Invasive Species Compendium

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Toona ciliata
(toon)

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Datasheet

Toona ciliata (toon)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Toona ciliata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • toon
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. ciliata is a large forest tree in the mahogany family, native to Australia and Asia, but introduced elsewhere as a shade tree and for its fast-growing aspect and red timber.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Near Cooktown, N. Queensland, Australia.
TitleTree habit
CaptionNear Cooktown, N. Queensland, Australia.
CopyrightJohn Larmour/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Near Cooktown, N. Queensland, Australia.
Tree habitNear Cooktown, N. Queensland, Australia.John Larmour/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Near Cooktown, N. Queensland, Australia.
TitleTree habit
CaptionNear Cooktown, N. Queensland, Australia.
CopyrightJohn Larmour/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Near Cooktown, N. Queensland, Australia.
Tree habitNear Cooktown, N. Queensland, Australia.John Larmour/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Old tree, near Atherton, Queensland, Australia.
TitleTree habit
CaptionOld tree, near Atherton, Queensland, Australia.
CopyrightBernie Hyland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Old tree, near Atherton, Queensland, Australia.
Tree habitOld tree, near Atherton, Queensland, Australia.Bernie Hyland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
TitleBark
Caption
CopyrightBernie Hyland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
BarkBernie Hyland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Flower with half the petals removed.
TitleSEM of flower
CaptionFlower with half the petals removed.
CopyrightDoug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Flower with half the petals removed.
SEM of flowerFlower with half the petals removed.Doug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
TitleFruiting branch
Caption
CopyrightBernie Hyland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Fruiting branchBernie Hyland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
TitleMature fruit
Caption
CopyrightJohn Larmour/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Mature fruitJohn Larmour/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
TitleFruit after dehiscence
Caption
CopyrightJohn Turner/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Fruit after dehiscenceJohn Turner/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Toona ciliata M. Roem.

Preferred Common Name

  • toon

Other Scientific Names

  • Cedrela australis F. Muell.
  • Cedrela toona Roxb. ex Willd.
  • Cedrela velutina DC.
  • Toona australis (F. Muell.) Harms
  • Toona microcarpa (C. DC.) Harms
  • Toona ternatensis (Miq.) Bahadur

International Common Names

  • English: Australian red cedar; Indian cedar; Indian mahogany; moulmein cedar; red cedar

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: cedro-australiano
  • China: Chinese mahogany
  • Indonesia/Java: suren kapar; suren mal
  • Indonesia/Moluccas: kukoru
  • Indonesia/Sulawesi: malapoga
  • Malaysia/Sabah: ranggoh; surian limpaga
  • Myanmar: mai yom horm; moulmein cedar; taung tama; taw thamgo; thit kador
  • Philippines: danupra
  • Puerto Rico: tun
  • Thailand: yom hom

EPPO code

  • TOOCI (Toona ciliata)

Trade name

  • red cedar

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. ciliata is a large forest tree in the mahogany family, native to Australia and Asia, but introduced elsewhere as a shade tree and for its fast-growing aspect and red timber. Wagner et al. (1999) report that T. ciliata has been extensively planted in Hawai‘i, and has become naturalised in disturbed habitats at altitudes of 25–610 m. T. ciliata is persistent  once established (Weber, 2003). It is naturalised in southern Africa (Hyde et al. 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rutales
  •                         Family: Meliaceae
  •                             Genus: Toona
  •                                 Species: Toona ciliata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Toona (family Meliaceae) extends from eastern Pakistan through South-East Asia and southern China to eastern Australia (Edmonds, 1995). In the most recent revision of the genus, Edmonds suggested that Toona (family Meliaceae) only consists of four to five wide-ranging and variable species, namely T. sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem., T. fargesii A. Chev., T. sureni (Blume) Merr., T. ciliata M. Roem. and possibly T. calantas Merr. & Rolfe; the last species may be a large-fruited variant of T. ciliata (Edmonds, 1995). Toona is closely related to Cedrela, which has been repeatedly united with and separated from Toona since 1840. Cedrela can be differentiated from Toona by the columnar androgynophore, which is longer than the ovary, and by its seedlings which have entire leaflets (Edmonds, 1995). Species of Toona are extremely variable, especially in vegetative morphology, leading to an unstable taxonomic history. Edmonds (1995) considered Toona species to exhibit a phenomenal range of morphological variation even within and between trees in the same population, and that many of the features used by earlier workers to define taxa are only slight morphological variants. The Australian red cedar, Toona australis (F.Muell.) Harms, was placed within Edmonds’ (1995) concept of T. ciliata, and this status has been accepted by Australian botanical authorities. D. J. Mabberley, a world authority on the Meliaceae, supports Edmonds’ 1995 revision (J. Doran, CSIRO, Forestry and Forest Products, personal communication, 1998).

