Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Thrips tabaci
(onion thrips)

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Datasheet

Thrips tabaci (onion thrips)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thrips tabaci
  • Preferred Common Name
  • onion thrips
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pale yellow to brown, 1.0-1.3 mm long, with seven-segmented antennae, fully developed wings and ovipositor. Males are rare.
TitleAdult female
CaptionPale yellow to brown, 1.0-1.3 mm long, with seven-segmented antennae, fully developed wings and ovipositor. Males are rare.
CopyrightYu Yan-Fen
Pale yellow to brown, 1.0-1.3 mm long, with seven-segmented antennae, fully developed wings and ovipositor. Males are rare.
Adult femalePale yellow to brown, 1.0-1.3 mm long, with seven-segmented antennae, fully developed wings and ovipositor. Males are rare.Yu Yan-Fen
Damage to surface and inner leaves of cabbage head.
TitleSymptoms on cabbage
CaptionDamage to surface and inner leaves of cabbage head.
CopyrightHanna Legutowska
Damage to surface and inner leaves of cabbage head.
Symptoms on cabbageDamage to surface and inner leaves of cabbage head.Hanna Legutowska
Infested leek:  leaves silvered and streaked on upper part of shaft.
TitleSymptoms on leek
CaptionInfested leek: leaves silvered and streaked on upper part of shaft.
CopyrightHanna Legutowska
Infested leek:  leaves silvered and streaked on upper part of shaft.
Symptoms on leekInfested leek: leaves silvered and streaked on upper part of shaft.Hanna Legutowska
Damage to onion - typical silvering and blotching of leaves.
TitleSymptoms on onion
CaptionDamage to onion - typical silvering and blotching of leaves.
CopyrightPablo Bielza
Damage to onion - typical silvering and blotching of leaves.
Symptoms on onionDamage to onion - typical silvering and blotching of leaves.Pablo Bielza
Silvering of gladiolus petals.
TitleSymptoms on gladiolus
CaptionSilvering of gladiolus petals.
CopyrightPablo Bielza
Silvering of gladiolus petals.
Symptoms on gladiolusSilvering of gladiolus petals.Pablo Bielza

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889

Preferred Common Name

  • onion thrips

Other Scientific Names

  • Heliothrips tabaci
  • Limothrips allii Gillette, 1983
  • Thrips allii Sirrine & Lowe, 1894
  • Thrips bremnerii Moulton, 1907
  • Thrips dianthi Moulton, 1936
  • Thrips hololeucus Bagnall, 1914

International Common Names

  • English: cotton seedling thrips; potato thrips; tobacco thrips
  • Spanish: piojillo de la cebolla; piojillo de la cebolla y del tabaco; trípido de la cebolla; tripido del tabaco y cebolla; trips de la cebolla (Argentina)
  • French: thrips de l'oignon; thrips du tabac

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: tripes da cebola; tripes do fumo
  • Denmark: nelliketrips
  • Finland: tupakkaripsiäinen
  • Germany: Blasenfuss, Tabak-; Blasenfuss, Zwiebel-; Thrips, Tabak-
  • Iran: thripse tanbaku
  • Israel: thrips hatabak
  • Italy: tripide del tabacco
  • Japan: negi-azamiuma
  • Netherlands: Ajuinthrips; Sjalottenthrips; Tabakstrips
  • Sweden: nejliktrips
  • Turkey: akdamar; tutun tripsi

EPPO code

  • THRITB (Thrips tabaci)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Thysanoptera
  •                         Family: Thripidae
  •                             Genus: Thrips
  •                                 Species: Thrips tabaci

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentRazi et al. (2017)
ChadPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Congo, Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EgyptPresentWahab et al. (2015); UK, CAB International (1969)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
RéunionPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SenegalPresentCollingwood et al. (1980)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
TunisiaPresentJenser (1982)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1969)

