Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Chalara elegans
(black root rot)

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Datasheet

Chalara elegans (black root rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chalara elegans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black root rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
1. Black root rot on cotton. 2. Healthy plant.
TitleBlack root rot on cotton
Caption1. Black root rot on cotton. 2. Healthy plant.
CopyrightAPS Press
1. Black root rot on cotton. 2. Healthy plant.
Black root rot on cotton1. Black root rot on cotton. 2. Healthy plant.APS Press
Cross-section of cotton root with black root rot. Cortical cell death, Chlamydospores.
TitleBlack root rot symptoms
CaptionCross-section of cotton root with black root rot. Cortical cell death, Chlamydospores.
CopyrightAPS Press
Cross-section of cotton root with black root rot. Cortical cell death, Chlamydospores.
Black root rot symptomsCross-section of cotton root with black root rot. Cortical cell death, Chlamydospores.APS Press
Cultural appearance of Thielaviopsis basicola on TB-CEN medium. Healthy root, top.
TitleCulture plates
CaptionCultural appearance of Thielaviopsis basicola on TB-CEN medium. Healthy root, top.
CopyrightAPS Press
Cultural appearance of Thielaviopsis basicola on TB-CEN medium. Healthy root, top.
Culture platesCultural appearance of Thielaviopsis basicola on TB-CEN medium. Healthy root, top.APS Press
Phialide, endoconidia, and chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola.
TitlePhialide, endoconidia, chlamydospores
CaptionPhialide, endoconidia, and chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola.
CopyrightAPS Press
Phialide, endoconidia, and chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola.
Phialide, endoconidia, chlamydosporesPhialide, endoconidia, and chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola.APS Press
TitleChains of chlamydospores of T. basicola
Caption
CopyrightAPS Press
Chains of chlamydospores of T. basicolaAPS Press
1. Black root rot on Poinsetta. 2. Healthy plant.
TitleBlack root rot symptoms on Poinsettia
Caption1. Black root rot on Poinsetta. 2. Healthy plant.
CopyrightAPS Press
1. Black root rot on Poinsetta. 2. Healthy plant.
Black root rot symptoms on Poinsettia1. Black root rot on Poinsetta. 2. Healthy plant.APS Press

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chalara elegans Nag Raj & W.B. Kendr.

Preferred Common Name

  • black root rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Broome) Ferraris
  • Torula basicola Berk. & Broome
  • Trichocladium basicola (Berk. & Broome) J.W. Carmichael

International Common Names

  • English: black root rot and stubby root: chicory; blackhull: groundnut; root rot: ornamentals; specific replant disorder: plum and cherry
  • Spanish: enfermedad de las raices pardos; podredumbre de las raices: tabaco; podredumbre negra de las raices: tabaco
  • French: pied moir du pois; pourridie moir du melilot; pourridie moir du tabac; pourriture noire des racines du tabac

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schwarzbeinigkeit: Tabak; Wurzelbraeune: Klee; Wurzelbraeune: Tabak; Wurzelfaeule: Bohne; Wurzelfaeule: Lupine; Wurzelfaeule: Zierpflanzen; Wurzelfaeule: Zitrus-Saemlinge

EPPO code

  • THIEBA (Thielaviopsis basicola)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Helotiales
  •                             Family: Helotiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Chalara
  •                                     Species: Chalara elegans

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentEPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-GansuPresentWu et al., 1992; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
IndiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
IranWidespreadEPPO, 2014
IraqWidespreadEPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadEPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadEPPO, 2014
LebanonWidespreadEPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentAbd_Allah et al., 2011
SingaporePresent, few occurrencesAVA, 2001; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; Huang and Chen, 2010; EPPO, 2014
TajikistanPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkeyWidespreadEPPO, 2014
TurkmenistanPresentAkmuradov, 1981; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentEPPO, 2014

Africa

Congo Democratic RepublicWidespreadEPPO, 2014
EgyptWidespreadEPPO, 2014
MoroccoWidespreadEPPO, 2014
South AfricaWidespreadNkuekam et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabweWidespreadEPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentPunja and Chittaranjan, 1994; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentAnderson, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentEPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentEPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AlabamaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-KansasWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaWidespreadRothrock, 1997; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshireWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-OhioWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaWidespreadRothrock, 1997; EPPO, 2014
-OregonWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseeWidespreadJohnson and Doyle, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-TexasWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-UtahWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
CubaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
HaitiWidespreadEPPO, 2014
JamaicaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentMarie, 1995; EPPO, 2014

