Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Tobacco mosaic virus
(tobacco mosaic)



Tobacco mosaic virus (tobacco mosaic)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tobacco mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tobacco mosaic
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Family: Virgoviridae
  •     Genus: Tobamovirus
  •       Species: Tobacco mosaic virus
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Midrib necrosis on NN tobacco after exposure to temperature above 30°C for some hours per day.
TitleSymptoms on tobacco
CaptionMidrib necrosis on NN tobacco after exposure to temperature above 30°C for some hours per day.
CopyrightPasquale Piccirillo
Midrib necrosis on NN tobacco after exposure to temperature above 30°C for some hours per day.
Symptoms on tobaccoMidrib necrosis on NN tobacco after exposure to temperature above 30°C for some hours per day.Pasquale Piccirillo
Left: symptoms on tobacco caused by the ormonal compound 2,4-D. Right: healthy leaf.
TitleSymptoms on tobacco leaves
CaptionLeft: symptoms on tobacco caused by the ormonal compound 2,4-D. Right: healthy leaf.
CopyrightPasquale Piccirillo
Left: symptoms on tobacco caused by the ormonal compound 2,4-D. Right: healthy leaf.
Symptoms on tobacco leavesLeft: symptoms on tobacco caused by the ormonal compound 2,4-D. Right: healthy leaf.Pasquale Piccirillo
Large necrotic lesion on the stem of NN tobacco in the field.
TitleSymptoms on tobacco
CaptionLarge necrotic lesion on the stem of NN tobacco in the field.
CopyrightPasquale Piccirillo
Large necrotic lesion on the stem of NN tobacco in the field.
Symptoms on tobaccoLarge necrotic lesion on the stem of NN tobacco in the field.Pasquale Piccirillo
Mosaic symptoms on tomato leaves.
TitleSymptoms on tomato leaves
CaptionMosaic symptoms on tomato leaves.
CopyrightPasquale Piccirillo
Mosaic symptoms on tomato leaves.
Symptoms on tomato leavesMosaic symptoms on tomato leaves.Pasquale Piccirillo
Right: fern-leaf symptoms on sensitive tomato. Left: healthy leaf.
TitleSymptoms on tomato
CaptionRight: fern-leaf symptoms on sensitive tomato. Left: healthy leaf.
CopyrightPasquale Piccirillo
Right: fern-leaf symptoms on sensitive tomato. Left: healthy leaf.
Symptoms on tomatoRight: fern-leaf symptoms on sensitive tomato. Left: healthy leaf.Pasquale Piccirillo
Yellow mosaic "type Aucuba" on leaves of sensitive pepper cultivar.
TitleSymptoms on pepper leaves
CaptionYellow mosaic "type Aucuba" on leaves of sensitive pepper cultivar.
CopyrightPasquale Piccirillo
Yellow mosaic "type Aucuba" on leaves of sensitive pepper cultivar.
Symptoms on pepper leavesYellow mosaic "type Aucuba" on leaves of sensitive pepper cultivar.Pasquale Piccirillo
Mosaic and deformation symptoms on fruit of sensitive pepper.
TitleSymptoms on pepper fruit
CaptionMosaic and deformation symptoms on fruit of sensitive pepper.
CopyrightPasquale Piccirillo
Mosaic and deformation symptoms on fruit of sensitive pepper.
Symptoms on pepper fruitMosaic and deformation symptoms on fruit of sensitive pepper.Pasquale Piccirillo
Tobacco mosaic virus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted:
TitleVirus particles
CaptionTobacco mosaic virus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted:
Tobacco mosaic virus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted:
Virus particlesTobacco mosaic virus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted:


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tobacco mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • tobacco mosaic

Other Scientific Names

  • TMV U1, type, vulgare or common strain
  • tobacco mosaic tobamovirus
  • VMT (virus mosaique de tabac)

International Common Names

  • English: marmor tabaci; TMV U1; TMV-type; TMV-vulgare o common strain
  • Spanish: virus del mosaico del tabaco
  • French: mosaïque du tabac; virus de la mosaïque du tabac
  • Russian: virusa tabachnoi mozaiki

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: virus do mosaico do fumo
  • Bulgaria: tyutyuneviya mozaichen virus
  • Czech Republic: viru mozaiky tabaku
  • Germany: Tobak mosaik virus
  • Italy: virus del mosaico del tabacco
  • Netherlands: tabaksmozaïekvirus
  • Poland: wirusy mosaiki tytoniu
  • Romania: virusului mozaicului tutunului

