Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Monochamus leuconotus
(white coffee stem borer)



Monochamus leuconotus (white coffee stem borer)


  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Monochamus leuconotus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white coffee stem borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. leuconotus is indigenous to Africa south of the Sahara. Although another species with the same common name occurs in the Indian subcontinent, it is an entirely different species. This insect is not particula...

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Monochamus leuconotus Hunt & Breuning (1956)

Preferred Common Name

  • white coffee stem borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Anthores fasciatus Fahreus, 1872
  • Anthores leuconotus (Pascoe, 1869)
  • Herpetophygas fasciatus Fåhraeus
  • Herpetophygas fasciatus Peringuey, 1892
  • Monochamus leucopterus Heyne-Taschenberg, 1906

International Common Names

  • English: coffee, borer, white; coffee, stem borer, white; white coffee borer
  • Spanish: barrenador blanco del cafeto; taladro blanco del cafeto
  • French: foreur blanc du tronc du caféier; tariere du cafe; tarière du caféier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bohrer; Weisser Kaffee-Bohrer; Weisser Ostafrikanischer Kaffee-Bohrer

EPPO code

  • ANHOLE (Anthores leuconotus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. leuconotus is indigenous to Africa south of the Sahara. Although another species with the same common name occurs in the Indian subcontinent, it is an entirely different species. This insect is not particularly invasive but because it severely affects coffee wherever it is grown in Africa it may create an impression of invasiveness.

M. leuconotus is not on an alert list and due to its wide distribution, it cannot be considered as threatened.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Cerambycidae
  •                             Genus: Monochamus
  •                                 Species: Monochamus leuconotus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Arid regions Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / mummification
Growing point / wilt
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / internal feeding
Roots / reduced root system
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Afrocoelichneumon didymatus Parasite Larvae not specific
Aprostocetus Parasite Larvae not specific
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Calliscelio Parasite Larvae not specific
Cratichneumon Parasite Larvae not specific
Gyponyx retrocinctus Predator Larvae not specific
Hybogaster varipalpis Parasite Larvae not specific
Iphiaulax Parasite Larvae not specific
Odontomachus haematodus Predator Larvae not specific
Oxysychus Parasite Larvae not specific
Pheidole megacephala Predator Larvae not specific
Plagiolepis Predator Larvae not specific
Tetrastichus Parasite Larvae not specific

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWide distribution - destructive pest. Yes Schoeman, 1994
HorticultureVery slight risk that eggs may be transported on nursery trees. This should not happen if basic nurs Yes
Self-propelledPest is endemic and may move into coffee orchards from surrounding natural vegetation. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Roots larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing


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Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey.

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Monochamus leuconotus. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 196. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Drinkwater TW, 1973. MSc thesis, University of Pretoria. Pretoria, South Africa: University of Pretoria, 424 pp.

Duffy EAJ, 1957. A monograph of the immature stages of African timber beetles (Cerambycidae). London, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), vii + 338 pp.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Knight CD, 1939. Observations on the Life-History and Control of the White Borer of Coffee in Kenya. East African Agricultural Journal, 5(1):61-67 pp.

Le Pelley RH, 1968. Pests of coffee. London & Harlow, Longmans., xii+590 pp.

Murphy ST; Phiri N; Sreedharan K; Kutywayo D; Chanika C, 2008. Integrated stem borer management in smallholder coffee farms in India, Malawi and Zimbabwe. Final Technical Report. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Common Fund for Commodities, xxx + 277 pp.

Pascoe FP, 1869. Descriptions of some new species of Lamiidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4:203-211.

Schoeman PS, 1994. MSc thesis, Pothchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education., South Africa: Pothchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education.

Schoeman PS; Hamburg HV; Pasques BP, 1998. The morphology and phenology of the white coffee stem borer, Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a pest of Arabica coffee. African Entomology, 6(1):83-89.

Tapley RG, 1960. The white coffee borer, Anthores leuconotus Pasc., and its control. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 51:279-301.

Veiga-Ferreira da G, 1959. Revisao das especies Sul-Africanas da subtribo Psilopterina. Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 2(2):423-546.

Villiers EADe, 1973. White coffee stemborer. Insect pests of Subtropical Fruit Crops. Department of Agricultural Technical Services. Entomology memoir, 33 [ed. by Milne, D. L.]. 15-18.


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Uganda: Eastern Africa Fine Coffee Association (Eafca), Plot 958, Galukande Close, Muyenga, P. O. Box 27405, Kampala,

Distribution Maps

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