South America

BrazilPresentFarr et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentBorges et al., 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
PeruWidespreadEPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresentBedlan, 1997; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumWidespreadEPPO, 2014
BulgariaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
CyprusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentBodker et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadEPPO, 2014
GermanyPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
GreeceWidespreadEPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespreadEPPO, 2014
IrelandWidespreadEPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
LithuaniaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
MacedoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentTkach, 1979; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsWidespreadEPPO, 2014
NorwayWidespreadEPPO, 2014
PolandWidespreadEPPO, 2014
RomaniaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SerbiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SpainWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentEPPO, 2014; Michel, 2015
UKWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandPresentEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentEPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentEPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespreadEPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / stubby roots
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves

References

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Abd_Allah EF; Hashem A; Bahkali AH; Al-Huqail A, 2011. First report of black root rot disease (Thielaviopsis basicola) of carrot in Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(18):2867-2869. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/PDF/pdf2011/16Sep/Abd_Allah%20et%20al.pdf

Akmuradov B, 1981. Rapid method of evaluating the resistance of Gossypium barbadense varieties to Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. Et Broome) Ferraris. Terkmenistan SSR Ylymlar Akademijasasynyn Habarlary, Biologik Ylymlaryn, 1981(3):62-65.

Anderson TR, 1984. Thielaviopsis root rot of soybean in Ontario and susceptibility of commercial cultivars to inoculation. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1):71-74

Anderson TR; Patrick ZA, 1978. Mycophagous amoeboid organisms from soil that perforate spores of Thielaviopsis basi basicola and Cochliobolus sativus. Phytopathology, 68(11):1618-1626

Anderson TR; Welacky TW, 1988. Populations of Thielaviopsis basicola in burley tobacco field soils and the relationship between soil inoculum concentration and severity of disease on tobacco and soybean seedlings. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 10:246-251.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Bateman DF, 1961. The effect of soil moisture upon development of poinsettia root rots. Phytopathology, 51:445-451.

Bateman DF, 1962. Relation of soil pH to development of poinsettia root rots. Phytopathology, 52:559-566.

Bateman DF, 1963. Influence of host and nonhost plants upon populations of Thielaviopsis basicola in soil. Phytopathology, 53:1174-1177.

Bateman DF; Dimock AW, 1959. The influence of temperature on root rots of poinsettia caused by Thielaviopsis basicola, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pythium ultimum. Phytopathology, 49:641-647.

Bedlan G, 1997. Thielaviopsis-rot intensified in carrots. Pflanzenschutz (Wien), 13(2):6-7.

Bhatti MA; Kraft JM, 1992. Effects of inoculum density and temperature on root rot and wilt of chickpea. Plant Disease, 76(1):50-54; 28 ref.

Bhatti MA; Kraft JM, 1992. Reaction of selected chickpea lines to Fusarium and Thielaviopsis root rots. Plant Disease, 76(1):54-56; 14 ref.

Blank LM; Leyendecker PJ, Jr. , Nakayama RM, 1953. Observation on black root rot symptoms on cotton seedlings at different soil temperatures. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:473-476.

Bodker L; Leroul N; Smedegaard-Petersen V, 1993. The occurrence in Denmark of black root rot of pea caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Pathology, 42(5):820-823

Borges RCF; Santos MDM; Macedo MA; Martins I; Nascimento AG; Boiteux LS; Fonseca MEN; Mello SCM, 2014. First report of a wilt disease of Tectona grandis caused by Thielaviopsis basicola in Brazil. New Disease Reports, 30:17. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030017

Bowden RL; Wiese MV; Crock JE; Auld DL, 1985. Root rot of chickpeas and lentils caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Disease, 69(12):1089-1091

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Thielaviopsis basicola. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 218. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Candole BL; Rothrock CS, 1997. Characterization of the suppressiveness of hairy vetch-amended soils to Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytopathology, 87(2):197-202; 52 ref.

Chittaranjan S; Punja ZK, 1993. A semiselective medium and procedures for isolation and enumeration of Chalara elegans from organic soil. Plant Disease, 77(9):930-932

Christou T, 1962. Penetration and host-parasite relationships of Thielaviopsis basicola in the bean plant. Phytopathology, 52:194-198.

Clayton EE, 1969. The study of resistance to the black root rot disease of tobacco Tobacco Science, 13:30-37.

Clough KS; Patrick ZA, 1976. Biotic factors affecting the viability of chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk & Br.) Ferraris, in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8(6):456-472

Copes WE; Hendrix FF, 1996. Chemical disinfestation of greenhouse growing surface materials contaminated with Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Disease, 80(8):885-886; 9 ref.

Corbaz R, 1985. Pathotypes and variations of pathogenicity in Chalara elegans Nag Raj & Kendrick (= Thielaviopsis basicola). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 113(4):289-299

Davis RM; Nunez JJ; Marshall KD; Munk DS; Vargas RN; Weir WL; Wright SD, 1994. Chemical control of cotton seedling diseases in California. In: 1994 Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences. Memphis TN, USA: National Cotton Council of America, 252-253.

