of nepoviruses in small fruits and fruit trees in Slovakia. Plant Protection Science [Disease resistance in plant pathology. Proceedings of the 6th Conference of European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Prague, Czech Republic, 8-14 September 2002.], 38(Special 2):367-369.

Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic N; Allen TW; Broome M; Lawrence A; Moore WF; Sabanadzovic S, 2014. First report of kudzu (Pueraria montana) infections by Tobacco ringspot virus in Mississippi. Plant Disease, 98(12):1746-1747. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Almeida AMR, 1980. Survey of soybean common mosaic and bud blight viruses in different regions of Parana State. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 5(1):125-128

Almeida AMR, 1993. Bud blight of soyabean. Informativo ABRATES, 3(2):19-22

Al-Shahwan IM; Abdalla OA; Al-Saleh MA, 1997. Viruses in the northern potato-producing regions of Saudi Arabia. Plant Pathology, 46(1):91-94; 9 ref.

Asjes CJ, 1974. Soil-borne virus diseases in ornamental bulbous crops and their control in the Netherlands. Agriculture and Environment, 1:303-315

Asjes CJ, 1979. Viruses and virus diseases in Dutch bulbous irises (Iris hollandica) in the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 85(6):269-279

Atchinson BA; Francki RIB, 1972. The source of tobacco ringspot virus in root-tip tissue of bean plants. Physiological Plant Pathology, 5:105.

Baker CA; Adkins S, 2007. Tobacco ringspot virus found in the cardboard cycad (Zamia furfuracea) in Florida. Plant Disease, 91(1):112. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Bardonnet N; Hans F; Serghini MA; Pinck L, 1994. Protection against virus infection in tobacco plants expressing the coat protein of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus. Plant Cell Reports, 13(6):357-360

Beachy RN; Loesch-Fries S; Tumer NE, 1990. Coat protein-mediated resistance against virus infection. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 28:451-474

Bergeson GB; Athow KL; Laviolette FA; Thomasine M, 1964. Transmission, movement and vector relationships of tobacco ringspot virus in soybean. Phytopathology, 54:723-728.

Bertioli DJ; Cooper JI; Edwards ML; Hawes WS, 1992. Arabis mosaic nepovirus coat protein in transgenic tobacco lessens disease severity and virus replication. Annals of Applied Biology, 120(1):47-54

Bidari VB; Reddy HR, 1983. Prevalence of chilli viruses in Dharwad district. Plant Pathology Newsletter, 1(1):11-12

Bidari VB; Reddy HR, 1985. Preservation and storage of chilli viruses. Indian Phytopathology, 38(3):488-491

Bidari VB; Reddy HR, 1990. Identification of naturally occurring viruses on commercial cultivars of chilli. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24(1):45-51

Brault V; Candresse T; Gall O le; Delbos RP; Lanneau M; Dunez J, 1993. Genetically engineered resistance against grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus. Plant Molecular Biology, 21(1):89-97

Brlansky RH; Derrick KS, 1979. Detection of seedborne plant viruses using serologically specific electron microscopy. Phytopathology, 69(1):96-100

Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Jones AT; Vrain TC; Robbins RT, 1994. Transmission of three North American nepoviruses by populations of four distinct species of the Xiphinema americanum group. Phytopathology, 84(6):646-649

Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Robbins RT; Vrain TC, 1993. Transmission of nepoviruses by Xiphinema americanum-group nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):349-354; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 29 ref.

Bruening G; Passmore BK; Tol H van; Buzayan JM; Feldstein PA, 1991. Replication of plant virus satellite RNA: evidence favors transcription of circular templates of both polarities. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 4(3):219-225

Brunt AA, 1975. Viruses and virus diseases of irises in Britain. Acta Horticulturae, No.47:45-50

Buckley B; Silva S; Singh S, 1993. Nucleotide sequence and in vitro expression of the capsid protein gene of tobacco ringspot virus. Virus Research, 30(3):335-349

Buzayan JM; Gerlach WL; Bruening G; Keese P; Gould AR, 1986. Nucleotide sequence of satellite tobacco ringspot virus RNA and its relationship to multimeric forms. Virology, 151(2):186-199

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Cadman CH, 1963. Biology of soil-borne viruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 1:143.

