Invasive Species Compendium

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Tomato spotted wilt virus
(tomato spotted wilt)

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Datasheet

Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 March 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tomato spotted wilt virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tomato spotted wilt
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Bunyaviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected Capsicum plant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected Capsicum plant.
Copyright©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected Capsicum plant.
SymptomsTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected Capsicum plant.©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected tomato plant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected tomato plant.
Copyright©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected tomato plant.
SymptomsTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected tomato plant.©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected eggplant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected eggplant.
Copyright©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected eggplant.
SymptomsTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on a leaf of an infected eggplant.©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fruit of an infected tomato plant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fruit of an infected tomato plant.
Copyright©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fruit of an infected tomato plant.
SymptomsTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fruit of an infected tomato plant.©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fruit of an infected Capsicum plant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fruit of an infected Capsicum plant.
Copyright©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fruit of an infected Capsicum plant.
SymptomsTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fruit of an infected Capsicum plant.©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus damage symptoms to fruit.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus damage symptoms to fruit.
Copyright©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus damage symptoms to fruit.
Damage symptomsTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus damage symptoms to fruit.©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fuit of an infected eggplant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fuit of an infected eggplant.
Copyright©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fuit of an infected eggplant.
SymptomsTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tomato spotted wilt virus; symptoms on the fuit of an infected eggplant.©Dirk Janssen
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); electron micrograph of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus particles, in negatively stained preparation, from foliar extract of infected tobacco.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); electron micrograph of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus particles, in negatively stained preparation, from foliar extract of infected tobacco.
Copyright©César M. Chagas
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); electron micrograph of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus particles, in negatively stained preparation, from foliar extract of infected tobacco.
Virus particlesTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); electron micrograph of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus particles, in negatively stained preparation, from foliar extract of infected tobacco.©César M. Chagas
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus particles.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus particles.
Copyright©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus particles.
Virus particlesTomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); tospovirus particles.©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tomato spotted wilt virus

Preferred Common Name

  • tomato spotted wilt

Other Scientific Names

  • dahlia oakleaf virus
  • dahlia ringspot virus
  • dahlia yellow ringspot virus
  • mung bean leaf curl virus
  • pineapple yellow spot virus
  • tomato spotted wilt tospovirus

International Common Names

  • English: bronze leaf wilt; tomato bronze leaf virus
  • Spanish: bronceado del tomate
  • French: maladie des taches de bronze de la tomate
  • Portuguese: bronzeamento do tomateiro

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: corovo del tabaco; peste negra del tomate
  • Brazil: vira-cabeca
  • Chile: marchitamiento manchado del tomate
  • Germany: Bronzefleckenkrankheit
  • Italy: avvizzimento maculato del pomodoro
  • Netherlands: Tomatebronsvlekkenvirus
  • South Africa: kat river wilt; kromnek virus

English acronym

  • TSWV

EPPO code

  • TSWV00 (Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Bunyaviridae
  •                     Genus: Tospovirus
  •                         Species: Tomato spotted wilt virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
KenyaPresent, Localized
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent, Localized
MauritiusPresent, Localized
MoroccoAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent, Widespread1991
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent, Localized
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Localized

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent
-BeijingPresent
-ShandongPresentOriginal citation: Sun et al. (2016)
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TelanganaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent, Localized1992
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
JordanPresent, Localized
LebanonPresent, Localized
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent, Few occurrences
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Few occurrences
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent, Localized1981
UzbekistanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Europe

AlbaniaPresent, Localized
AustriaPresent, Few occurrences
BelgiumPresent, Localized
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, Few occurrences
BulgariaPresent, Widespread1952
CroatiaPresent, Localized1977
CyprusPresent, Localized
CzechiaPresent, Localized1992
DenmarkAbsent, Eradicated1990
EstoniaAbsent, Formerly present
FinlandPresent, Transient under eradication1989
FrancePresent, Localized1987
GermanyPresent, Localized
GreecePresent, Widespread1972
-CretePresent
GuernseyPresent, Widespread
HungaryPresent, Widespread
IrelandPresent, Localized
ItalyPresent, Widespread1989
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
LatviaAbsent, Eradicated
LithuaniaPresent, Few occurrences
MaltaPresent
MoldovaPresent, Widespread
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent1987
North MacedoniaPresentOriginal citation: Trajcbreve~evski (2002)
NorwayAbsent, Eradicated
PolandPresent, Few occurrences
PortugalPresent, Localized1991
-MadeiraPresent
RomaniaPresent, Few occurrences
RussiaPresent
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)1993
SloveniaPresent, Localized
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Balearic IslandsPresent, Localized
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent, Few occurrences1990
SwitzerlandPresent, Localized
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Widespread1986
-Channel IslandsPresent
-EnglandPresent, Widespread
-ScotlandPresent, Widespread