De Villiers DA, 1987. Alternatiewe Gashere Vir Die Tabak-Swartwortelvrotswam Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytophylactica, 19:347-348.

DeVay JE; Garber RH, 1997. Control approaches (cultural and chemical) for black root rot of cotton. In: 1997 Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences. Memphis TN, USA: National Cotton Council of America, 79-83.

Domsch KH; Gams W; Anderson TH, 1980. Compendium of soil fungi. Volumes 1 and 2. London, UK: Academic Press Ltd. 859 pp.

Doran WL, 1929. Effects of soil temperature and reaction on growth of tobacco infected and uninfected with black root rot. Journal of Agricultural Research, 39:853-873.

Doran WL, 1931. Increasing soil acidity as a means of controlling black root-rot of tobacco. Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 276:118-146.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Gayed SK, 1972. Host range and persistence of Thielaviopsis basicola in tobacco soil. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 52:869-873.

Gilbert WW, 1909. The root-rot of tobacco caused by Thielavia basicola. United States Department of Agriculture Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 158.

Graham JH; Timmer NH, 1991. Peat-based media as a source of Thielaviopsis basicola causing black root rot on citrus seedlings. Plant Disease, 75(12):1246-1249

Haas D; Keel C; Laville J; Maurhofer M; OberhSnsli T; Schnider U; Voisard C; Wüthrich B; Defago G, 1991. Secondary metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 involved in the suppression of root diseases. In: Hennecke H, Verma DPS, eds. Advances in Molecular Genetics of Plant-Microbe Interactions Vol 1. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 450-456.

Harrison UJ; Shew HD, 2001. Effects of soil pH and nitrogen fertility on the population dynamics of Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant and Soil, 228(2):147-155; 47 ref.

Heller WE, 2012. A new method of quantitative detection of Chalara elegans and C. thielavioides in soils using carrot discs. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 119(5/6):169-173. http://www.jpdp-online.com

Holtz BA; Weinhold AR, 1994. Thielaviopsis basicola in San Joaquin Valley soils and the relationship between inoculum density and disease severity of cotton seedlings. Plant Disease, 78(10):986-990

Hood ME; Shew HD, 1997. Initial cellular interactions between Thielaviopsis basicola and tobacco root hairs. Phytopathology, 87(3):228-235; 29 ref.

Hood ME; Shew HD, 1997. Reassessment of the role of saprophytic activity in the ecology of Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytopathology, 87(12):1214-1219; 40 ref.

Hsi DCH, 1965. Blackhull disease of Valencia peanuts. New Mexico State University Research Report 110.

Hsi DCH, 1966. Relationship between crop sequence and blackhull of Valencia peanuts. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 120.

Huang YinTse; Chen ChiYu, 2010. Two Thielaviopsis species on carrots in Taiwan. Fungal Science, 25(2):69-74.

Johnson J, 1916. Host plants of Thielavia basicola. Journal of Agricultural Research, 7:289-300.

Johnson J; Hartman RE, 1919. Influence of soil environment on the root rot of tobacco. Journal of Agricultural Research, 17:41-86.

Johnson LF; Doyle JH, 1986. Relationships of seedling disease of cotton to characteristics of loessial soils in Tennessee. Phytopathology, 76(3):286-290; [1 fig., 5 tab.]; 22 ref.

Jones BL, 1991. Penetration and development of Chalara elegans in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). Phytophylactica, 23(1):81-84

King CJ; Presley JT, 1942. A root rot of cotton caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytopathology, 32:752-761.

Klimova AP, 1979. Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Br.) Ferraris on weeds of Turkmen cotton fields. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, Biyologicheskikh Nauk, No.5:53-58

Labuschagne N; Kotze JM, 1991. Incidence of Chalara elegans in groundnut seed samples and seed transmission of blackhull. Plant Pathology, 40(4):639-642

Labuschagne N; KotzT JM, 1996. Control of groundnut blackhull and its causal fungus Chalara elegans with fungicides. Plant Pathology, 45(3):540-546; 19 ref.

Lee M; Lockwood JL, 1977. Enhanced severity of Thielaviopsis basicola root rot induced in soybean by the herbicide chloramben. Phytopathology, 67(11):1360-1367

Lewis JA; Papavizas GC, 1979. Influence of the herbicides EPTC and prometryn on cotton seedling disease caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 1(2):100-106

Lim LL; Cole ALJ, 1984. Infection and colonization of white clover seedling roots by fungi. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 27(3):459-465; [2 fig.]; 23 ref.

Linderman RG; Toussoun TA, 1967. Behavior of chlamydospores and endoconidia of Thielaviopsis basicola in nonsterilized soil. Phytopathology, 57:729-731.

