Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Theobroma cacao
(cocoa)

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Datasheet

Theobroma cacao (cocoa)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Theobroma cacao
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cocoa
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Beverage base
  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage
  • Miscellaneous drugs, stimulants and social uses
  • Traditional/folklore
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Theobroma cacao L.

Preferred Common Name

  • cocoa

Other Scientific Names

  • Theobroma pentagonum Bernoulli
  • Theobroma sativum (Aubl.) Lign & Le Bey

International Common Names

  • Spanish: cacao
  • French: cacaotier; cacaoyer
  • Arabic: kâkâû
  • Portuguese: cacaoeiro

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: kakaaw
  • Germany: Kakaobaum
  • Indonesia: coklat
  • Italy: (albero) Cacao
  • Malaysia: pokok coklat
  • Myanmar: kokoe
  • Netherlands: Cacaoboom
  • Sweden: kakaotraed
  • Thailand: kho kho
  • Vietnam: cây ca cao

EPPO code

  • THOCA (Theobroma cacao)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Sterculiaceae
  •                             Genus: Theobroma
  •                                 Species: Theobroma cacao

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Achaea catocaloides; Acromyrmex octospinosus (leaf cutting ant); Adoretus compressus (rose beetle); Adoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle); Adoretus versutus (rose beetle); Ahasverus advena (foreign grain beetle); Albonectria rigidiuscula (green point gall); Amblypelta cocophaga (coconut bug); Amblypelta theobromae (coconut bug); Anomala pallida; Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); Apate monachus (black borer); Apogonia cribricollis (chafer beetle); Araecerus fasciculatus (cocoa weevil); Archips machlopis; Armillaria heimii (armillaria root rot); Asterolecanium pustulans (akee fringed scale); Atta (leaf-cutter ant); Atta cephalotes (leaf cutting ant); Atta sexdens (leaf cutting ant); Axonopus compressus (carpet grass); Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); Bactrocera passiflorae (Fijian fruit fly); Bathycoelia thalassina (cocoa shield bug); Bocchoropsis pharaxalis; Borreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed); Bryocoropsis laticollis (capsid bug); Cacao swollen shoot virus (cacao swollen shoot); Cacao yellow mosaic virus; Cadra cautella (dried currant moth); Calliteara horsfieldii; Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel); Cephaleuros virescens (algal spot of coffee); Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly); Ceratocystis cacaofunesta; Ceratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight); Ceratocystis paradoxa (black rot of pineapple); Characoma stictigrapta (pod husk borer); Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed); Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); Coccus viridis (soft green scale); Cocoa necrosis virus; Conopomorpha cramerella (cocoa pod borer); Criconemella (ring nematode); Cryptolestes pusillus (flat grain beetle); Cryptophlebia encarpa (cocoa huskborer); Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed); Darna diducta (nettle caterpillar); Darna trima (nettle caterpillar); Dasychira inclusa; Dihammus rusticator; Distantiella theobroma (cocoa capsid); Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug); Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug); Earias biplaga (spiny bollworm); Ectropis bhurmitra (tea twig caterpillar); Edessa meditabunda (green and brown stink bug); Ephestia elutella (chocolate moth); Eriophyes reyesi; Erythricium salmonicolor (pink disease); Eulophonotus myrmeleon (cocoa stem borer); Eumeta crameri (faggot worm); Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); Exophthalmus vittatus (citrus weevil); Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug); Floracarus theobromae; Glenea aluensis; Glenea lefebueri; Glomerella cingulata (anthracnose); Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily); Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode); Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips); Helopeltis (tea mosquito bugs); Helopeltis antonii (tea bug); Helopeltis bergrothi (cacao-mosquito); Helopeltis bradyi (tea mosquito); Helopeltis clavifer; Helopeltis theivora (tea mosquito bug); Hemeroblemma rengus (cocoa worm); Homona coffearia (tea tortrix); Homona nubiferana; Hoplolaimus seinhorsti (lance nematode); Horiola picta (cocoa podhopper); Howardia biclavis (mining scale); Hyposidra talaca; Hypothenemus obscurus (tropical nut borer); Icerya samaraia (steatococcus scale); Lachnopus inconditus (citrus weevil); Lachnosterna patens; Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia pod rot of cocoa); Lawana conspersa; Leptoglossus gonagra (squash bug); Leucothyreus noletti; Longidorus (longidorids); Ludwigia octovalvis (primrose willow); Lymantria obfuscata (Indian gypsy moth); Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug); Mallodon downesi (cacao stem borer); Marasmiellus scandens (white thread blight); Marasmius crinis-equi (horse hair blight); Melanerpes striatus (woodpecker); Mesohomotoma tessmanni (psylle du cacaoyer); Mikania micrantha (bitter vine); Momordica charantia (bitter gourd); Monalonion (banana sting bug); Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease of cacao); Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot); Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed); Mussidia nigrivenella (cob borer); Nezara viridula (green stink bug); Nipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug); Niphonoclea albata (twig borer); Oecophylla smaragdina (weaver ant); Oncobasidium theobromae (vascular-streak dieback of cocoa); Ootheca mutabilis (brown leaf beetle); Orgyia postica (cocoa tussock moth); Orgyia turbata (tussock moth); Pansepta teleturga (cacao webb worm); Pantorhytes (weevil borers); Pantorhytes biplagiatus (cocoa weevil); Pantorhytes plutus (cocoa weevil); Pantorhytes szentivanyi (cocoa weevil); Paralebeda plagifera; Paspalum conjugatum (sour paspalum); Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass); Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass); Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Phthirusa adunca; Phyllanthus urinaria (leafflower); Phytophthora cactorum (apple collar rot); Phytophthora heveae (brazil nut leaf blight); Phytophthora katsurae (chestnut downy mildew); Phytophthora megakarya (black pod of cocoa); Phytophthora palmivora (coconut budrot); Planococcoides njalensis (west African cocoa mealybug); Planococcus kenyae (coffee mealybug); Planococcus lilacinus (cacao mealybug); Planococcus minor (passionvine mealybug); Platyngomiriodes apiformis (bee bug); Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode); Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Prepodes similis (leaf weevil); Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (trilobite scale); Pseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); Pseudotheraptus devastans (coreid bug); Pyralis manihotalis; Pythium vexans (damping off); Rastrococcus iceryoides (mango mealy bug); Rattus rattus (black rat); Rhizobium radiobacter (crown gall); Rhizobium rhizogenes (gall); Rigidoporus microporus (white root disease of rubber); Rosellinia arcuata (black root rot of tea); Rosellinia bunodes (black root rot); Rosellinia pepo (black root rot); Sahlbergella singularis (mirids); Scopelodes unicolor; Selenothrips rubrocinctus (red-banded thrips); Setora nitens (coconut nettle caterpillar); Sitobion martorelli; Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood); Spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm); Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar); Stegobium paniceum (drugstore beetle); Steirastoma breve (cacao beetle); Stenoma decora (cacao fruit and shoot borer); Striglina rufocastanea; Suana concolor; Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella); Tiracola plagiata (plague caterpillar); Toxoptera aurantii (camellia aphid); Trachysphaera fructigena (cigar end rot of banana); Trichodorus (stubby root nematodes); Uredo erythroxilionis (rust of cocoa); Xiphinema (dagger nematode); Xylaplothrips; Xyleborinus; Xyleborus declivis; Xylosandrus discolor; Zeuzera coffeae (coffee carpenter)