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
HaitiPresent, Localized
JamaicaPresent
MartiniqueAbsent, Intercepted only
MexicoPresent, Localized
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
New ZealandPresent, Widespread
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Localized
-BahiaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent, Widespread
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Few occurrences
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent, Localized
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent, Widespread
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / dwarfing

References

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¦vila AC de, Pozzer L, Bezerra I, Kormelink R, Prins M, Peters D, Nagata T, Kitajima EW, Resende R de O, 1998. Diversity of tospoviruses in Brazil. In: Peters D, Goldbach R, eds. Recent Progress in Tospovirus and Thrips Research. Wageningen, Netherlands: Department of Virology, WAU, 32-34

Adam G, Kegler H, 1994. Tomato spotted wilt virus and related tospoviruses. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 28(6):483-504; 5 pp. of ref

Adam G, Peters D, Goldbach RW, 1996. Serological comparison of tospovirus isolates using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:135-158; 34 ref

Adam G, Peters D, Goldbach RW, 1996. Serological comparison of tospovirus isolates using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:135-158; 34 ref

Adam G, Roggero P, Malavasi F, Milne RG, Papa G, 1995. Approach to a general tospovirus assay using antibodies to purified tomato spotted wilt tospovirus G proteins. Bulletin OEPP, 25(1/2):247-257; 22 ref

Alexandre MAV, Duarte LML, Harakava R, Chaves ALR, Marque JM, Kitajima EW, 2014. Amazon lily: a new natural host of Tomato spotted wilt virus. New Disease Reports, 30:13. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030013

Ali MIM, Rao RDVJP, 1982. Effect of tomato spotted wilt virus on the oil content of groundnut seeds. Madras Agricultural Journal, 69(4):269-270

Allen WR, Matteoni JA, 1991. Petunia as an indicator plant for use by growers to monitor for thrips carrying the tomato spotted wilt virus in greenhouses. Plant Disease, 75(1):78-82

Al-Saleh MA, Al-Shahwan IM, Amer MA, Shakeel MT, Ahmad MH, Kamran A, Efthimiou CE, Katis NI, 2014. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus in lettuce crops in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease, 98(11):1591. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Amin PW, Reddy DVR, Ghanekar AM, 1981. Transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus, the causal agent of bud necrosis of peanut, by Scirtothrips dorsalis and Frankliniella schultzei. Plant Disease, 65(8):663-665

Anon., 1981. Groundnut Pathology. In: ICRISAT Annual Report, 1 June, 1979. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: ICRISAT.

Antignus Y, Mor N, Joseph RB, Lapidot M, Cohen S, 1996. Ultraviolet-absorbing plastic sheets protect crops from insect pests and from virus diseases vectored by insects. Environmental Entomology, 25(5):919-924; 18 ref

Aparicio F, Soler S, Aramburu J, Galipienso L, Nuez F, Pallás V, López C, 2009. Simultaneous detection of six RNA plant viruses affecting tomato crops using a single digoxigenin-labelled polyprobe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 123(1):117-123. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Aramburu J, Marti M, 2003. The occurrence in nort-east Spain of a variant of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that breaks resistance in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) containing the Sw-5 gen. Plant Pathology, in press

Aramburu J, Riudavets J, Arn= J, Lavina A, Moriones E, 1996. Rapid serological detection of tomato spotted wilt virus in individual thrips by squash-blot assay for use in epidemiological studies. Plant Pathology, 45(2):367-374; 29 ref

Aramburu J, Riudavets J, Arn= J, Lavina A, Moriones E, 1997. The proportion of viruliferous individuals in field populations of Frankliniella occidentalis: implications for tomato spotted wilt virus epidemics in tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(7):623-629; 31 ref

Aramburu J, Rodriguez M, Arino J, 2000. Effect of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infection on the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants of cultivars carrying the SW-5 gene. Journal of Phytopathology, 148(11/12):569-574; 28 ref

Asjes CJ, Blom-Barnhoorn GJ, 2001. Control of aphid-vectored and thrips-borne virus spread in lily, tulip, iris and dahlia by sprays of mineral oil, polydimethylsiloxane and pyrethroid insecticide in the field. Annals of Applied Biology, 139(1):11-19; 39 ref