The ‘hairiness’ of the floral filaments and leaves feature prominently in the taxonomic treatment of T. ciliata. Edmonds (1995) noted that the species does exhibit considerable variation in filament pubescence. T. ciliata was first described from India where the filaments are characteristically glabrous and this variant extends eastwards to Hainan Island, southern China. Plants with glabrescent or sparsely pilose/villous filaments show a more restricted distribution within this Northern Hemisphere range. The taxon T. ciliata var. vestita was originally recognised for Australian plants with a very dense velvet-like covering of rather long hairs on the undersides of adult leaves (White, 1920), but was later rejected by Edmonds (1995).

Description

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Overall

T. ciliata is a tall, fast-growing, deciduous tree, typically reaching a height of around 20–30 m tall (Wagner et al., 1999), and with stem diameters above buttresses of 3 m, but reaching up to 40 m high (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). The crown is typically spreading and rounded in outline (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). Individuals have been reported up to 35.7 m tall in Hawaii (Little & Skolmen, 1989), and up to 54.5 m tall in New South Wales (Boland et al., 2006). The bark is grey to brown, fissured and flaky (Hua and Edmonds, 2008).

Foliage

The leaves are pinnately compound, usually with 9–17 leaflets (Wagner et al., 1999). Each leaflet is lanceolate and 45–160 mm long, with the whole leaf being around 300–600 mm long (Wagner et al., 1999). The leaflets are hairless or sparsely hairy (Wagner et al., 1999).

Flowers

The flowers of Toona are borne in large, pendent, densely-branched panicles (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). There are separate male and female flowers, although vestiges of the non-functional sex are usually present (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). The flowers are pentamerous and sweetly scented (Hua and Edmonds, 2008), with 1-mm-long sepals surmounted by white petals, each 5–6 mm long, with ciliate margins (Wagner et al., 1999).

Fruits

The fruits of T. ciliata are dry, oblong capsules with five valves and thin walls, typically 20–30 × 8–12 mm (Boland et al., 2006). There are around 5 seeds per loculus, each 10–20 × 3–5 mm, light brown and membraneously winged at one or both ends (depending on the part of the columella to which it was attached) (Boland et al., 2006). One wing of this samara is typically 5–15 mm long, and the other half that length (Wagner et al., 1999).

Distribution

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T. ciliata is the most wide-ranging of the four Toona species (Edmonds, 1995; Hua and Edmonds, 2008). It occurs naturally across much of South and Southeast Asia – from Pakistan and western China to Indonesia and Malaysia – and across parts of Oceania, including Australia and islands in the western Pacific Ocean (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). In China, it grows at altitudes of 400–2800 m (Hua and Edmonds, 2008).

On the Indian subcontinent, T. ciliata occurs from eastern Pakistan to Bangladesh, including the tropical parts of the sub-Himalayan tract and the Western Ghats in India. In Papua New Guinea, T. ciliata occurs in Central and Morobe provinces on the island of New Guinea, as well as on the island of New Britain (Conn and Damas, 2006 onwards).

T. ciliata has a patchy natural distribution within China, and low natural regeneration and over-exploitation have resulted in continual decline and the species being now classified as an endangered species (Li et al., 2015).

In Australia, T. ciliata occurs discontinuously along the east coast, chiefly between Ulladulla, New South Wales, and Gympie, Queensland, although disjunct populations occur further north (Boland et al., 2006).