Minor host of:

Achaea janata (castor semilooper); Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly); Aphis craccivora (groundnut aphid); Aphis gossypii (cotton aphid); Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); Aspergillus flavus (Aspergillus ear rot); Aspergillus niger (black mould of onion); Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); Attacus atlas (atlas moth); Batocera rubus (rubber root borer); Brevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite); Calonectria morganii (sheath net-blotch); Carpophilus (dried-fruit beetles); Caryedon serratus (groundnut bruchid); Ceratitis punctata (cacao fruit fly); Ceratitis rosa (Natal fruit fly); Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Chondracris rosea (citrus locust); Commelina diffusa (spreading dayflower); Corcyra cephalonica (rice meal moth); Diaprepes abbreviatus (citrus weevil); Eacles imperialis; Ecdytolopha aurantianum; Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower); Ephestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth); Euwallacea destruens; Euwallacea fornicatus (tea shot-hole borer); Ganoderma philippii (tea root rot); Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode); Hemicriconemoides mangiferae; Hoplolaimus pararobustus (lance nematode); Hypomeces squamosus (green weevil); Indarbela quadrinotata (bark eating caterpillar); Lasioderma serricorne (cigarette beetle); Liposcelis bostrychophila (book louse); Ludwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose); Megathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass); Melanitis leda ismene (rice butterfly); Mycena citricolor (American leaf spot of coffee); Oryzaephilus mercator (merchant grain beetle); Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); Parasa lepida (nettle caterpillar); Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower); Phyllophaga (white grubs); Phytophthora capsici (stem and fruit rot of Capsicum); Phytophthora citrophthora (brown rot of citrus fruit); Phytophthora tropicalis; Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (Jack Beardsley mealybug); Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); Pteroma plagiophleps; Pythium debaryanum (damping-off); Rattus argentiventer (rice field rat); Rattus exulans (Pacific rat); Rattus rattus mindanensis (common Philippine field rat); Rattus tiomanicus (malayan (or Malaysian) wood rat); Rhynchophorus palmarum (South American palm weevil); Rosellinia necatrix (dematophora root rot); Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode); Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail); Setaria pumila (yellow foxtail); Tenebroides mauritanicus (cadelle); Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle); Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); Xiphinema ifacolum (dagger nematode); Xyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer); Xyleborus similis; Xyleborus volvulus; Xylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle); Xylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)

Associated with (not a host):

Aenasius advena; Aenasius brasiliensis; Euphorocera claripennis; Glyptotermes dilatatus (live-wood tea termite (Sri Lanka)); Goetheana shakespearei; Hypocrea rufa (green mould of narcissus); Leptomastix dactylopii; Platyscapulus pulchellus; Pseudaphycus ferrisianae; Pseudaphycus utilis; Solenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant); Teloplatypus excisus; Tesserocerus dewalquei

Host of (source - data mining):

Acromyrmex subterraneus; Anomis leona; Antiteuchus tripterus; Aphodiplosis triangularis; Apogonia blanchardi; Atta sexdens piriventris; Azteca chartifex; Brachyplatys vahlii; Calonectria kyotensis (root rot: peach); Carpophilus dimidiatus (corn-sap beetle); Carpophilus obsoletus (corn sap beetle); Cataenococcus hispidus (citrus mealybug*); Colaspis ornata; Conotrachelus humeropictus; Empoasca; Endoclita hosei; Forcipomyia quatei; Forcipomyia spatulifera; Forcipomyia youngi; Gibberella baccata (collar rot of coffee); Maconellicoccus ugandae; Metcalfiella pertusa; Mycodiplosis ligulata; Phenacoccus hargreavesi; Platypus jansoni; Pseudococcus concavocerarii; Rhizoglyphus setosus; Rhynchophorus bilineatus (black palm weevil); Spodoptera androgea; Synanthedon cirrhozona; Terastia meticulosalis; Tetramorium aculeatum (biting, ant); Tetranychus mexicanus; Xiphinema brasiliense (dagger nematode)

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Miscellaneous drugs, stimulants and social uses

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore