Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Ananas comosus



Ananas comosus (pineapple)


  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Threatened Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ananas comosus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pineapple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Ananas comosus.
TitleA. comosus - colour illustration
CaptionAnanas comosus.
Copyright©Wilhelm Valder
Ananas comosus.
A. comosus - colour illustrationAnanas comosus.©Wilhelm Valder
Pineapple fruit, Madagascar.
CaptionPineapple fruit, Madagascar.
Copyright©Ruth Ibbotson
Pineapple fruit, Madagascar.
FruitPineapple fruit, Madagascar.©Ruth Ibbotson
Pineapple fruit, Madagascar.
CaptionPineapple fruit, Madagascar.
Copyright©Ruth Ibbotson
Pineapple fruit, Madagascar.
FruitPineapple fruit, Madagascar.©Ruth Ibbotson
Dai ladies selling locally produced pineapples beside the road,  Xisuangbanna, Yunnan, China.
TitlePineapple fruits
CaptionDai ladies selling locally produced pineapples beside the road, Xisuangbanna, Yunnan, China.
CopyrightQiaoqiao Zhang
Dai ladies selling locally produced pineapples beside the road,  Xisuangbanna, Yunnan, China.
Pineapple fruitsDai ladies selling locally produced pineapples beside the road, Xisuangbanna, Yunnan, China.Qiaoqiao Zhang


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ananas comosus

Preferred Common Name

  • pineapple

Other Scientific Names

  • Ananas sativus
  • Bromelia sativus (LINDL.) SCHULT.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: ananas; piña; piña (de America)
  • French: ananas; pain de sucre
  • Portuguese: abacaxi

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: maneas; moneah
  • Indonesia: danas
  • Indonesia/Java: nanas
  • Indonesia/Sumatra: nanèh
  • Italy: ananasso
  • Laos: nat
  • Malaysia: nanas pager
  • Netherlands: koningsappel
  • Philippines: apangdan
  • Thailand: bonat; sapparot; yaannat
  • Vietnam: dúa; thom

EPPO code

  • ANHCO (Ananas comosus)


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Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L) Merr.) is in the bromeliad family, which has about 45 genera and 2000 species. Pineapple is by far the most economically important bromeliad and is the only one grown commercially. Other species of Ananas and Bromelia yield edible fruits: A. bracteata, A. kuntzeana, A. longifolia, A. nudicaulis, B. antiacantha, B. balansae, B. chrysantha, B. karatas, B. hemisphaerica, B. nidus-puellae, B. pinguin, B. plumieri, and B. trianae. The more common are consumed locally, under names such as cardo or banana-do-mato (bush banana), piñuelas (small pineapple), or karatas, gravatá and caroata (derived from Amerindian names given to terrestrial bromeliads). Pineapple is also called piña (Spanish), abacaxi (Portuguese), annachi pazham (Tamil) or nanas (Malaysian), with many countries using the South American Tupian language name ananas. The fruit develops by fusion of floral parts. Pineapple is eaten fresh and canned, and the juice is sold singly and in combination with other fruit juices. Pineapple is found in almost all the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, and it ranks third in production of tropical fruits, behind bananas and citrus. Pineapple is also grown in greenhouses in the temperate zone.

Principal sources: Paull and Duarte (2010); Elzebroek and Wind (2008)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Bromeliales
  •                         Family: Bromeliaceae
  •                             Genus: Ananas
  •                                 Species: Ananas comosus


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Perennial or biennial herb, 50-150 cm tall. Leaves sword-shaped, up to 1 m or more long, 5-8 cm wide, margin spiny or almost entire, top ending in a fine point, fleshy, fibrous, grooved on upper surface, arranged in a close spiral, clasping the main axis at their base. Inflorescence compact with numerous (up to 200) reddish-purple sessile flowers, each subtended by a pointed bract; sepals 3, short, fleshy; petals 3, forming a tube enclosing 6 stamens and a narrow style with 3-branched stigma. Fruit a coenocarpium formed by an extensive thickening of the axis of the inflorescence and by the fusion of the small berry-like individual fruits; the hard rind of the fruit is formed by the persistent sepals and floral bracts, which more or less fuse; on average, the fruit is cylindrical, about 20 cm long and 14 cm in diameter, weighing 1-2.5 kg; the fruit is surmounted by a rosette of short, stiff, spirally arranged leaves, called the 'crown'; flesh pale to golden yellow, usually seedless. Besides the 'crown', also 'slips' (shoots growing on the stem below the fruit) and 'suckers' (shoots growing in leaf axils lower down the stem) are formed, which can be used for vegetative propagation.


