Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis
(evergreen bagworm)

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Datasheet

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (evergreen bagworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • evergreen bagworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth)

Preferred Common Name

  • evergreen bagworm

International Common Names

  • English: bagworm; common bagworm; common basket worm; eastern bagworm
  • French: chenille a besace; chenille burcicole

EPPO code

  • THYXEP (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Psychidae
  •                             Genus: Thyridopteryx
  •                                 Species: Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

IndiaPresent
-OdishaPresent

North America

United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent, WidespreadNative
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadNative
-ConnecticutPresent, LocalizedNative
-DelawarePresentNative
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadNative
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-IllinoisPresent, WidespreadNative
-IndianaPresent, WidespreadNative
-KansasPresent, WidespreadNative
-KentuckyPresent, WidespreadNative
-MainePresent, LocalizedNative
-MarylandPresent, WidespreadNative
-MassachusettsPresent, LocalizedNative
-MichiganPresent, WidespreadNative
-MinnesotaPresent, LocalizedNative
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadNative
-MissouriPresent, WidespreadNative
-NebraskaPresentNative
-New HampshirePresentNative
-New JerseyPresent, WidespreadNative
-New YorkPresent, WidespreadNative
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadNative
-OhioPresent, WidespreadNative
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadNative
-Rhode IslandPresent, LocalizedNative
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadNative
-TennesseePresent, WidespreadNative
-TexasPresent, WidespreadNative
-VermontPresent, LocalizedNative
-VirginiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-West VirginiaPresent, WidespreadNative

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalCold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / shredding
Leaves / shredding
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus parasiticus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen
Bathythrix Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Brachymeria ovata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Calliephialtes grapholithae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chirotica thyridopteryx Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Conura igneoides Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Conura maria Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Conura side Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Dibrachys cavus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Eurytoma pini Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Gambrus ultimus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Horismenus microgaster Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Itoplectis conquisator Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Liotryphon Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Monodontomerus minor Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Pteromalus thyridopterigis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Scambus hispae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Ashmead WH, 1888. A new chalcid parasite of the common basket worm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw.). Can. Emtomol., 18:97-98.

Baerg WJ, 1928. Three shade tree insects. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull., 244, 25 pp.

Balduf WV, 1937. Bionomic notes on the common bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) and its insect enemies (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 39:169-184.

Barbosa P; Waldvogel MG; Breisch NL, 1983. Temperature modification by bags of the bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Canadian Entomologist, 115(7):855-858

Barrows EM; Gordh G, 1974. Insect associates of the bagworm moth, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), in Kansas. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 47(2):156-160

Berisford YC; Tsao CH, 1975. Distribution and pathogenicity of fungi associated with the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth). Environmental Entomology, 4(2):257-261

Berisford YC; Tsao CH, 1975. Parasitism, predation, and disease in the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Environmental Entomology, 4(4):549-554

Britton WE, 1916. Guide to the insects of Conneticut. Part 3, Hymenoptera, 321-322.

Canadian Forestry Service, 2004. http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/index_e.html.

Cox DL; Potter DA, 1986. aerial dispersal behavior of larval bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Canadian Entomologist, 118(6):525-536

Craighead FC, 1950. Insect enemies of eastern forests. USDA, Misc. Publ. 657.

Crocker RL; Simpson CL, 1981. Control of the evergreen bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis, with permethrin. Southwestern Entomologist, 6(3):237-239

Cronin JT, 1989. Inverse density-dependent parasitism of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Environmental Entomology, 18(3):403-407

Davis DR, 1964. Bagworm moths of the Western hemisphere. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 244:1-233.

Doane RF; McManus ML, 1981. The gypsymoth: research toward integrated pest management. USDA, Forest Service Tech. Bull., 1584.

Drees BM; Jackman J, 1999. Field guide to Texas insects. Houston, Texas, USA: Gulf Publishing Co.

Gahan AB, 1909. A moth larva predatory upon the eggs of the bagworm. Journal of Economic Entomology, 2:236-237.

Gibbs TJ; Sadof CS, 2002. Bagworms. http://www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia.

Gross SW; Fritz RS, 1982. Differential stratification, movement and parasitism of sexes of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis on redcedar. Ecological Entomology, 7(2):149-154

Haseman L, 1912. The evergreen bagworm. Mo. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull., 104:308-330.

