Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tomato spotted wilt virus
(tomato spotted wilt)

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Datasheet

Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 March 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tomato spotted wilt virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tomato spotted wilt
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Bunyaviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus damage symptoms to fruit.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus damage symptoms to fruit.
Copyright©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus damage symptoms to fruit.
Damage symptomsTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus damage symptoms to fruit.©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus particles.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus particles.
Copyright©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus particles.
Virus particlesTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus particles.©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); electron micrograph of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus particles, in negatively stained preparation, from foliar extract of infected tobacco.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); electron micrograph of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus particles, in negatively stained preparation, from foliar extract of infected tobacco.
Copyright©César M. Chagas
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); electron micrograph of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus particles, in negatively stained preparation, from foliar extract of infected tobacco.
Virus particlesTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); electron micrograph of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus particles, in negatively stained preparation, from foliar extract of infected tobacco.©César M. Chagas

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tomato spotted wilt virus

Preferred Common Name

  • tomato spotted wilt

Other Scientific Names

  • dahlia oakleaf virus
  • dahlia ringspot virus
  • dahlia yellow ringspot virus
  • mung bean leaf curl virus
  • pineapple yellow spot virus
  • tomato spotted wilt tospovirus

International Common Names

  • English: bronze leaf wilt; tomato bronze leaf virus
  • Spanish: bronceado del tomate
  • French: maladie des taches de bronze de la tomate
  • Portuguese: bronzeamento do tomateiro

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: corovo del tabaco; peste negra del tomate
  • Brazil: vira-cabeca
  • Chile: marchitamiento manchado del tomate
  • Germany: Bronzefleckenkrankheit
  • Italy: avvizzimento maculato del pomodoro
  • Netherlands: Tomatebronsvlekkenvirus
  • South Africa: kat river wilt; kromnek virus

English acronym

  • TSWV

EPPO code

  • TSWV00 (Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Bunyaviridae
  •                     Genus: Tospovirus
  •                         Species: Tomato spotted wilt virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 15 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Burkina FasoPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MauritiusPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MoroccoAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
RéunionPresent, Widespread1991UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); Kisten et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
TunisiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); Karavina and Gubba (2017); EPPO (2020)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ArmeniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
AzerbaijanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
BangladeshPresentFarooq and Akanda (2007)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-BeijingPresentChen et al. (2018); EPPO (2020)
-ShandongPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Sun et al. (2016)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentLi et al. (2015); Xiao et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); Renukadevi et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentEPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresentDamayanti and Naidu (2009); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentEPPO (2020)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresent, Localized1992UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
JordanPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
LebanonPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentKim HyounJoung et al. (2008)
OmanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Al-Saleh et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
SingaporePresent, Few occurrencesAVA (2001)
South KoreaPresentChoi et al. (2014); Choi and Choi (2015); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SyriaPresentEPPO (2020); Ismaeil et al. (2012)
TaiwanPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresent, Localized1981UK, CAB International (1978); Delİgoz et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
UzbekistanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AlbaniaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
AustriaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020); Trkulja et al. (2013)
BulgariaPresent, Widespread1952UK, CAB International (1978); Dikova (2012); Dikova et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresent, Localized1977UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CyprusPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresent, Localized1992UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
DenmarkAbsent, Eradicated1990UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
EstoniaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
FinlandPresent, Transient under eradication1989UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, Localized1987UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresent, Widespread1972UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-CretePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
GuernseyPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); Takács et al. (2012); Cseh et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
IrelandPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, Widespread1989UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-SardiniaPresentEPPO (2020)
-SicilyPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
LatviaAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
LithuaniaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MaltaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MoldovaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MontenegroPresentZindović et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresent1987UK, CAB International (1978); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2020)
North MacedoniaPresentCABI (Undated); Rusevski et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Trajcbreve~evski (2002)
NorwayAbsent, EradicatedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
PolandPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1978)
PortugalPresent, Localized1991UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MadeiraPresentEPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Southern RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020); Stanković et al. (2012); Nikolić et al. (2013)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
SlovakiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)1993UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SloveniaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
SpainPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Balearic IslandsPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Canary IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, Few occurrences1990UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, Widespread1986UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Channel IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Dominican RepublicPresentMartínez et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
HaitiPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MartiniqueAbsent, Intercepted onlyUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-DelawarePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Webster et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-IdahoPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-KansasPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MainePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MontanaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-NevadaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-New HampshirePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-South DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-UtahPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-VermontPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Liu et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-WyomingPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Cook IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Ferrand et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-BahiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-PernambucoPresentEPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ChilePresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
UruguayPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Marys et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / dwarfing