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The pineapple has its origin in South America where it was domesticated before the time of Columbus. In the 16th Century, the Spaniards took the pineapple to the Philippines and Peninsular Malaysia, and possibly also Indonesia. The crop is now widely grown throughout the tropics and into the subtropics. The international canning industry is based on plantations in Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and northern Sumatra as well as in Hawaii (USA), Brazil, Taiwan, South Africa, Kenya, Côte d'Ivoire, Mexico and Puerto Rico.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AngolaPresentPineapples production (2008) 40,000 MT (F)
BeninPresentPineapples production (2008) 136,123 MT
CameroonPresentPineapples production (2008) 52,000 MT (F)
Central African RepublicPresentPineapples production (2008) 14,200 MT (F)
Congo, Republic of thePresentPineapples production (2008) 3,000 MT (F)
Côte d'IvoirePresentPineapples production (2008) 159,668 MT (F)
EswatiniPresentPineapples production (2008) 31,000 MT (F)
EthiopiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 45 MT (*)
GabonPresentPineapples production (2008) 750 MT (F)
GhanaPresentPineapples production (2008) 68,000 MT (F)
GuineaPresentPineapples production (2008) 109,000 MT (F)
Guinea-BissauPresentPineapples production (2008) 350 MT (F)
KenyaPresentPineapples production (2008) 429,065 MT (F)
LiberiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 7,850 MT (F)
MadagascarPresentPineapples production (2008) 53,500 MT (F)
MauritiusPresentPineapples production (2008) 6,393 MT
MoroccoPresentPineapples production (2008) 0 MT (M)
MozambiquePresentPineapples production (2008) 13,000 MT (F)
NigeriaPresentPineapples production (2008) 900,000 MT (F)
RéunionPresentPineapples production (2008) 18,000 MT (*)
SeychellesPresentPineapples production (2008) 160 MT (F)
South AfricaPresentPineapples production (2008) 146,869 MT
SudanPresentPineapples production (2008) 5,200 MT (F)
TogoPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,500 MT (F)
UgandaPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,600 MT (F)
ZimbabwePresentPineapples production (2008) 120 MT (F)


BangladeshPresentPineapples production (2008) 210,283 MT
BruneiPresentPineapples production (2008) 990 MT (F)
CambodiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 16,000 MT (F)
ChinaPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,402,060 MT (F)
IndiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,305,800 MT
IndonesiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,272,761 MT
IsraelPresentPineapples production (2008) 601 MT
JapanPresentPineapples production (2008) 10,400 MT (F)
MalaysiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 319,130 MT
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
NepalPresentPineapples production (2008) 9,980 MT (F)
PhilippinesPresentPineapples production (2008) 2,209,336 MT
South KoreaPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,050 MT (F)
Sri LankaPresentPineapples production (2008) 52,180 MT
ThailandPresentPineapples production (2008) 2,278,566 MT
VietnamPresentPineapples production (2008) 470,000 MT (F)


PortugalPresentPineapples production (2008) 3,000 MT (F)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentPineapples production (2008) 210 MT (F)
BelizePresentPineapples production (2008) 953 MT
Costa RicaPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,624,568 MT
CubaPresentPineapples production (2008) 55,387 MT
Dominican RepublicPresentPineapples production (2008) 100,528 MT
El SalvadorPresentPineapples production (2008) 8,625 MT
GuadeloupePresentPineapples production (2008) 5,300 MT (F)
GuatemalaPresentPineapples production (2008) 230,566 MT (F)
HaitiPresentPineapples production (2008) 4,500 MT (F)
HondurasPresentPineapples production (2008) 154,000 MT (F)
JamaicaPresentPineapples production (2008) 20,351 MT
MartiniquePresentPineapples production (2008) 18,000 MT (F)
MexicoPresentPineapples production (2008) 685,805 MT
NicaraguaPresentPineapples production (2008) 51,000 MT (F)
PanamaPresentPineapples production (2008) 40,546 MT
Puerto RicoPresentPineapples production (2008) 17,000 MT (F)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentPineapples production (2008) 69 MT
Trinidad and TobagoPresentPineapples production (2008) 4,500 MT (F)
United StatesPresentPineapples production (2008) 172,500 MT (F)