Lloyd AB; Lockwood JL, 1963. Effect of soil temperature, host variety, and fungus strain on Thielaviopsis root rot of pea. Phytopathology, 53:329-331.

Lockwood JL; Yoder DL; Smith NA, 1970. Thielaviopsis basicola root rot of soybeans in Michigan. Plant Disease Reporter, 54:849-850.

Marie F, 1995. Survey on pineapple pests and diseases in the Caribbean. Tropical Fruits Newsletter, 14:3-4.

Mathre DE; Ravenscroft AV; Garber RH, 1966. The role of Thielaviopsis basicola as a primary cause of yield reduction in cotton in California. Phytopathology, 56:1213-1216.

Mauk PA; Hine RB, 1988. Infection, colonization of Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, and development of black root rot caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytopathology, 78(12, II):1662-1667

Merrill LE; Sanderson KC; Williams JC; Reed RB, 1986. Response of Ilex cultivars to media and pH on the incidence of black root rot caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Br.) Ferraris. Journal of the American Horticultural Society, 111:102-105.

Merwe PJAvan der; Merwe LPvan der; Joubert HLN, 1993. Implications of Chalara elegans resistance in groundnut breeding. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 10(2):91-94; 9 ref.

Meyer J; Shew HD; Shoemaker PB, 1989. Populations of Thielaviopsis basicola and the occurrence of black root rot on burley tobacco in western North Carolina. Plant Disease, 73(3):239-242

Meyer JR; Shew HD, 1991. Development of black root rot on burley tobacco as influenced by inoculum density of Thielaviopsis basicola, host resistance, and soil chemistry. Plant Disease, 75(6):601-605

Meyer JR; Shew HD, 1991. Soils suppressive to black root rot of burley tobacco, caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytopathology, 81(9):946-954

Michel VV, 2015. First report of Chalara elegans causing wilt on lisianthus in Switzerland. Plant Disease, 99(8):1187-1188. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Nag Raj TR; Kendrick B, 1976. A monograph of Chalara and allied genera. A monograph of Chalara and allied genera. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Waterloo, Ont. Canada, 200 pp.

Nan ZB; Long PG; Skipp RA; Hopcroft DH, 1992. Microscopy of invasion of red clover roots by Trichocladium basicola, and effects of benomyl and prochloraz. Plant Pathology, 41(4):449-461

Nkuekam GK; Wingfield MJ; Roux J, 2013. Ceratocystis species, including two new taxa, from Eucalyptus trees in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42(3):283-311. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13313-012-0192-9

O'Brien RG; Davis RD, 1994. Lettuce black root rot a disease caused by Chalara elegans. Australasian Plant Pathology, 23(3):106-111

Otani Y, 1962. Studies on the black root rot disease caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Br.) Ferris. Bulletin Okayama Tobacco Experiment Station, 23:1-118.

Papavizas GC; Adams PB, 1969. Survival of root-infecting fungi in soil. XII. Germination and survival of endoconidia and chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola in fallow soil and in soil adjacent to germinating bean seed. Phytopathology, 59:371-378.

Papavizas GC; Davey CB, 1961. Isolation of Thielaviopsis basicola from bean rhizosphere. Phytopathology, 51:92-96.

Papavizas GC; Lewis JA, 1971. Survival of endoconidia and chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola as affected by soil environmental factors. Phytopathology, 61:108-113.

Pepin HS; Sewell GWF; Wilson JF, 1975. Soil populations of Thielaviopsis basicola associated with cherry rootstocks in relation to effects of the pathogen on their growth. Annals of Applied Biology, 79(2):171-176

Pierre RE; Wilkinson RE, 1970. Histopathological relationship of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis with beans. Phytopathology, 60:821-824.

Pinto CMF; Paula Júnior TJde; Mizubuti ESG, 1994. Diseases caused by fungi on artichoke, lettuce, chicory, strawberries and okra. Informe Agropecuário (Belo Horizonte), 17(182):5-13; 58 ref.

Prinsloo GC; Baard SW; Ferreira JF, 1992. A scanning electron microscope study of the infection and colonization of chicory roots by Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytophylactica, 24(3):293-296

Prinsloo GC; Villiers DA de; Bruin DJde, 1989. Activity of triadimenol and flusilazol against Thielaviopsis basicola in tobacco. Phytophylactica, 21(1):83-84

Pullman GS; DeVay JE; Garber RH; Weinhold AR, 1981. Soil solarization: effects on verticillium wilt of cotton and soilborne populations of Verticillium dahliae, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, and Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytopathology, 71(9):954-959

Punja ZK, 1993. Influence of culture conditions on mycelial growth and phialospore production and germination in Chalara elegans. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(3):447-456

Punja ZK; Chittaranjan S, 1994. Prevalence and inoculum density of Chalara elegans in soils in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(1):21-24

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