Horn DJ; Sheppard RF, 1979. Sex ratio, pupal parasitism, and predation in two declining populations of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Ecological Entomology, 4(3):259-265

Johnson MP; Potter DA; Gilmore GS, 1993. Suitability of juniper cultivars for survival and growth of the bagworm. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 11:167-170.

Jones BF, 1993. Bagworms. Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service Doc. YC.C77817.

Jones FM; Parks HB, 1928. The bagworms of Texas. Texas Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull., 382:1-36.

Klun JA; Neal JW Jr; Leonhardt BA; Schwarz M, 1986. Suppression of female bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis reproduction potential with its sex pheromone, 1-methylbutyl decanoate. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 40(3):231-238

Kozhanchikov IV, 1956. Fauna of the U.S.S.R. Lepidoptera. Psychidae (Jerusalem), vol. 3.

Kulman HM, 1965. Natural control of the bagworm and notes on its status as a forest pest. Journal of Economic Entomology, 58:863-866.

Kulman HM, 1970. Distribution and host-tree orientation of bagworm parasites. National Geographic Research Reports, 357-358.

Lagoy PK; Barrows EM, 1989. Larval-sex and host-species effects on location of attachment sites of last-instar bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 91:468-472.

Leonhardt BA; Harte EM; DeVilbiss ED; Inscoe MN, 1984. Effective controlled-release dispensers for the pheromone of the bagworm. Release rate vs. trap catch. J. Controlled Release, 1:137-141.

Leonhardt BA; Neal JW Jr; Klun JA; Schwarz M; Plimmer JR, 1983. An unusual lepidopteran sex pheromone system in the bagworm moth. Science, USA, 219(4582):314-316

Litner JA, 1882. First Annual Report, State Entomologist of New York, Albany, New York, USA, 381 pp.

Lowther PE; Cink CL, 1992. House sparrow. The Birds of North America, 12:1-20.

Malloch; JR, 1917. A preliminary classification of Diptera, exclusive of puparia, based upon larvae and pupal characters, with keys to imagines n certain families. State lab. Nat. Hist. Part 1. Bull. III (Urbana, IL).

Metcalf CL; Flint WP; Metcalf RL, 1962. Destructive and useful insects. 4th ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

Montgomery BE, 1933. Preliminary studies of insect parasites in Indiana. Canadian Entomologist, 65:185-190.

Moore RG; Hanks LM, 2000. Avian predation of the evergreen bagworm (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 102(2):350-352; 17 ref.

Neal JW Jr, 1982. Significance of opposing abdominal tergal spines on the pupae of the bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 55(3):605-616

Neal JW Jr, 1986. Salient vestiture and morphological characters of the pharate female bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 79(5):814-820

Neal JW Jr; Raupp MJ; Douglass LW, 1987. Temperature-dependent model for predicting larval emergence of the bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Environmental Entomology, 16(5):1141-1144

Neal JW Jr; Santamour FS Jr, 1990. Biotic indicators of host preference by th ebagworm (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 83:2393-2397.

Neck RW, 1977. Bionomic notes on some bagworm moths (Psychidae) of Texas. J. Lepid. Soc., 31:183-190.

Nielsen DG; Hart ER; Dix ME; Linit MJ; Appleby JE; Ascerno M; Mahr DL; Potter DA; Jones JA, 1985. Common street trees and their pest problems in the north central United States. Journal of Arboriculture, 11(8):225-232

Peck O, 1963. A catalogue of the Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 30:1-1092.

Riddle WA, 1987. Respiration and cold-hardiness in overwintering eggs of the bagworm moth, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A (Comparative Physiology), 86(3):497-501

Riley CV, 1869. The bagworm, alias basket-worm, alias dropworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haworth. Am. Entomol,. 2:35-38.

Rivers DB; Antonelli AL; Yoder JA, 2002. Bags of the bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) protect diapausing eggs from water loss and chilling injury. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 95(4):481-486; 28 ref.

Sadof CS; Raupp MJ, 1987. Consumer attitudes toward the defoliation of American arbovitae, Thujus occidentalis, by bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 5:164-166.

Sadof CS; Raupp MJ; Davidson JA, 1987. Survey finds defoliated plants won’t sell. American Nurseryman, 166: 37-39.

Santamour FS Jr, 1980. Bagworms eat almost everything. J. Arboric., 6:291-293.