English acronym

  • TMV

EPPO code

  • TMV000 (Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Family: Virgoviridae
  •         Genus: Tobamovirus
  •             Species: Tobacco mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaWidespreadGao et al., 1994; Xu et al., 1994
-BeijingPresentHuang et al., 2004
-ChongqingPresentLin et al., 2001
-FujianPresentLiu et al., 2006
-GuangdongWidespreadFu et al., 1997a
-GuangxiPresentCai et al., 2009
-HainanWidespreadXiao et al., 1997
-HenanPresentLi et al., 2001
-HunanWidespreadXiao et al., 1993
-JiangsuWidespreadZhu et al., 1992
-JilinWidespreadCui et al., 1992
-Nei MengguPresentWang et al., 2008
-ShaanxiPresentQi et al., 2008
-ShandongPresentLi et al., 1996
-ShanxiPresentNiu et al., 2009
-TianjinPresentLi et al., 2004
-XinjiangWidespreadXiang et al., 1994
-YunnanWidespreadZhang et al., 1992
IndiaWidespreadGiri and Mishra, 1991; Gupta et al., 1994; Patel and Patel, 1994
-Andhra PradeshPresentJagadeeshwar et al., 2005
-Himachal PradeshPresentSharma et al., 2008
-KarnatakaWidespreadBidari and Reddy, 1994
-MaharashtraPresentNarute et al., 2008
IranPresentMassumi et al., 2009
JapanWidespreadHonda et al., 1990
-HonshuWidespreadTsuda et al., 1995
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadYi, 1993; Yoon et al., 2016
OmanPresentMughal et al., 2006
PakistanPresentHameed et al., 1991
SingaporePresent, few occurrencesAVA, 2001
TaiwanWidespreadGreen and Wu, 1991
TurkeyWidespreadPalloix et al., 1994


EgyptWidespreadOthman, 1991; Zein et al., 2012
LibyaWidespreadEl Sanusi et al., 1991
NigeriaPresentOdedara et al., 2008
TunisiaPresentBen-Moussa et al., 2000
ZambiaPresentMayunga and Kapooria, 2003

North America

BermudaPresentSchotman, 1989
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaWidespreadBeczner et al., 1997
MexicoPresentPiedra-Ibarra et al., 2005
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaWidespreadSikora et al., 1998
-CaliforniaWidespreadAbdalla et al., 1991
-GeorgiaPresentPappu and Bertrand, 2000
-MarylandWidespreadAycock and McKee, 1995
-New YorkPresentMurphy et al., 2003

Central America and Caribbean

CubaWidespreadSchotman, 1989; Ruiz, 1992
DominicaPresentSchotman, 1989
Dominican RepublicPresentSchotman, 1989
HaitiPresentSchotman, 1989
JamaicaPresentSchotman, 1989; McGlashan et al., 1993
MontserratPresentSchotman, 1989
Puerto RicoWidespreadSchotman, 1989; Escudero, 1996
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSchotman, 1989
Trinidad and TobagoPresentSchotman, 1989

South America

BrazilWidespreadBrioso, 1996
-Sao PauloPresentAlexandre et al., 2000
ChilePresentSepúlveda et al., 2005
French GuianaPresentSchotman, 1989
GuyanaPresentSchotman, 1989
PeruPresentFribourg and Fernandez-Northcote, 2003
SurinamePresentSchotman, 1989
VenezuelaWidespreadNava et al., 1997


BulgariaWidespreadGelemerov et al., 1995
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadMijativic, 1997
FranceWidespreadMarchoux & Gebre-Selassie, 1989
GermanyWidespreadButorac et al., 1995
GreecePresentChatzivassiliou et al., 2004
HungaryWidespreadZatyko and Moor, 1995
ItalyWidespreadPiccirillo and Diana, 1991
LithuaniaPresentNavalinskiene and Samuitiene, 2004
MontenegroPresentZindovic et al., 2007
PolandWidespreadKaminska et al., 1996
Russian FederationWidespreadFominykh et al., 1996
SerbiaPresentÐekic et al., 2007
SloveniaPresentMehle et al., 2005
SpainWidespreadTenllado et al., 1997
UkraineWidespreadBoyko et al., 1996
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadMijativic, 1997


SamoaPresentSouth Pacific Commission
Solomon IslandsPresentSouth Pacific Commissionpersonal communication
TongaPresentSouth Pacific Commissionpersonal communication

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / distortion
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing


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Alekseev RV, Schcherbinin BM, Tokareva NN, 1974. Transmission of tobacco mosaic virus by tomato seeds and the means for their disinfection. Sb. Nauch. Tr. VNII Oroshaem. Ovoshchevodstva I Bakhchevodstva, 2:77-81.

Alekseev RV, Shcherbinin BM, Tokareva NN, 1975. Control of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tomato seed crops. Sb. Nauch. Tr. VNII Oroshaem. Ovoshchevodstva i Bakhchevodstva, No.3/4:82-87

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Beczner L, Rochon DM, Hamilton RI, 1997. Characterization of an isolate of pepper mild mottle tobamovirus occurring in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 19(1):83-88; 47 ref.