T. ciliata has been introduced to parts of Africa, the Americas and the Pacific Ocean as a shade and timber tree.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
BhutanPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
CambodiaPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
ChinaPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008; Li et al., 2015
-AnhuiPresentNativeLi et al., 2015
-FujianPresentNativeLi et al., 2015
-GuangdongPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008; Li et al., 2015
-GuangxiPresentNative Natural Li et al., 2015
-GuizhouPresentNativeLi et al., 2015
-HainanPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
-HubeiPresentNativeLi et al., 2015
-HunanPresentIntroducedLi et al., 2015
-JiangxiPresentNativeLi et al., 2015
-SichuanPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008; Li et al., 2015
-YunnanPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008; Li et al., 2015
-ZhejiangPresentNativeLi et al., 2015
IndiaPresent Natural Hua and Edmonds, 2008
-Andhra PradeshPresent Natural
-Arunachal PradeshPresent Natural
-AssamPresentPlanted, Natural
-BiharPresent Natural
-Himachal PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-Indian PunjabPresent Natural
-Jammu and KashmirPresent Natural
-KarnatakaPresent Natural
-KeralaPresent Natural
-Madhya PradeshPresent Natural
-MaharashtraPresent Natural
-ManipurPresent Natural
-MeghalayaPresent Natural
-MizoramPresent Natural
-NagalandPresent Natural
-OdishaPresent Natural
-SikkimPresent Natural
-Tamil NaduPresent Natural
-TripuraPresent Natural
-Uttar PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-West BengalPresentPlanted, Natural
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresent Natural
-SulawesiPresent Natural
-SumatraPresent Natural
LaosPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
MalaysiaPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent Natural
-SabahPresent Natural
MyanmarPresent Natural Hua and Edmonds, 2008
NepalPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
PakistanPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
PhilippinesPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
Sri LankaPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
ThailandPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008
VietnamPresentNativeHua and Edmonds, 2008

Africa

Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
KenyaPresent Planted
MalawiPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
MauritiusPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015
MozambiquePresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
SeychellesPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
South AfricaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
TanzaniaPresent Planted
UgandaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedHyde et al., 2013

North America

MexicoPresent Planted
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedLittle and Skolmen, 1989; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresent Planted
Puerto RicoPresent Planted USDA-NRCS, 2015

South America

ArgentinaPresent Planted
BrazilPresent Planted
ParaguayPresent Planted
PeruPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentNativeBoland et al., 2006
-QueenslandPresentNativeBoland et al., 2006
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
FijiPresent Planted
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
NiuePresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
Papua New GuineaPresentNativePIER, 2011
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2011

History of Introduction and Spread

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T. ciliata has been introduced to tropical Africa, tropical parts of Central America and South America, the Seychelles and a number of islands in the Pacific Ocean. T. ciliata is invasive in Tonga, although few details are available. It is considered invasive in the South African provinces of Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga and Limpopo (Invasive Species South Africa, 2012).

T. ciliata is naturalised on all the Hawaiian high islands (Wagner et al., 2012). It was introduced in 1918 for forestry plantations, using stock from Australia (Little and Skolmen, 1989). From 1959 to 1973, the Hawaii Division of Forestry planted about 5000 acres of T. ciliata using seed of Australian origin (Walters and Wick, 1973). In 1989, there were reported to be 2300 acres (c. 930 ha) of T. ciliata, with “the best stand” being that planted in 1924 at Round Top Drive, Honolulu (Little and Skolmen, 1989).

Because of its high-quality timber, the species has been trialled in many countries. It has been extensively tested in Hawaii and Central/South America (Argentina and Costa Rica), Sri Lanka and Africa (Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania). The species has been grown on small South Pacific oceanic islands such as Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and the Solomon Islands (Streets, 1962). T. ciliata has performed well in areas free of the cedar tip moth, Hypsipyla robusta. The species is not attacked by H. grandifolia (of South American origin) and grows successfully in areas where this moth occurs.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii Australia 1918 Forestry (pathway cause) Yes No Little and Skolmen (1989)
Zambia Late 19th c Yes No Lemmens (2008)
Zimbabwe Late 19th c Yes No Lemmens (2008)

Risk of Introduction

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T. ciliata spreads by seed dispersal (Invasive Species South Africa, 2012). Because its seeds are winged samaras, it has great capacity to spread over short and medium distances by wind-dispersal (anemochory). It has shown a propensity to spread in several different countries, and is likely to continue to do so.

Habitat

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In the western sub-Himalayan tract of India, T. ciliata is found chiefly in moist localities, in sheltered ravines, along streams and even in swamp forest (Troup, 1921), while in the Western Ghats, it is found mostly in wet evergreen forests; there are also scattered occurrences in moist deciduous forests (Rai, 1985).

In India, the climate of the natural habitat comprises rainfall from 1100–4000 mm per year and temperatures range from about 0–35°C (Streets, 1962). The species will tolerate some frosts, but is somewhat sensitive to drought (Streets, 1962).