American SamoaPresentPineapples production (2008) 380 MT (F)
AustraliaPresentPineapples production (2008) 164,732 MT (F)
Cook IslandsPresentPineapples production (2008) 25 MT (F)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 0 MT (A)
FijiPresentPineapples production (2008) 2,302 MT (F)
French PolynesiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 3,000 MT (F)
GuamPresentPineapples production (2008) 0 MT (M)
Papua New GuineaPresentPineapples production (2008) 20,000 MT (F)
SamoaPresentPineapples production (2008) 4,600 MT (F)
Wallis and FutunaPresentPineapples production (2008) 5 MT (F)

South America

ArgentinaPresentPineapples production (2008) 3,300 MT (F)
BoliviaPresentPineapples production (2008) 14,525 MT (F)
BrazilPresentPineapples production (2008) 2,491,974 MT
-Minas GeraisPresent
ColombiaPresentPineapples production (2008) 436,044 MT
EcuadorPresentPineapples production (2008) 110,000 MT (F)
French GuianaPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,800 MT (F)
GuyanaPresentPineapples production (2008) 1,301 MT (F)
ParaguayPresentPineapples production (2008) 73,000 MT (F)
PeruPresentPineapples production (2008) 212,059 MT (F)
SurinamePresentPineapples production (2008) 300 MT

Biology and Ecology

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Growth and Development

The plant forms a rosette with gradually larger leaves up to a size that reflects the prevailing growing conditions. Thereafter leaf size remains constant and when the apical meristem has produced a total of 70-80 leaves, at the rate of one per week during periods of fast growth, it turns floral and the plant bolts: the central axis elongates to flower and fruit.

Pineapple is a xerophytic plant. Its photosynthetic pathway is the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). Carbon dioxide is absorbed during the night and converted into acids which are used in the daytime synthesis of carbohydrates. This pathway allows for the closure of stomata during the day to limit water use. The plant is very drought-resistant, but the root system is shallow so that under dry conditions growth quickly stagnates.

Sensitivity to daylength has been shown for the Cayenne group; the cultivars are quantitative but not obligate short-day plants. There is no evidence that cultivars in the other groups behave in the same way. Singapore Spanish in Malaysia flowers throughout the year and there are indications that low night temperature, low day temperature and a decrease in sunshine hours all hasten flowering.

Work with flower-inducing chemicals has helped to clarify the progress of floral development. The vegetative apex of the plant is dome-shaped with typical tunica-corpus organization. Counting from the day of application of flower-inducing chemicals, the apex starts to increase in height and width within 2 days, reaching a maximum in 8-14 days. Around the sixth day, the first bract primordia develop on the flanks of the meristem and flower buds subsequently develop in their axils. The initiation of the full complement of florets is completed after 30-45 days. The peduncle elongates rapidly around day 20 and after 45 days the inflorescence head is just apparent as a reddish disk in the centre of the plant. Further elongation of the peduncle carries the inflorescence head upwards to the level of the leaves. For up to 40 days peduncle elongation results from cell multiplication; after this period cell expansion predominates. The development of the young inflorescence into a fruit involves both cell division and enlargement for up to 80 days. Subsequently, size increases through cell enlargement.

The first flower opens about 50 days after induction and flowering continues for 20-40 days. About 1-10 flowers open daily, beginning shortly after midnight and closing the following evening. Anther dehiscence occurs in the evening before the petals begin to unfold. Pollen fertility varies from 20 to 80% and bees and sunbirds are the pollinating agents. The plant is self-incompatible; growing different cultivars together brings about seed formation. Therefore, in commercial cultivation, only one cultivar is grown in an area. As the fruit matures, up to 12 slips develop near its base. At the same time the terminal shoot on top of the fruit elongates into the crown. When the fruit matures one or two suckers develop, which produce the ratoon crop after the parent plant is chopped off at harvest.