Asia

ChinaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1969); APPPC (1987)
-AnhuiPresentZhang BingWang et al. (2008)
-BeijingPresentSun ChangGui et al. (2003)
-HebeiPresentWu Qi et al. (2007)
-HubeiPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Zhou et al., 1987
-ShaanxiPresentLi et al. (1992)
-ShandongPresentZhao PeiBao et al. (2004)
-XinjiangPresentSun ChangGui et al. (2002)
-YunnanPresentLiang GuiHong et al. (2007)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1969)
-Andhra PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-DelhiPresentAsha Thomas et al. (2008)
-GujaratPresentPatel et al. (1984)
-HaryanaPresentGupta et al. (1992)
-Himachal PradeshPresentSuman Sanjta and Usha Chauhan (2015); UK, CAB International (1969)Nauni
-Jammu and KashmirPresentPandey et al. (2008)
-KarnatakaPresentHanumantharaya et al. (2008)
-Madhya PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-PunjabPresentNaveen Aggarwal et al. (2007)
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Tamil NaduPresentSivaprakasam and Balasubramanian (1981)
-West BengalPresentGhosh and Senapati (2001)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Waterhouse (1993)
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-SumatraPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Mirab-Balou et al. (2014)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-HokkaidoPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-HonshuPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-KyushuPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ShikokuPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MyanmarPresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
PakistanPresentBughio et al. (1986)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Waterhouse (1993)
QatarPresentMirab-balou et al. (2014a)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SingaporePresent, WidespreadWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1969); APPPC (1987)
TaiwanPresentChang (1991)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Waterhouse (1993)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
UzbekistanPresentDeryabin (1991)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Waterhouse (1993)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
CroatiaPresentCiglar et al. (2004)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
CzechiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-CorsicaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
LatviaPresentZarinysh (2002)
LithuaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Duchovskiene (2003)
MaltaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MoldovaPresentTimus and Croitoru (2007)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
North MacedoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SerbiaPresentAndjus (2004)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SlovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SloveniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Biere et al., 1989
UkrainePresentTryapitsyn and Zdorovets (1990)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Collier et al. (2007)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
BahamasPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentFox and Delbridge (1977)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-SaskatchewanPresentBurgess and Weegar (1988)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
GrenadaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
HondurasPresentRueda et al. (2007)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MartiniquePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
MontserratPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
NicaraguaPresentRueda and Shelton (2003)
Puerto RicoPresentCabrera-Asencio and Vélez (2006)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Saint LuciaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ConnecticutPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-DelawarePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-IdahoPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-IndianaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-KansasPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MainePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MarylandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MichiganPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1969)
-MinnesotaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MontanaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-NevadaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New HampshirePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Rhode IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-South DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-UtahPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-West VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-WyomingPresentUK, CAB International (1969)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1969)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-BahiaPresentHaji et al. (2000)
-Minas GeraisPresentMarquini et al. (2003)
-ParanaPresentZawadneak et al. (2008)
-PernambucoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lyra-Netto et al. (1989)
-PiauiPresentVeloso et al. (2000)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Santa CatarinaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aeolothrips fasciatus Predator Iraq onions
Aeolothrips intermedius Predator
Amblyseius addoensis Predator
Amblyseius barkeri Predator Denmark; Finland
Amblyseius degenerans Predator
Amblyseius mckenziei Predator Netherlands; Poland; USSR; Ukraine Capsicum
Amblyseius sessor Predator
Amblyseius swirskii Predator
Anthocoris nemorum Predator
Aphanogmus fumipennis Parasite Larvae
Aspergillus Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Aspergillus ochraceus Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Cephalosporium Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Ceranisus Parasite Larvae
Ceranisus americensis Parasite
Ceranisus menes Parasite Larvae Hawaii apples; Pinus; vegetables
Ceranisus russelli Parasite Larvae Hawaii vegetables
Ceranisus vinctus Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Chrysopa Predator Larvae
Chrysopa orestes Predator
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Bulgaria; Russia
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Larvae
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Larvae
Deraeocoris pallens Predator
Deraeocoris serenus Predator
Entomophthora Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Entomophthora thripidum Pathogen Sweden tomatoes
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Eupeodes corollae Predator
Goetheana shakespearei Parasite Larvae Bermuda onions
Hippodamia variegata Predator Larvae Bulgaria
Hyperaspis reppensis quadrimaculata Predator
Laius externenotatus Predator Larvae
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen UK cucumbers
Macrolophus rubi Predator Larvae Bulgaria
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Nabis pseudoferus Predator
Nabis rugosus Predator
Neoseiulus cucumeris Predator Netherlands; Switzerland; UK Capsicum
Neozygites cucumeriformis Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Neozygites parvispora Pathogen
Orius albidipennis Predator Larvae Iraq; Rajasthan cotton; onions
Orius insidiosus Predator Larvae
Orius laevigatus Predator
Orius minutus Predator
Orius niger Predator Larvae
Orius sauteri Predator
Orius vicinus Predator Larvae
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Paederus alfierii Predator
Scymnus bivulnerus Predator
Scymnus quadriguttatus Predator
Scymnus roepkei Predator Larvae
Sphaerophoria rueppellii Predator Adults/Nymphs

