Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Berkeleyomyces basicola
(black root rot)

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Datasheet

Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 January 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Berkeleyomyces basicola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black root rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Berkeleyomyces basicola is a soilborne fungus from the Microascales (Ascomycota) that is a major cause of root rot in many agricultural and ornamental plant species. Although its origins are uncertain, the species is known from at least 6...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Infection on inoculated carrot disks. March 2016.
TitleInfection
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Infection on inoculated carrot disks. March 2016.
Copyright©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Infection on inoculated carrot disks. March 2016.
InfectionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Infection on inoculated carrot disks. March 2016.©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Infection on inoculated carrot disks. March 2016.
TitleInfection
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Infection on inoculated carrot disks. March 2016.
Copyright©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Infection on inoculated carrot disks. March 2016.
InfectionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Infection on inoculated carrot disks. March 2016.©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Cultures on MEA (top) & Carrot Agar (bottom).
TitleCultures
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Cultures on MEA (top) & Carrot Agar (bottom).
Copyright©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Cultures on MEA (top) & Carrot Agar (bottom).
CulturesBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Cultures on MEA (top) & Carrot Agar (bottom).©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Cultural appearance of Berkeleyomyces basicola on TB-CEN medium. Healthy root, top.
TitleCulture plates
CaptionCultural appearance of Berkeleyomyces basicola on TB-CEN medium. Healthy root, top.
CopyrightAPS Press
Cultural appearance of Berkeleyomyces basicola on TB-CEN medium. Healthy root, top.
Culture platesCultural appearance of Berkeleyomyces basicola on TB-CEN medium. Healthy root, top.APS Press
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores, conidia and philaides.
TitleChlamydospores, conidia and philaides.
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores, conidia and philaides.
Copyright©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores, conidia and philaides.
Chlamydospores, conidia and philaides.Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores, conidia and philaides.©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chains of chlamydospores.
TitleChlamydospores
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chains of chlamydospores.
CopyrightAPS Press
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chains of chlamydospores.
ChlamydosporesBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chains of chlamydospores.APS Press
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores and secondary chlamydospores at 20x magnification.
TitleChlamydospores
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores and secondary chlamydospores at 20x magnification.
Copyright©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores and secondary chlamydospores at 20x magnification.
ChlamydosporesBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores and secondary chlamydospores at 20x magnification.©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Conidia and secondary chlamydospores at 40x magnification.
TitleConidia and secondary chlamydospores
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Conidia and secondary chlamydospores at 40x magnification.
Copyright©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Conidia and secondary chlamydospores at 40x magnification.
Conidia and secondary chlamydosporesBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Conidia and secondary chlamydospores at 40x magnification.©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores on MEA through stereomicroscope.
TitleChlamydospores
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores on MEA through stereomicroscope.
Copyright©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores on MEA through stereomicroscope.
ChlamydosporesBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Chlamydospores on MEA through stereomicroscope.©Wilma Nel - Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Phialide, endoconidia, and chlamydospores.
TitlePhialide, endoconidia, chlamydospores
CaptionBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Phialide, endoconidia, and chlamydospores.
CopyrightAPS Press
Berkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Phialide, endoconidia, and chlamydospores.
Phialide, endoconidia, chlamydosporesBerkeleyomyces basicola (black root rot); Phialide, endoconidia, and chlamydospores.APS Press
Cross-section of cotton root with black root rot. Cortical cell death, Chlamydospores.
TitleBlack root rot symptoms
CaptionCross-section of cotton root with black root rot. Cortical cell death, Chlamydospores.
CopyrightAPS Press
Cross-section of cotton root with black root rot. Cortical cell death, Chlamydospores.
Black root rot symptomsCross-section of cotton root with black root rot. Cortical cell death, Chlamydospores.APS Press
1. Black root rot on cotton. 2. Healthy plant.
TitleBlack root rot on cotton
Caption1. Black root rot on cotton. 2. Healthy plant.
CopyrightAPS Press
1. Black root rot on cotton. 2. Healthy plant.
Black root rot on cotton1. Black root rot on cotton. 2. Healthy plant.APS Press
1. Black root rot on Poinsetta. 2. Healthy plant.
TitleBlack root rot symptoms on Poinsettia
Caption1. Black root rot on Poinsetta. 2. Healthy plant.
CopyrightAPS Press
1. Black root rot on Poinsetta. 2. Healthy plant.
Black root rot symptoms on Poinsettia1. Black root rot on Poinsetta. 2. Healthy plant.APS Press