References

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¦vila AC de, Pozzer L, Bezerra I, Kormelink R, Prins M, Peters D, Nagata T, Kitajima EW, Resende R de O, 1998. Diversity of tospoviruses in Brazil. In: Peters D, Goldbach R, eds. Recent Progress in Tospovirus and Thrips Research. Wageningen, Netherlands: Department of Virology, WAU, 32-34

Adam G, Kegler H, 1994. Tomato spotted wilt virus and related tospoviruses. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 28(6):483-504; 5 pp. of ref

Adam G, Peters D, Goldbach RW, 1996. Serological comparison of tospovirus isolates using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:135-158; 34 ref

Adam G, Peters D, Goldbach RW, 1996. Serological comparison of tospovirus isolates using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:135-158; 34 ref

Adam G, Roggero P, Malavasi F, Milne RG, Papa G, 1995. Approach to a general tospovirus assay using antibodies to purified tomato spotted wilt tospovirus G proteins. Bulletin OEPP, 25(1/2):247-257; 22 ref

Alexandre MAV, Duarte LML, Harakava R, Chaves ALR, Marque JM, Kitajima EW, 2014. Amazon lily: a new natural host of Tomato spotted wilt virus. New Disease Reports, 30:13. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030013

Ali MIM, Rao RDVJP, 1982. Effect of tomato spotted wilt virus on the oil content of groundnut seeds. Madras Agricultural Journal, 69(4):269-270

Allen WR, Matteoni JA, 1991. Petunia as an indicator plant for use by growers to monitor for thrips carrying the tomato spotted wilt virus in greenhouses. Plant Disease, 75(1):78-82

Al-Saleh MA, Al-Shahwan IM, Amer MA, Shakeel MT, Ahmad MH, Kamran A, Efthimiou CE, Katis NI, 2014. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus in lettuce crops in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease, 98(11):1591. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Amin PW, Reddy DVR, Ghanekar AM, 1981. Transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus, the causal agent of bud necrosis of peanut, by Scirtothrips dorsalis and Frankliniella schultzei. Plant Disease, 65(8):663-665

Anon., 1981. Groundnut Pathology. In: ICRISAT Annual Report, 1 June, 1979. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: ICRISAT.

Antignus Y, Mor N, Joseph RB, Lapidot M, Cohen S, 1996. Ultraviolet-absorbing plastic sheets protect crops from insect pests and from virus diseases vectored by insects. Environmental Entomology, 25(5):919-924; 18 ref

Aparicio F, Soler S, Aramburu J, Galipienso L, Nuez F, Pallás V, López C, 2009. Simultaneous detection of six RNA plant viruses affecting tomato crops using a single digoxigenin-labelled polyprobe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 123(1):117-123. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Aramburu J, Marti M, 2003. The occurrence in nort-east Spain of a variant of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that breaks resistance in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) containing the Sw-5 gen. Plant Pathology, in press

Aramburu J, Riudavets J, Arn= J, Lavina A, Moriones E, 1996. Rapid serological detection of tomato spotted wilt virus in individual thrips by squash-blot assay for use in epidemiological studies. Plant Pathology, 45(2):367-374; 29 ref

Aramburu J, Riudavets J, Arn= J, Lavina A, Moriones E, 1997. The proportion of viruliferous individuals in field populations of Frankliniella occidentalis: implications for tomato spotted wilt virus epidemics in tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(7):623-629; 31 ref

Aramburu J, Rodriguez M, Arino J, 2000. Effect of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infection on the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants of cultivars carrying the SW-5 gene. Journal of Phytopathology, 148(11/12):569-574; 28 ref

Asjes CJ, Blom-Barnhoorn GJ, 2001. Control of aphid-vectored and thrips-borne virus spread in lily, tulip, iris and dahlia by sprays of mineral oil, polydimethylsiloxane and pyrethroid insecticide in the field. Annals of Applied Biology, 139(1):11-19; 39 ref

Asjes CJ, Blom-Barnhorn GJ, Lilien-Kipnis H, Borochov A, Halevy AH, 1997. Incidence and control of thrips-borne tomato spotted wilt virus in Dahlia in the Netherlands. Acta Horticulturae, 430: 625-632