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abdel-Gawaad AA, Shazli AY, 1969. Attraction of different varieties of cotton to Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 53:453-457

Akramovskaya EG, 1978. The biology of some predatory bugs of the family Anthocoridae in the conditions of the Ararat valley in Armenia. Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii, 31(9):959-964

Al-Faisal AHM, Kardou IK, 1986. Effect of some ecological factors on the population density of Thrips tabaci Lind. on cotton plants in central Iraq. Journal of Biological Sciences Research, Iraq, 17(3):9-19

Andjus L, 2004. The thrips fauna on wheat and on plants of the spontaneous flora in the bordering belt surrounding it. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica [Proceedings of the First Symposium on Palaearctic Thysanoptera, Gödöllo?, Hungary, August 25-29, 2003.], 39(1/3):255-261. http://www.akkrt.hu/kerdesek/reszletes_hjour.jsp?id=038

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Asha Thomas, Babita Chaudhary, Jagmail Singh, Ramamurthy VV, 2008. Preliminary observations on the non-target insect communities in Bt cotton. Indian Journal of Entomology, 70(4):400-402.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Bagnall RS, 1914. Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera III. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 13:287-297.

Bakker FM, Sabelis MW, 1987. Attack success of Amblyseius mckenziei and the stage related defensive capacity of thrips larvae. Bulletin SROP, 10(2):26-29

Baloch AA, Soomro BA, Mallah GH, 1982. Evaluation of some cotton varieties with known genetic markers for their resistance/tolerance against sucking and bollworm complex. Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi, 6(1):3-14

Beglyarov GA, Suchalkin AT, 1974. Experimentation and outlook for the use of chrysopids. Zaschita Rastenii No. 9:25-27.

Beglyarov GA, Suchalkin AT, 1983. A predacious mite - a potential natural enemy of the tobacco thrips. Zaschita Rastenii No. 9:24-25.

Bhamburkar MW, 1986. Role of systemic insecticides on the control of sucking pests in relation to cotton yield under dryland conditions. Pesticides, 20(3):24-25

Bhangale GT, Joi MB, 1983. Role of thrips in development of purple blotch of onion. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 8(3):299-300

Bieri M, Zwygart F, Tognina G, Stadler G, 1989. The importance of soil water content for the biological control of Thrips tabaci Lind. on cucumbers in the greenhouse. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 62(1-2):28

Binns ES, Hall RA, Pickford RJJ, 1982. Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera-Thripidae) -- distribution and behaviour on glasshouse cucumbers in relation to chemical and integrated control. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 118(1412/1415):55-68

Bisabri B, Babcock JM, 1999. Control of citrus thrips in California citrus using Success Naturalyte insect control. Down to Earth, 54(1):15-23.

Bournier A, Lacasa A, Pivot Y, 1978. Biology of a predacious thrips polothrips intermedius (Thys.: polothripidae). Entomophaga, 23(4):403-410

Bughio AR, Hussain T, Qureshi ZA, 1986. Incidence and population density of sucking complex on cotton. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology, 6:93-98

Burgess L, Weegar HH, 1988. Thrips (Thysanoptera) in canola crops in Saskatchewan. Canadian Entomologist, 120(8-9):815-819

Butt TM, Brownbridge M, 1997. Natural pathogens: inter-relationships with fungi. In: Lewis T, ed. Thrips as Crop Pests. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cabrera-Asencio I, Vélez AL, 2006. Management of populations of Thrips tabaci L. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Liriomyza trifolii B. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on onion with companion crops. (Manejo de las poblaciones de Thrips tabaci L. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) y Liriomyza trifolii B. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) en cebolla con cultivos acompañantes.) Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 90(1/2):125-128.