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Berkeleyomyces basicola (Berk. Broome) Nel et al.

Preferred Common Name

  • black root rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Chalara elegans Nag Raj & Kendr.
  • Helminthosporium fragile (Sorokïn) Sacc.
  • Milowia nivea Massee
  • Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Broome) Ferraris
  • Torula basicola Berk. & Broome
  • Trichocladium basicola (Berk. & Broome) Carmichael

International Common Names

  • English: black root rot and stubby root of chicory; blackhull of groundnut; root rot of ornamentals; specific replant disorder of plum and cherry
  • Spanish: enfermedad de las raices pardos; podredumbre de las raices: tabaco; podredumbre negra de las raices: tabaco
  • French: pied moir du pois; pourridie moir du melilot; pourridie moir du tabac; pourriture noire des racines du tabac

Local Common Names

  • Afrikaans: swart peul vrot - grondbone
  • Germany: Schwarzbeinigkeit - Tabak; Wurzelbraeune - Klee; Wurzelbraeune - Tabak; Wurzelfaeule - Bohne; Wurzelfaeule - Lupine; Wurzelfaeule - Zierpflanzen; Wurzelfaeule - Zitrus-Saemlinge

Summary of Invasiveness

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Berkeleyomyces basicola is a soilborne fungus from the Microascales (Ascomycota) that is a major cause of root rot in many agricultural and ornamental plant species. Although its origins are uncertain, the species is known from at least 60 countries occurring on every continent except Antarctica. As a hemibiotroph, the fungus invades living root cells of its host during the biotrophic phase of its life cycle before inducing cell death during the necrotrophic phase. Root necrosis causes stunting of plants that can result in severe yield losses. Some of the agricultural industries worst affected by B. basicola include cotton (Gossypium), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Additionally, the fungus is a severe postharvest pathogen of carrots (Daucus carota). During the biotrophic phase of infection and due to the occurrence of the fungus on below-ground parts of plants, it can be inconspicuous and easily disseminated through the movement of infected plants and soil. In most countries, B. basicola is not a regulated pathogen.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Microascales
  •                             Family: Ceratocystidaceae
  •                                 Genus: Berkeleyomyces
  •                                     Species: Berkeleyomyces basicola

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Widespread
EgyptPresent, Widespread
MoroccoPresent, Widespread
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HunanPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-BiharPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-SumatraPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedNaturalized
IranPresent, Widespread
IraqPresent, Widespread
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent, Widespread
LebanonPresent, Widespread
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Localized2011
SingaporePresent, Few occurrences
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
TurkeyPresent, Widespread
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent, Widespread
BulgariaPresent, Widespread
CroatiaPresentKutjevo
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FrancePresent, Widespread
GermanyPresent, Few occurrences
GreecePresent, Widespread
HungaryPresent, Widespread
IrelandPresent, Widespread
ItalyPresent, Localized
-SardiniaPresent
LithuaniaPresent, Widespread
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent, Widespread
PolandPresent, Widespread
RomaniaPresent, Widespread
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russia (Europe)Present, Localized
SerbiaPresent, Widespread
SpainPresent, Widespread
SwedenPresent, Widespread
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Widespread
-Channel IslandsPresent
-EnglandPresent, Widespread
-Northern IrelandPresent
-ScotlandPresent