Other Botanical Information

Many pineapple cultivars exist, differing in plant and fruit size, in the colour and flavour of the flesh of the fruit, and in the entire or spiny leaf margin. Nearly all cultivars for commercial production can be grouped as follows (each group indicated by the name of the cultivar from which it originated):

- Cayenne: most widely grown (the Philippines, Thailand, Hawaii, Kenya, Mexico, Taiwan). It is a heterozygous group; leaves 100 cm x 6.5 cm, reddish mottling above, silver grey beneath, margins entire, only with some spines at base and at top; fruit ca. cylindrical, weighing about 2.5 kg, flesh pale yellow to yellow.

- Queen: mainly grown in Australia and South Africa for the fresh fruit trade. All parts are smaller than in the Cayenne group; leaves spiny; fruits 0.9-1.3 kg, with deep golden yellow flesh.

- Red Spanish: mainly grown in Central and South America. It is intermediate in its characteristics between Cayenne and Queen. The leaves are long and spiny, containing fibres with high tensile strength, used traditionally for making cloth in the Philippines. Fruit weighing 0.9-1.8 kg, with pale yellow flesh.

- Singapore Spanish: only grown in Malaysia for the canning industry. Leaves about 1 m long, only some spines near apex; fruit 1.6-2.3 kg, with golden yellow flesh.

- Abacaxi: only grown in Brazil for local markets. Leaves with spiny margins. Fruits 1.5 kg with very pale yellow flesh.

- Cabezona: only grown in Puerto Rico for the fresh fruit trade. A triploid group.


Pineapple is cultivated between 25°N and S. The temperature range of growing areas is 23-32°C, although plants can be grown in areas where temperature drops as low as 10°C. However, the plant does not tolerate frost and the fruit is sensitive to sunburn. Crop duration increases substantially further away from the equator and at higher altitudes. Moreover, sensitivity to day-length has the effect of making the crop more seasonal at higher latitudes. Within the limits of its distribution the mean annual sunshine varies from about 33 to 71% of the maximum duration, with a mean annual value of 2000 hours. In Kenya it is grown at altitudes of 1800 m where fruits develop a sugar:acid ratio of 16:1, which is ideal for canning. At higher altitudes fruits become too acidic. The plants are tolerant to drought and a wide range of rainfall; 1000-1500 mm per annum is considered optimal. A well-drained sandy loam is preferred, with a high organic matter content and pH 4.5-6.5. However, plants can be grown over a wide range of soil types, such as the acid peats (pH 3-5) in Malaysia. Drainage should be perfect, because waterlogged plants quickly succumb to root rot.


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Bartholomew, D. P.; Paull, R. E.; Rohrbach, K. G., 2003. The pineapple: botany, production and uses., The pineapple: botany, production and uses:x + 301 pp.

Elzebroek, T.; Wind, K., 2008. Guide to cultivated plants., Guide to cultivated plants:vii-xi + 516 pp.

Litz, R. E., 2004. Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops., Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops:xxiv + 723 pp.

Paull, R. E.; Duarte, O., 2010. Tropical fruits, Volume 1., Tropical fruits, Volume 1:viii + 391 pp.

Distribution References

Aeny T N, Suharjo R, Ginting C, Hapsoro D, Niswati A, 2020. Characterization and host range assessment of Dickeya zeae associated with pineapple soft rot disease in East Lampung, Indonesia. Biodiversitas: Journal of Biological Diversity. 21 (2), 587-595. DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d210221

Alvarez R A, Martin R R, Quito-Avila D F, 2015. First report of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-1 in Ecuador. New Disease Reports. 15. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2015.031.015

Bosco B, Akasairi O, Jasper O, 2018. Diagnostic survey of pineapple heart rot disease in Lake Victoria crescent basin of Uganda. International Journal of Phytopathology. 7 (2), 63-67. DOI:10.33687/phytopath.007.02.2441

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

Constantino R, 2002. The pest termites of South America: taxonomy, distribution and status. Journal of Applied Entomology. 126 (7/8), 355-365. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0418.2002.00670.x

Daramola F Y, Afolami S O, Idowu A A, Nwanguma E I, 2013. Studies on the occurrence and distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in some pineapple-producing states in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Crop Science. 5 (2), 190-199.