Carlson EC, 1964. Effect of flower thrips on onion seed plants and a study of their control. Journal of Economic Entomology, 57:735-741.

Chang NT, 1991. Important thrips species in Taiwan. AVRDC Publication, No. 91-342:40-56

Chatzivassiliou EK, Nagata T, Katis NI, Peters D, 1999. Transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus by Thrips tabaci populations originating from leek. Plant Pathology, 48(6):700-706; 36 ref.

Childers CC, 1997. The nature and extent of feeding and oviposition injuries to plants by thrips. In: Lewis T, ed. Thrips as Crop Pests. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Chisholm IF, Lewis T, 1984. A new look at thrips (Thysanoptera) mouthparts, their action and effects of feeding on plant tissue. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 74(4):663-675; [4 fig.]; 18 ref.

Ciglar I, Baric B, Raspudic E, 2004. New pests in peach orchards in Croatia. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Integrated plant protection in stone fruit', Opatjia, Croatia, 14-16 October 2002.], 27(5):9-11.

Collier RH, Saynor M, Burnstone J, 2007. Thrips control on Allium crops. Bulletin OILB/SROP [IOBC/WPRS, Working group "Integrated Protection of Field Vegetables", Proceedings of the Meeting, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 3-7 October 2005.], 30(8):83-90. http://www.iobc-wprs.org

Collingwood EF, Boudouxhe L, Diuuf M, 1980. Report of pesticide trials in 1976-1979. I. Insecticides. Centre pour le Developpement de l'Horticulture de Camberene, Dakar, Senegal.

Coudriet DL, Kishaba AN, McCreight JD, Bohn GW, 1979. Varietal resistance in onions to thrips. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(4):614-615

Czencz K, 1985. The role of coloured traps in collecting thrips fauna. In: Holman J, Pelikan J, Dixon AFG, Weisman L, eds. Population Structure, Genetics and Taxonomy of Aphids and Thysanoptera. The Hague, Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 426-435.

Deryabin VI, 1979. The formation of resistance to organophosphorus compounds by the tobacco thrips (Thrips tabaci L.) in fields of seed lucerne. In: Zil'bermints IV, Smirnova AA, Matov GN, ed. Ustoichivost' vreditelei k khimicheskim sredstvam zashchity rastenii "Kolos" Moscow USSR, 69-72

Deryabin VI, 1991. Rotation of insecticides to overcome resistance. Zashchita Rastenii^breve~ (Moskva), No. 3:45-46.

Dimitrov A, 1975. Control of tobacco thrips with Macrolophus costalis. Rastitelna Zashchita, 23(6):34 - 37

Dimitrov A, 1975. The effect of preceding crops on the abundance of tobacco thrips on tobacco. Rastitelna Zashchita, 23(3):20 - 23

Dimitrov A, 1976. Control of tobacco thrips. Rastitelna Zashchita, 24(11):34-37

Dirimanov M, Dimitrov A, 1975. Role of useful insects in the control of Thrips tabaci Lind. and Myzodes persicae Sulz. on tobacco. VIII International Plant Protection Congress, Moscow 1975. Reports and informations. Section V. Biological and genetic control. Moscow. USSR, 71-72

Duchovskiene? L, 2003. Dynamics of pest harmfulness in onion crop depending on growing technique. (Kenkeju zalingumo kitimas skirtingai auginamuose svogu¯nuose.) Sodininkyste ir Darzininkyste, 22(1):153-163.

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Zhao PeiBao, Shi YangSheng, Wang AnMin, Feng Ke, 2004. The specific composition and damage of lawn phytophagous insects in northwest Shandong. Entomological Knowledge, 41(5):472-475.

Zhou BL, Du SL, Jiang ZM, 1981. Rapid investigation method on the population fluctuation of major pests in cotton fields. Kunchong Zhishi, 18(3):126-128

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