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent, Widespread
CubaPresent, Widespread
HaitiPresent, Widespread
JamaicaPresent, Widespread
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent, Widespread
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlabamaPresent, Widespread
-ArizonaPresent, Widespread
-ArkansasPresent, Widespread
-CaliforniaPresent, Widespread
-ColoradoPresent, Widespread
-ConnecticutPresent, Widespread
-FloridaPresent, Widespread
-IdahoPresent, Widespread
-IllinoisPresent, Widespread
-IndianaPresent
-KansasPresent, Widespread
-KentuckyPresent, Widespread
-LouisianaPresent, Widespread
-MarylandPresent, Widespread
-MassachusettsPresent, Widespread
-MichiganPresent, Widespread
-MinnesotaPresent, Widespread
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent1997
-MontanaPresent, Widespread
-NebraskaPresent
-New HampshirePresent, Widespread
-New JerseyPresent, Widespread
-New MexicoPresent, Widespread
-New YorkPresent, Widespread
-North CarolinaPresent, Widespread
-North DakotaPresent, Widespread
-OhioPresent, Widespread
-OklahomaPresent, Widespread
-OregonPresent, Widespread
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Widespread
-TennesseePresent, Widespread
-TexasPresent, Widespread
-UtahPresent, Widespread
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent, Widespread
-WashingtonPresent, Widespread
-WisconsinPresent, Widespread

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent, Widespread

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ColombiaPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent, Widespread

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Plants / Stems / dieback
Plants / Roots / fungal growth on surface
Plants / Roots / reduced root system
Plants / Seeds / discolorations
Plants / Roots / cortex with lesions
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / stubby roots
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Paenibacillus alvei Antagonist Fungi|Spores Schoina et al. (2011)
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist Fungi|Spores Défago et al. (1990), Ahl et al. (1986)
Trichoderma asperellum Antagonist Fungi|Hyphae; Fungi|Spores Long and ChongGang (2016)

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Fungi/Hyphae; Fungi/Spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Fungi/Hyphae; Fungi/Spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants Fungi/Spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Fungi/Hyphae; Fungi/Spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Fungi/Hyphae; Fungi/Spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Fungi/Hyphae; Fungi/Spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Wood
Bark

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Bradysia coprophilaHarris (1995)Insect
Scatella stagnalisStanghellini et al. (1999)InsectPennsylvania

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Host damage
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Antagonistic (micro-organisms)
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Pathogenic
  • Interaction with mutualisms
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Abbas, S.Q., Niaz, M., Ghaffar, A., 2007. Thielaviopsis basicola: a potential threat to agriculture and forestry in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39(3):985-990. http://www.pjbot.org/

Abd Allah, E.F., Hashem, A., Bahkali, A.H., Al-Huqail, A., 2011. First report of black root rot disease (Thielaviopsis basicola) of carrot in Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(18):2867-2869. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/PDF/pdf2011/16Sep/Abd_Allah%20et%20al.pdf

Aderhold, R., 1905. Impfversuche mit Thielavia basicola Zopf. Arbeiten aus der Biologischen Abteilung für Land- und Forstwirtschaft am Kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamte, 4:463-465.

Ahl, P., Voisard, C., Défago, G., 1986. Iron bound-siderophores, cyanic acid and antibiotics involved in supression of Thielaviopsis basicola by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain. Journal of Phytopathology, 116(2):121-134. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.1986.tb00903.x

Akmuradov, B., 1981. Rapid method of evaluating the resistance of Gossypium barbadense varieties to Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. Et Broome) Ferraris. Turkmenistan SSR Ylymlar Akademijasynyn Habarlary, Biologik Ylymlaryn, 3:62-65.

Allen, S.J., 1990. Thielaviopsis basicola, a new record on cotton in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 19(1):24-25. DOI: 10.1071/APP9900024

Anderson, T.R., 1984. Thielaviopsis root rot of soybean in Ontario and susceptibility of commercial cultivars to inoculation. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1):71-74.