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Avila AC de, Haan P de, Kitajima EW, Kormelink R, Resende R de O, Goldbach RW, Peters D, 1992. Characterization of a distinct isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from Impatiens sp. in the Netherlands. Journal of Phytopathology, 134(2):133-151

Avila AC de, Haan P de, Smeets MLL, Resende R de O, Kormelink R, Kitajima EW, Goldbach RW, Peters D, 1993. Distinct levels of relationships between tospovirus isolates. Archives of Virology, 128(3-4):211-227

Avila AC de, Huguenot C, Resende R de O, Kitajima EW, Goldbach RW, 1990. Serological differentiation of 20 isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus. Journal of General Virology, 71(12):2801-2807

Bautista RC, Mau RFL, Cho JJ, Custer DM, 1995. Potential of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus plant hosts in Hawaii as virus reservoirs for transmission by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Phytopathology, 85(9):953-958; 34 ref

Berling A, Llanas-Bousquet W, Malezieux S, Gebre Selassie K, 1990. Tomato spotted wilt virus. Connaître le problFme pour enrayer l'épidémie. Phytoma, 422:46-50

Betti L, 1992. Tomato spotted wilt virus on eggplant in Sicily (Italy). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 31(2):119-120

Black LL, Hobbs HA, Gatti JM Jr, 1991. Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance in Capsicum chinense PI 152225 and 159236. Plant Disease, 75(8):863

Black LL, Hobbs HA, Kammerlohr DS, 1996. Resistance of Capsicum chinense lines to tomato spotted wilt virus isolates from Louisiana, USA, and inheritance of resistance. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:393-401; 11 ref

Blockley AL, Mumford RA, 2001. Identification and isolation of Impatiens necrotic spot virus from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia microdasys). Plant Pathology, 50(6):805; 4 ref

Boiteux LS, Nagata T, 1993. Susceptibility of Capsicum chinense PI 159236 to tomato spotted wilt virus isolates in Brazil. Plant Disease, 77(2):210

Boonham N, Smith P, Walsh K, Tame J, Morris J, Spence N, Bennison J, Barker I, 2002. The detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in individual thrips using real time fluorescent RT-PCR (TaqMan). Journal of Virological Methods, 101(1/2):37-48; 21 ref

Bournier JP, 1990. Chemical control of Frankliniella occidentalis. Phytoma, 422:35, 38-39

Brittlebank CC, 1919. Tomato diseases. Journal of the Department of Agriculture in Victoria, 17:1348-1352

Brown S, Todd J, Culbreath A, Gorbet D, Shokes F, Baldwin J, Beasley J, 1998. An integrated management strategy for tomato spotted wilt of peanut in Georgia. In: Peters D, Goldbach R, eds. Recent Progress in Tospovirus and Thrips Research. Wageningen, Netherlands: Department of Virology, WAU, 75-76

Buiel AAM, Parlevliet JE, 1996. Mature plant and tissue resistance in the groundnut-peanut bud necrosis virus system. Euphytica, 91(2):213-217; 15 ref

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

CABI/EPPO, 1999. Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 8. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Camann MA, Culbreath AK, Pickering J, Todd JW, Demski JW, 1995. Spatial and temporal patterns of spotted wilt epidemics in peanut. Phytopathology, 85(8):879-885

Chen, D. L., Luo, C., Liu, H., Li, X. M., Cheng, X., Li, M. Y., Wang, L. L., Huang, C. L., 2018. First report of chrysanthemum stem blight and dieback caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in China. Plant Disease, 102(5), 1047-1048. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1088-PDN

Cho JJ, Custer DM, Brommonschenkel SH, Tanksley SD, 1996. Conventional breeding: host-plant resistance and the use of molecular markers to develop resistance to tomato spot wilt virus in vegetables. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:367-378; 32 ref

Cho JJ, Mau RFL, Hamasaki RT, Gonsalves D, 1988. Detection of tomato spotted wilt virus in individual thrips by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Phytopathology, 78(10):1348-1352

Cho JJ, Mitchell WC, Mau RFL, Sakimura K, 1987. Epidemiology of tomato spotted wilt virus disease on crisphead lettuce in Hawaii. Plant Disease, 71(6):505-508

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