Schaffner JV Jr., Griswold CL, 1934. Macrolepidoptera and their parasites reared from field collections in the northeastern part of the United States. United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication, No 188.

Sheppard RF, 1975. The bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis: a model system for studying the principles of insect population dynamics. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 21(3):153-156

Shetlar DJ, 2000. Bagworm and its control. http://www.ohioline.osu.hyg-fact/2000/2149.html.

Smith MP; Barrows EM, 1991. Effects of larval case size and host plant species on case internal temperature in the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 93(4):834-838

Srivastva SK; Attri BL, 2004. Bag worm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth)), an emerging pest in coastal agroecosystem of Orissa. Insect Environment, 10(2):70-71.

Summer-Smith JD, 1988. The sparrow: A study of the genus Passer. Poyser, Calton, UK, 342 pp.

Thompson SN, 1983. Biochemical and physiological effects of metazoan endoparasites on their host species. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 74B:183-211.

Thompson SN; Barlow JS, 1974. The fatty acid composition of parasitic Hymenoptera and its possible biological significance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 67:627-632.

Thompson WR, 1947. A catalogue of the parasites and predators of insect pests. Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control (Canada), Sec. 1, Part 9:524-627.

Tietz HM, 1952. The Lepidoptera of Pennsylvania. A Manual. Pennsylvania, USA: Pennsylvania State College School of Agriculture.

USDA, 1970. Animal and Health Inspection Service Pest survey. United States Department of Agriculture.

Ward KE; Ramaswamy SB; Nebeker TE, 1990. Influence of host type and host switching on nutritional performance of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemerpformis Haworth (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Technical Bulletin - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, No. 170:13-20

Ward KE; Ramaswamy SB; Nebeker TE, 1991. Nutritional performance of first and penultimate-final instar bagworm larvae on two unrelated hosts as influenced by host of origin. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 60(1):71-81

Wollerman EH, 1971. Bagworm. Forest Pest Leaflet, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, No. 97, 7pp.; 5 ref.

Distribution References

Baerg W J, 1928. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 25 pp.

BALDUF W V, 1937. Bionomic Notes on the Common Bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw., (Lepid., Psychidae) and its Insect Enemies (Hym., Lepid.). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 39 (7), 169-184 pp.

Barrows E M, Gordh G, 1974. Insect associates of the bagworm moth, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), in Kansas. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 47 (2), 156-160.

Britton W E, 1916. Guide to the insects of Conneticut. Part 3, Hymenoptera. 321-322.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Craighead F C, 1950. Insect enemies of eastern forests. In: Miscellaneous Publications. United States Forest Service,

Davis DR, 1964. Bagworm moths of the Western hemisphere. In: U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 244 1-233.

Gahan A B, 1909. A moth larva predatory upon the eggs of the bagworm. Journal of Economic Entomology. 236-237. DOI:10.1093/jee/2.3.236

Haseman L, 1912. The evergreen bagworm. Mo. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 308-330.

Jones BF, 1993. Bagworms. In: Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service Doc. YC.C77817,

Jones F M, Parks H B, 1928. Texas Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 1-36.

Kulman HM, 1970. Distribution and host-tree orientation of bagworm parasites. In: National Geographic Research Reports, 357-358.

Lagoy P K, Barrows E M, 1989. Larval-sex and host-species effects on location of attachment sites of last-instar bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 91 (3), 468-472.

Litner J A, 1882. First Annual Report, State Entomologist of New York. Albany, New York, USA: 381 pp.

Montgomery B E, 1933. Preliminary studies of insect parasites in Indiana. Canadian Entomologist. 185-190.

Nielsen D G, Hart E R, Dix M E, Linit M J, Appleby J E, Ascerno M, Mahr D L, Potter D A, Jones J A, 1985. Common street trees and their pest problems in the north central United States. Journal of Arboriculture. 11 (8), 225-232.

Riley C V, 1869. The bagworm, alias basket-worm, alias dropworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haworth. American Entomol. 35-38.

Srivastva S K, Attri B L, 2004. Bag worm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth)), an emerging pest in coastal agroecosystem of Orissa. Insect Environment. 10 (2), 70-71.

USDA, 1970. Animal and Health Inspection Service Pest survey. In: United States Department of Agriculture,

Wollerman E H, 1971. Bagworm. In: Forest Pest Leaflet, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, 7pp.

Distribution Maps

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