Cai JianHe; Zhou XingHua; Huang FuXin; Qin BiXia; Wei XuePing; Lin BeiSen; Chen YongHui, 2009. Incidence related factors and integrated control of tobacco virus diseases in Guangxi. Guangxi Agricultural Sciences, 40(2):159-163. http://www.gxaas.net

Campodonico OP; Montelongo SQ, 1988. Hot pepper virus disease in the Gulf of Mexico. Capsicum Newsletter, No. 7:67

Castello JD; Amico LA; O'Shea MT, 1984. Detection of tobacco mosaic and tobacco ringspot viruses in white ash trees by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plant Disease, 68(9):787-790

Chiko AW; Godkin SE, 1986. Occurrence of alfalfa mosaic, hydrangea ringspot, and tobacco ringspot viruses in Hydrangea spp. in British Columbia. Plant Disease, 70(6):541-544

Cho EK; Chung BJ, 1976. Studies on identification and classification of soybean virus diseases in Korea I. Preliminary studies on a soybean virus disease. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 15(2):61-68

Converse RH; Ramsdell DC, 1982. Occurrence of tomato and tobacco ringspot viruses and of dagger and other nematodes associated with cultivated highbush blueberries in Oregon. Plant Disease, 66(8):710-712

Cook AA, 1972. Virus diseases of papaya. Technical Bulletin, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, No. 750:19 pp.

Cooper JI; Edwards ML, 1985. Viruses found in a survey of amenity grasses in the UK. Mitteilungen, Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin-Dahlem, No. 228:89-91

Costa AS; Costa CL, 1980. Reducing the incidence of soybean bud blight by using a systemic insecticide. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 5(1):115-120

Crowley NC; Davidson EM; Francki RIB; Owusu GK, 1969. Infection of bean root-meristems by tobacco ringspot virus. Virology, 39:322.

Davidson EM, 1969. Cell to cell movement of tobacco ringspot virus. Virology, 37:694.

Demski JW; Harris HB, 1974. Seed transmission of viruses in soybean. Crop Science, 14(6):888-890

Denmark; Research Centre for Plant Protection, 1984. Plant diseases and pests in Denmark 1983. 100th Annual report. Lyngby, Denmark; Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, 126 pp.

Dieckmann M; Frison EA; Putter T, 1994. FAO\IBPGR Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Small Fruit Germplasm. Rome: Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/International Board for Plant Genetic Resources.

Douthit LB; McGuire JM, 1975. Some effects of temperature on Xiphinema americanum and infection of cucumber by tobacco ringspot virus. Phytopathology, 65(2):134-138

Douthit LB; McGuire JM, 1978. Transmission of tobacco ringspot virus by Xiphinema americanum to a range of hosts. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(2):164-166

Dunleavy JM, 1957. The grasshopper as a vector of tobacco ringspot virus in soybean. Phytopathology, 47:681-682.

Ebrahim-Nesbat F, 1974. Distribution of watermelon mosaic viruses 1 and 2 in Iran. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 79(4):352-358

EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fernandes FF; Valverde RA; Black L, 1991. Viruses infecting cucurbit crops in Luisiana. Plant Disease, 75:431.

Fernandez Suarez R; Lastres Gonzalez N, 1985. Tobacco ringspot virus on soyabean. Ciencias de la Agricultura, No. 23:121-122

Ferris MA; Castello JD; Sinclair WA, 1989. Effects of virus and mycoplasmalike organism infection on green and white ash. Phytopathology, 79(5):579-583

Fisher JR, 2013. First report of Tobacco ringspot virus infecting Ajuga reptans in Ohio. Plant Health Progress, No.March:PHP-2013-0301-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=10611&photo=5909

Forster RLS; Milne KS, 1975. Survey of viruses infecting daphne in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 18(4):391-398

Forster RLS; Morris-Krsinich BAM, 1985. Synthesis and processing of the translation products of tobacco ringspot virus in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Virology, 144(2):516-519

Francki RIB; Milne RG; Hatta T, 1985. Nepovirus group. In: Atlas of Plant Viruses, Vol. II. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 23.

French CJ; Elder M, 1999. Virus particles in guttate and xylem of infected cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Annals of Applied Biology, 134(1):81-87; 27 ref.

Fribourg CE, 1977. Andean potato calico strain of tobacco ringspot virus. Phytopathology, 67(2):174-178

Frison EA; Ikin R, 1991. FAO\IBPGR Technical Guidelines for the safe movement of Grapevine Germplasm. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/International Board for Plant Genetic Resources.