Daramola F, Afolami S, 2014. Studies on the distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with pineapple in Delta, Imo and Cross River states of Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 8 (7), 248-256.

Detoni A M, Carvalho S L C, Hoshino A T, Pastório M A, Schmidt M A H, Menezes Junior A O, Androcioli H G, 2018. First report of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidotera: Noctuidae) injurious to pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) (Bromeliaceae) in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 78 (4), 796-798. DOI:10.1590/1519-6984.174384

FAO, 2009. FAOSTAT Database., Rome, Italy: FAO.

Ferreira A P S, Pinho D B, Machado A R, Pereira O L, 2014. First report of Curvularia eragrostidis causing postharvest rot on pineapple in Brazil. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1277. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-14-0288-PDN

Gambley C F, Steele V, Geering A D W, Thomas J E, 2008. The genetic diversity of ampeloviruses in Australian pineapples and their association with mealybug wilt disease. Australasian Plant Pathology. 37 (2), 95-105. DOI:10.1071/AP07096

Gu H, Zhan R L, Zhang L B, Gong D Q, Jia Z W, 2015. First report of Fusarium ananatum causing pineapple fruitlet core rot in China. Plant Disease. 99 (11), 1653.

Hernandez-Rodriguez L, Ramos-Gonzalez P L, Garcia-Garcia G, Javer Higginson E, Zamora-Rodriguez V, 2013. First report of Pineapple bacilliform comosus virus (PBCoV) and endogenous Pineapple pararetrovirus-1 (ePPRV-1) in pineapple plants in Cuba. New Disease Reports. 2. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2013.028.002

Hubert J, Fourrier C, Laplace D, Ioos R, 2014. First report of pineapple black rot caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa on Ananas comosus in French Guiana. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1584-1585. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0510-PDN

Ibrahim N F, Mohd M H, Nor N M I M, Zakaria L, 2015. First report of Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani associated with pineapple rot in Peninsular Malaysia. Plant Disease. 99 (11), 1650.

Marie F, Malezieux E, Marchal J, Perrier X, 2000. On farm approach of pineapple Fruitlet Core Rot disease in Martinique. Acta Horticulturae. 261-263.

Marín-Cevada V, Vargas V H, Juárez M, López V G, Zagada G, Hernández S, Cruz A, Caballero-Mellado J, López-Reyes L, Jiménez-Salgado T, Carcaño-Montiel M, Fuentes-Ramírez L E, 2006. Presence of Pantoea citrea, causal agent of pink disease, in pineapple fields in Mexico. Plant Pathology. 55 (2), 294. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01331.x

Mastoi M I, Azura A N, Muhamad R, Idris A B, Ibrahim Y, 2014. Survey of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its natural enemies in Penninsular Malaysia. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering, Veterinary Sciences. 30 (2), 172-186.

Milek T M, Šimala M, Korić B, 2009. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of imported fruits in Croatia. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 385-388.

Ochoa-Martínez D L, Uriza-Ávila D E, Rojas-Martínez R I, Rodríguez-Martínez D, 2016. Detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus 1 and 3 in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología. 34 (2), 131-141.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435.

Shen B N, Zheng Y X, Chen W H, Chang T Y, Ku H M, Jan F J, 2009. Occurrence and molecular characterization of three pineapple mealybug wilt-associated viruses in pineapple in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 93 (2), 196-197. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-2-0196C

Shen H F, Lin B R, Zhan J X, Pu X M, 2013. First report of pineapple heart rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Hainan Province, China. Plant Disease. 97 (4), 560-561. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1017-PDN

Sirisena U G A I, Watson G W, Hemachandra K S, Wijayagunasekara H N P, 2013. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species on economically important fruit crops in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research. 25 (1), 69-82.

Zeng HuiCai, Ho H H, Zheng FuyCong, 2009. A survey of Phytophthora species on Hainan Island of South China. Journal of Phytopathology. 157 (1), 33-39. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01441.x

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