In China, it occurs at alttiudes of 700–1600 m, typically on open hillsides and more rarely in ravines and forested areas (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). In Australia, it occurs from sea level to 1100 m, in areas with an annual rainfall of 1200–3800 mm, concentrated in the summer (Boland et al., 2006). The mean maximum temperature of the hottest month is 26–31°C and the mean minimum of the coldest month 5–10°C, with trees at higher altitudes experiencing occasional frosts (Boland et al., 2006).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

In the cooler parts of its range, the tree is usually leafless during the winter, and in spring the newly emerging leaves are bright red and distinctive in the forest canopy, before becoming bronze-tipped and finally green (Boland et al., 2006). In Australia, the species flowers from September to December (Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, 2013). Rai (1985) reports that the fruit maturation period in India is March–April, while Troup (1921) reports a period of May–June for northern India. In China, flowering occurs from March to June in southwest China and from May to June elsewhere (Li et al. 2015).

Trees in open situations produce seed after 6–8 years (Fenton et al., 1977).

Environmental Requirements

Where planted as an exotic, T. ciliata performs well on fertile soils at the bottom of slopes. In the Cook Islands, the species grows well on well drained and slightly alkaline soils, but poorly on compact clay or poor sands (Ehrhart, 1992).  It has been successfully established in Zambia on light loams and deeper soils near streams (Streets, 1962).

T. ciliata is light-demanding and shade-intolerant, growing in forest gaps, including riparian habitats. It is an early-successional pioneer that spreads rapidly in cleared areas or in disturbed forests (Weber, 2003).

In India, the climate of the natural habitat comprises rainfall from 1100–4000 mm per year and temperatures range from about 0–35°C (Streets, 1962). The species will tolerate some frosts, but is somewhat sensitive to drought (Streets, 1962).

When planted as an exotic, the climatic conditions may differ a little from those experienced within its natural range. In Malawi, the species grows from 450 m to 1500 m with rainfalls of 900–1500 mm concentrated in November–March with mist and drizzle in some areas during the rest of the year. In Malawi, the temperature ranges from about 3°C to 35°C (Streets, 1962).

Associations

In Australia, other trees commonly associated with T. ciliata include the booyongs Argyrodendron trifoliolatum and A. actinophyllum, the carabeens Geissois benthamiana and Sloanea woollsii, sassafras (Doryphora sassafras) and, more rarely, the hoop pine or Queensland pine, Araucaria cunninghamii (Boland et al., 2006).

T. ciliata occurs with Tetrameles and Stereospermum in Assam; other common associate tree species there include Albizia procera, Amoora wallichii, Artocarpus chaplasha and Pterygota alata (Champion and Seth, 1968).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
31 -35 0 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -2 20
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 26 41
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5 15

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration05number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall12005000mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hypsipyla robusta Herbivore All Stages not specific Dobunaba and Kosi, 2001

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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T. ciliata spreads by wind dispersal of its seeds (Invasive Species South Africa, 2012), and cut roots will produce suckers (Lemmens, 2008).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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T. ciliata out-competes indigenous species in South Africa, particularly in forested areas and along river banks; it is covered by that nation’s Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 2002, and has been proposed for listing under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (Invasive Species South Africa, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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T. ciliata is mostly grown for its versatile timber, which is used for building houses and ships, and for high-value goods such as furniture, musical instruments, carvings, and numerous other uses (Lemmens, 2008). The flowers yield a reddish dyestuff, while the bark is used to tan leather or to produce string (Lemmens, 2008). Traditional medicine makes use of various parts of the plant, chiefly the bark and leaves (Lemmens, 2008). The leaves are widely used as an animal fodder in India (Edmonds, 1993). T. ciliata is commonly cultivated as an avenue tree in India (Edmonds, 1995) and as an ornamental and wayside tree throughout much of tropical Africa and Asia (Fenton et al., 1977).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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T. ciliata closely resembles the other four species of Toona, and both fruits and flowers are required for a certain identification (Hua and Edmonds, 2008).  This is ameliorated by the fact that T. ciliata is the only species of Toona throughout most of its range (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). T. sinensis differs from it in having toothed leaflets, and in that its seeds are only winged at one end (Lemmens, 2008).

T. ciliata bears a resemblance to Cedrela odorata, to which it is closely related, and the two are sometimes confounded with each other; C. odorata has a longer floral column than T. ciliata, and its seedlings have entire leaflets (Lemmens, 2008).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Seedlings and small trees can be dug out. Larger trees can be cut and treated with herbicide.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Weber (2003) concluded that little is known about the ecology of T. ciliata as an invasive species.