Asjes CJ, Blom-Barnhorn GJ, Lilien-Kipnis H, Borochov A, Halevy AH, 1997. Incidence and control of thrips-borne tomato spotted wilt virus in Dahlia in the Netherlands. Acta Horticulturae, 430: 625-632

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Avila AC de, Haan P de, Kitajima EW, Kormelink R, Resende R de O, Goldbach RW, Peters D, 1992. Characterization of a distinct isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from Impatiens sp. in the Netherlands. Journal of Phytopathology, 134(2):133-151

Avila AC de, Haan P de, Smeets MLL, Resende R de O, Kormelink R, Kitajima EW, Goldbach RW, Peters D, 1993. Distinct levels of relationships between tospovirus isolates. Archives of Virology, 128(3-4):211-227

Avila AC de, Huguenot C, Resende R de O, Kitajima EW, Goldbach RW, 1990. Serological differentiation of 20 isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus. Journal of General Virology, 71(12):2801-2807

Bautista RC, Mau RFL, Cho JJ, Custer DM, 1995. Potential of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus plant hosts in Hawaii as virus reservoirs for transmission by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Phytopathology, 85(9):953-958; 34 ref

Berling A, Llanas-Bousquet W, Malezieux S, Gebre Selassie K, 1990. Tomato spotted wilt virus. Connaître le problFme pour enrayer l'épidémie. Phytoma, 422:46-50

Betti L, 1992. Tomato spotted wilt virus on eggplant in Sicily (Italy). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 31(2):119-120

Black LL, Hobbs HA, Gatti JM Jr, 1991. Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance in Capsicum chinense PI 152225 and 159236. Plant Disease, 75(8):863

Black LL, Hobbs HA, Kammerlohr DS, 1996. Resistance of Capsicum chinense lines to tomato spotted wilt virus isolates from Louisiana, USA, and inheritance of resistance. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:393-401; 11 ref

Blockley AL, Mumford RA, 2001. Identification and isolation of Impatiens necrotic spot virus from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia microdasys). Plant Pathology, 50(6):805; 4 ref

Boiteux LS, Nagata T, 1993. Susceptibility of Capsicum chinense PI 159236 to tomato spotted wilt virus isolates in Brazil. Plant Disease, 77(2):210

Boonham N, Smith P, Walsh K, Tame J, Morris J, Spence N, Bennison J, Barker I, 2002. The detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in individual thrips using real time fluorescent RT-PCR (TaqMan). Journal of Virological Methods, 101(1/2):37-48; 21 ref

Bournier JP, 1990. Chemical control of Frankliniella occidentalis. Phytoma, 422:35, 38-39

Brittlebank CC, 1919. Tomato diseases. Journal of the Department of Agriculture in Victoria, 17:1348-1352

Brown S, Todd J, Culbreath A, Gorbet D, Shokes F, Baldwin J, Beasley J, 1998. An integrated management strategy for tomato spotted wilt of peanut in Georgia. In: Peters D, Goldbach R, eds. Recent Progress in Tospovirus and Thrips Research. Wageningen, Netherlands: Department of Virology, WAU, 75-76

Buiel AAM, Parlevliet JE, 1996. Mature plant and tissue resistance in the groundnut-peanut bud necrosis virus system. Euphytica, 91(2):213-217; 15 ref

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

CABI/EPPO, 1999. Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 8. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

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Chen, D. L., Luo, C., Liu, H., Li, X. M., Cheng, X., Li, M. Y., Wang, L. L., Huang, C. L., 2018. First report of chrysanthemum stem blight and dieback caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in China. Plant Disease, 102(5), 1047-1048. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1088-PDN

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Choi SK, Choi GS, 2015. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Solanum tuberosum in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(11):1657-1658. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Cseh E, Apró M, Bese G, Krizbai L, Bóka K, Gáborjányi R, Takács AP, 2013. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis L.) in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 48(1):33-38. http://www.akademiai.com/content/n2187k0g31673567/fulltext.pdf

Culbreath AK, Todd JW, Demski JW, 1992. Productivity of Florunner peanut infected with tomato spotted wilt virus. Peanut Science, 19(1):11-14

Culbreath AK, Todd JW, Gorbet DW, Branch WD, Holbrook CC, Shokes FM, Demski JW, 1996. Variation in susceptibility to tomato spotted wilt virus among advanced breeding lines of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:402-410; 12 ref

Damayanti TA, Naidu RA, 2009. Identification of Peanut bud necrosis virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus in Indonesia for the first time. Plant Pathology, 58(4):782. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Dang PM, Rowland DL, Faircloth WH, 2009. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR assays for the detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus in peanut. Peanut Science, 36(2):133-137. http://www.peanutscience.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.3146%2FPS08-024.1