Fromme FD; Wingard SA; Prinode CN, 1927. Ringspot of tobacco: An infectious disease of unknown cause. Phytopathology, 17:321-328.

Fukumoto F; Ito Y; Tochihara H, 1982. Viruses isolated from gladiolus in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 48(1):68-71

Fulton JP, 1962. Transmission of tobacco ringspot virus by Xiphinema americanum. Phytopathology, 52:365.

Ganacharya NM; Mali VR, 1981. Comparative studies on two isolates of tobacco ringspot virus from cowpea. Indian Phytopathology, 34:112.

Gergerich R; Asher JH Jr; Ramsdell DC, 1983. A comparison of some serological and biological properties of seven isolates of tobacco ringspot virus. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 107(4):289-300

Gerlach WL; Llewellyn D; Haselhoff J, 1987. Construction of a plant disease resistance gene from the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus. Nature, 328:802.

Gooding GV, 1970. Natural serological strains of tobacco ringspot virus. Phytopathology, 60:708-713.

Gopal K, 1996. Effect of budblight (TRSV) on yield of soybean. Plant Disease Research, 11(1):105-107.

Granillo CR; Smith SH; Bode WM, 1972. Tobacco ringspot virus acquired but not transmitted by Tetranychus urticae. Phytopathology, 62:669

Gupta VK, 1976. Bud blight disease of soybean. Indian Phytopathology, 29(2):186-188

Gupta VK, 1978. Further studies on bud blight disease of soybean. Acta Botanica Indica, 6(Suppl.):169-170

Halk EL; McGuire JM, 1973. Translocation of tobacco ringspot virus in soybean. Phytopathology, 63:1291.

Halliwell RS; Johnson J, 1988. Virus diseases of spinach in the Texas winter garden. Miscellaneous Publication, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, MP-1656:4 pp.

Hendrix JW, 1972. Temperature-dependent resistance to tobacco ringspot virus in L8, a necrosis-prone tobacco cultivar. Phytopathology, 62(12):1376-1381

Horn NL; Newson LD; Jensen RL, 1973. Economic injury thresholds of bean pod mottle and tobacco ringspot virus infection of soybeans. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:811-813.

Hull R, 1990. Non-conventional resistance to viruses in plants-concepts and risks, In: Gustafson JP, ed. Gene Manipulation in Plant Improvement II. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 289.

Iizuka N, 1973. Seed transmission of viruses in soybean. Bulletin of the Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, 46:131-141.

Jaswal AS, 1990. Occurrence of blueberry leaf mottle, blueberry shoestring, tomato ringspot and tobacco ringspot viruses in eleven halfhigh blueberry clones grown in New Brunswick, Canada. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 70(2):113-117

Jobling SA; Wood KR, 1985. Translation of tobacco ringspot virus RNA in reticulocyte lysate: proteolytic processing of the primary translation products. Journal of General Virology, 66:2589.

Jones RT; Diachun S, 1976. Identification and prevalence of viruses in red clover in central Kentucky. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(8):690-694

Kaminska M, 1974. Observations on the appearance of virus diseases of gladiolus in Poland. Zeszyty Problemove Postepow Nauk Rolniczych, No.156:167-168

Kamran R; Izadpanah K, 1981. Isolation and identification of bean yellow mosaic and tobacco ringspot viruses from Gladiolus in Shiraz. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17(1/4):1-10; 1-11 (Farsi se

Kearns CG; Mossop DW, 1984. Detection of nepoviruses of Vitis vinifera in New Zealand using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 27(3):431-435

Keller JR, 1987. Virus detection in cultivated begonias. Begonian, 54(Jan-Feb.):4-6

Khan MA; Maxwell DP, 1975. Serological indexing procedure for the detection of tobacco ringspot virus in Clerodendrum thomsoniae. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(9):754-758

Khankhum S; Bollich P; Valverde RA, 2013. First report of Tobacco ringspot virus infecting kudzu (Pueraria montana) in Louisiana. Plant Disease, 97(4):561-562. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lamberti F; Ciancio A, 1993. Diversity of Xiphinema americanum-group species and hierarchial cluster analysis of morphometrics. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):332-343; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 35 ref.

Lana AF, 1980. Transmission and properties of viruses isolated from Carica papaya in Nigeria. Journal of Horticultural Science, 55(2):191-197

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