References

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Ahmad I, Bhutta AR, 1993. Fungi associated with landscape tree seed in Islamabad, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 5(1-2):126-129

Anon, 1963. Indian woods: their identification, properties and uses. Vol. 2, Linaceae to Moringaceae. Survey of India Offices:Dehra Dun

Applegate GB, 1988. Growtubes for rapid early height growth of red cedar. Research Results Queensland Department of Forestry, No. 2, 2 pp

Applegate GB, Bragg AL, 1989. Improved growth rates of red cedar (Toona australis (F. Muell.) Harms) seedlings in growtubes in north Queensland. Australian Forestry, 52(4):293-297; 15 ref

Arushi Mehrotra, Mehrotra MD, 2000. Phythophthora leaf blight of some forest trees. Indian Journal of Forestry, 23(2):142-148; 6 ref

Balodis V, 1960. Physical properties of timber with relation to growth conditions: Cedrela toona Roxb. var australis C. DC. Experiment No 1, Investigation of physical properties and quality of sawn timber in plantation grown red cedar. Laboratory Report, Project QTP 3-13, Queensland Forest Service

Banerji R, Mitra CR, 1975. Desoxycedrelone-a new tetranortriterpenoid from Cedrela toona [Toona ciliata] heartwood. Planta Medica, 28(1):52-55; BLL.; 10 ref

Bhardwaj DR, Samet GS, Mishra VK, 1996. Preliminary observations on rooting of Toon (Toona ciliata Roem) through stem cuttings. Van Vigyan, 34(4):140-143

Bhat KM, 1985. Properties of selected less-known tropical hardwood. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 16(1):26-35; 28 ref

Bhattacharyya A, Yadav RR, Borgaonkar HP, Pant GB, 1992. Growth-ring analysis of Indian tropical trees: dendroclimatic potential. Current Science, 62(11):736-741; 24 ref

Boland DJ, 1997. Red cedar _ Toona ciliata Australia's famous furniture timber tree. Pacific Islands Forest and Trees Newsletter. June 2/97, 11-12

Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD, 2006. Toona ciliata M. Roem. In: Forest Trees of Australia, 5th edition. Collingwood, Vic., Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 122-124

Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, Turner JD, 1984. Forest trees of Australia. 4th ed. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. xvi + 687 pp.; 77 ref

Booth TH, Jovanovic T, 2000. Improving descriptions of climatic requirements in the CABI Forestry Compendium. A report for the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products, Client Report No. 758

Bultman, JD, Beal RH, Purushotham, A. Thompson MF, Sarojini R, Nagabhushanam, R, 1988. Marine Biodeterioration. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH

Burkill IH, 1930. Cedrela in the Malay Peninsula. Gardens Bull. Straits Settl., 5: 120-122

Bygrave FL, Bygrave PL, 1998. Cedrela species are attacked by the tip moth Hypsipyla robusta when grafted on to red cedar Toona ciliata. Australian Forestry, 61(1):45-47; 10 ref

Champion Sir HG, Seth SK, 1968. A revised survey of the forest types of India. Delhi, India: India Press. 1968, xxvii + 404 pp. + 103 pl.; 9 pp. of ref

Chand G, Bhardwaj SD, 1996. Interrelated effects of temperature and container on longevity of Toona ciliata M. Roem seed. Indian Forester, 122(5):419-422; 5 ref

Chandel RS, Bhrot NP, 2001. Occurrence and attack of Hypsipyla robusta Moore on seeds of Toona ciliata M. Roem - a report. Indian Forester, 127(4):487-488; 7 ref

Chandra A, Pant SC, 1981. Building timbers - treatment by non-pressure methods. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India, 27(1):22-29; BLL; 3 ref

Chaturvedi AN, 1971. General standard volume tables for Cedrela toona Roxb. Indian Forestry Record (Silviculture) 12 (2). pp. 8

Conn BJ, Damas KQ, 2006. Toona ciliata M.Roem. Guide to trees of Papua New Guinea. http://www.pngplants.org/PNGtrees/TreeDescriptions/Toona_ciliata_M_Roem.html

Cook DK, Freeman S, 1997. Allergic contact dermatitis to multiple sawdust allergens. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 38(2): 77-79

Devi RKS, Devi GAS, 1990. Cell wall biochemistry of timbers from Manipur. Indian Forester, 116(10):843-844; 6 ref

Dobunaba J, Kosi T, 2001. Hypsipyla shoot borers of Meliaceae in Papua New Guinea. Hypsipyla shoot borers in Meliaceae. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Kandy, Sri Lanka, 20-23 August 1996, 33-36; 2 ref

Edmonds JM, 1993. The potential value of Toona species (Meliaceae) as multipurpose and plantation trees in Southeast Asia. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 72(3):181-186; 38 ref

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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24/06/13 Updated by:

Christopher Dixon, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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