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Bushell GR, Watson GS, Holt SA, Myhra S, 1995. Imaging and nano-dissection of tobacco mosaic virus by atomic force microscopy. Journal of Microscopy, 180(2):174-181

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Cai JianHe, Zhou XingHua, Huang FuXin, Qin BiXia, Wei XuePing, Lin BeiSen, Chen YongHui, 2009. Incidence related factors and integrated control of tobacco virus diseases in Guangxi. Guangxi Agricultural Sciences, 40(2):159-163.

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Chatzivassiliou EK, Efthimiou K, Drossos E, Papadopoulou A, Poimenidis G, Katis NI, 2004. A survey of tobacco viruses in tobacco crops and native flora in Greece. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110(10):1011-1023.

Chivasa S, Murphy AM, Naylor M, Carr JP, 1997. Salicylic acid interferes with tobacco mosaic virus replication via a novel salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive mechanism. Plant Cell, 9(4):547-557; 47 ref.

Cicek Y, Yorganci U, 1991. Studies on the incidence of tobacco mosaic virus on certified seed of tomato, pepper and eggplant in Aegean region. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 20(2-3):57-68

Cooper B, Lapidot M, Heick JA, Dodds JA, Beachy RN, 1995. A defective movement protein of TMV in transgenic plants confers resistance to multiple viruses whereas the functional analog increases susceptibility. Virology (New York), 206(1):307-313; 30 ref.

Cui YH, Qian XQ, Han ZS, Kang LY, Qin BY, Zhang XH, Tian B, 1992. Tobacco virus types and control of the viral diseases in the Yanbian region in northeast China. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 32(1):47-55

Culver JN, Alwyn GC, Lindbeck GC, Dawson WO, 1991. Virus-host interactions: induction of chlorotic and necrotic responses in plants by tobamoviruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 29:193-217

Dardick CD, Culver JN, 1997. Tobamovirus coat proteins: elicitors of the hypersensitive response in Solanum melongena (eggplant). Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 10(6):776-778; 25 ref.

Ðekic I, Bulajic A, Zindovic J, Berenji J, Paukovic M, Krstic B, 2007. Identification of Potato Virus Y strains in tobacco crops. (Identifikacija sojeva virusa crticastog mozaika krompira na duvanu.) Pesticidi i Fitomedicina, 22(2):155-163.

Donson J, Kearney CM, Turpen TH, Khan IA, Kurath G, Turpen AM, Jones GE, Dawson WO, Lewandowski DJ, 1993. Broad resistance to tobamoviruses is mediated by a modified tobacco mosaic virus replicase transgene. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 6(5):635-642

Drygin YuF, Blintsov AN, Osipov AP, Grigorenko VG, Andreeva IP, Uskov AI, Varitsev YuA, Anisimov BV, Novikov VK, Atabekov JG, 2009. High-sensitivity express immunochromatographic method for detection of plant infection by tobacco mosaic virus. Biochemistry (Moscow), 74(9):986-993.

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El Sanusi O, Shagrun M, Khalil J, 1991. Isolation and identification of tomato mosaic virus from pepper plants in Libya. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 9:52-56.

Enyedi AJ, Yalpani N, Silverman P, Raskin I, 1992. Localization, conjugation, and function of salicylic acid in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89(6):2480-2484

Escudero J, 1996. Survey of viruses affecting pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in southern Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 80(1/2):77-80; 17 ref.

Feng LX, Yang RC, Li S, Xu H, Yang CY, 1996. A study on identification of TMV genotype strains of tomato in China. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 23:155-159.

Fominykh TS, Adaikina RK, Belyankina OG, 1996. Virus diseases of Capsicum in protected soil. Zashchita Rastenii^breve~ (Moskva), No. 1:43.

Fraile A, Escriu F, Aranda MA, Malpica JM, Gibbs AJ, Garcfa-Arenal F, 1997. A century of tobamovirus evolution in an Australian population of Nicotiana glauca. Journal of Virology, 71(11):8316-8320; 39 ref.

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Fribourg CE, Fernandez-Northcote EN, 2003. Potato, virus X and tobacco mosaic affecting cultivated Capsicum species in Peru. (Virus X de la papa y mosaico del tabaco en especies de Capsicum cultivadas en el Perú.) Fitopatología, 38(4):177-183.

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Fu MJ, Gao QW, Fan HZ, Fu MJ, Gao QW, Fan HZ, 1997. Advances in identification of tobacco mosaic virus strains. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 18:113-117.

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McGlashan DH, Polston JE, Maynard DN, 1993. A survey of viruses affecting Jamaican 'Scotch Bonnet' pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Proceedings of the Interamerican Society for Tropical Horticulture, 37:25-30; 9 ref.

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