Daughtrey ML, 1996. Detection and identification of tospoviruses in greenhouses. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:90-98; 14 ref

Daughtrey ML, 1996. Detection and identification of tospoviruses in greenhouses. Acta Horticulturae, No. 431:90-98; 14 ref

Daughtrey ML, Jones RK, Moyer JW, Daub ME, Baker JR, 1997. Tospoviruses strike the greenhouse industry: INSV has become a major pathogen on flower crops. Plant Disease, 81(11):1220-1230; 32 ref

Debreczeni DE, Ruiz-Ruiz S, Aramburu J, López C, Belliure B, Galipienso L, Soler S, Rubio L, 2011. Detection, discrimination and absolute quantitation of Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates using real time RT-PCR with TaqMan®MGB probes. Journal of Virological Methods, 176(1/2):32-37. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01660934

Deligoz I, Sokmen MA, Sari S, 2014. First report of resistance breaking strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus; Bunyaviridae) on resistant sweet pepper cultivars in Turkey. New Disease Reports, 30:26. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030026

Dikova B, 2012. Medicinal and essential oil-bearing plants new hosts of tomato spotted wilt virus in Bulgaria. Journal of Balkan Ecology, 15(2):127-132. http://www.ecobalk.com

Dikova B, Petrov N, Djourmanski A, Lambev H, 2013. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus on a new host Leuzea carthamoides in Bulgaria and the World. Plant Disease, 97(9):1258. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Dollet M, Dubern J, Fauquet C, Thouvenel JC, Bockelee-Morvan A, 1987. Virus diseases of groundnut in West Africa. Oleagineux, 42(7):291-297

Eiras M, Resende RO, Missiaggia AA, ßvila ACde, 2001. RT-PCR and dot blot hybridization methods for a universal detection of tospoviruses. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 26(2):170-175; 25 ref

EPPO, 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 210-212

EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farooq AA, Akanda AM, 2007. Impact of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on growth contributing characters of eight tomato varieties under field condition. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production, 2(1):35-44. http://www.gwf.org.bd/IJSCP/V2I1FEB2007/35-44.pdf

Ferrand L, García ML, Resende RO, Balatti PA, Bó ED, 2015. First report of a resistance-breaking isolate of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting sweet pepper harboring the Tsw gene in Argentina. Plant Disease, 99(12):1869-1870. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Fiederow Z, Krakowska A, 1995. The susceptibility of tomato and pepper plants to infection with tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV. Materialy Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 35 (2): 235-237

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Sialer M M F, Gallitelli D, 2000. The occurrence of Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus in mixed infection in tomato. Journal of Plant Pathology. 82 (3), 244.

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Sivaprasad Y, Garrido P, Mendez K, Pachacama S, Garrido A, Ramos L, 2017. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting pepper in Ecuador. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (1), 304. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3837/2479

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Stanković I, Bulajić A, Vučurović A, Ristić D, Jović J, Krstić B, 2011. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus on Gerbera hybrida in Serbia. Plant Disease. 95 (2), 226. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-10-0704

Stanković I, Bulajić A, Vučurović A, Ristić D, Milojević K, Nikolić D, Krstić B, 2012. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting onion and garlic in Serbia. Plant Disease. 96 (6), 918. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-12-0157-PDN

Stanković I, Bulajić A, Vučurović A, Ristić D, Milojević K, Nikolić D, Krstić B, 2013. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus on chrysanthemum in Serbia. Plant Disease. 97 (1), 150-151. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0778-PDN

Steyer S, Olivier T, Skelton A, Nixon T, Hobden E, 2010. Columnea latent viroid (CLVd): first report in tomato in France. Plant Pathology. 59 (4), 794. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02261.x

Sui X, McGrath M T, Zhang S, Wu Z, Ling K S, 2018. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting Tomato in New York. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 460. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-0991-PDN

Sun X H, Gao L L, Wang S L, Wang C L, Yang Y Y, Wang X Y, Zhu X P, 2016. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting pumpkin in China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (3), 687. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3748/2389

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Zheng Y X, Huang C H, Cheng Y H, Kuo F Y, Jan F J, 2010. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus in sweet pepper in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 94 (7), 920. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-7-0920B

Zindović J, Bulajić A, Krstić B, Ciuffo M, Margaria P, Turina M, 2011. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus on pepper in Montenegro. Plant Disease. 95 (7), 882. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0167

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