Anderson, T.R., Patrick, Z.A., 1978. Mycophagous amoeboid organisms from soil that perforate spores of Thielaviopsis basi basicola and Cochliobolus sativus. Phytopathology, 68(11):1618-1626. DOI: 10.1094/Phyto-68-1618

Anderson, T.R., Welacky, T.W., 1988. Populations of Thielaviopsis basicola in burley tobacco field soils and the relationship between soil inoculum concentration and severity of disease on tobacco and soybean seedlings. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 10:246-251.

Arnold, G.R.W., 1986. Lista de hongos fitopatógenos de Cuba. Havana, Cuba: Editorial Científico-Técnica. 207 pp.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the plant health diagnostic services. Singapore: Plant Health Centre, Agri-food and Veterinary Authority.

Baard, S.W., Laubscher, C., 1985. Histopathology of blackhull incited by Thielaviopsis basicola in groundnuts. Phytophylactica, 17(2):85-88.

Baker, K.F., Davis, L.H., Thomas, H.E., 1953. Grafting failure of ornamentals induced by Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:526.

Bateman, D.F., 1961. The effect of soil moisture upon development of poinsettia root rots. Phytopathology, 51(7):445-451.

Bateman, D.F., 1962. Relation of soil pH to development of poinsettia root rots. Phytopathology, 52:559-566.

Bateman, D.F., 1963. Influence of host and nonhost plants upon populations of Thielaviopsis basicola in soil. Phytopathology, 53(10):1174-1177.

Bateman, D.F., Dimock, A.W., 1959. The influence of temperature on root rots of poinsettia caused by Thielaviopsis basicola, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum. Phytopathology, 49(10):641-647.

Bedlan, G., 1997. Thielaviopsis-rot intensified in carrots. (Thielaviopsis-Fäule verstärkt an Karotten). Pflanzenschutz (Wien), 13(2):6-7.

Berkeley, M.J., Broome, C.E., 1850. Notices of British fungi. Annual Magazine of Natural History (Series 2), 5:455-466.

Bhatti, M.A., Kraft, J.M., 1992a. Effects of inoculum density and temperature on root rot and wilt of chickpea. Plant Disease, 76(1):50-54. DOI: 10.1094/PD-76-0050

Bhatti, M.A., Kraft, J.M., 1992b. Reaction of selected chickpea lines to Fusarium and Thielaviopsis root rots. Plant Disease, 76(1):54-56. DOI: 10.1094/PD-76-0054

Blank, L.M., Leyendecker, P.J., Jr., Nakayama, R.M., 1953. Observation on black root rot symptoms on cotton seedlings at different soil temperatures. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:473-476.

Bodker, L., Leroul, N., Smedegaard-Petersen, V., 1993. The occurrence in Denmark of black root rot of pea caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Pathology, 42(5):820-823. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.1993.tb01572.x

Bogdan, C., Tihomir, M., 2000. Tobacco black root rot: Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Broome) Ferraris; Chala elegans Nag Raj & Kendr. (Crna trulež korijena duhana: Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Broome) Ferraris Chala elegans Nag Raj & Kendr). Glasnik Zaštite Bilja, 23(4):203-206.

Borges, R.C.F., Santos, M.D.M., Macedo, M.A., Martins, I., Nascimento, A.G., Boiteux, L.S., Fonseca, M.E.N., Mello, S.C.M., 2014. First report of a wilt disease of Tectona grandis caused by Thielaviopsis basicola in Brazil. New Disease Reports, 30:17. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030017

Bosshard, E., Heller, W., Ladner, J., Ruegg, J., Schwizer, T., Widmer, A., 2007. Decline of stone fruit trees in Switzerland. Acta Horticulturae, 734:363-365. http://www.actahort.org/

Bowden, R.L., Wiese, M.V., Crock, J.E., Auld, D.L., 1985. Root rot of chickpeas and lentils caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Disease, 69(12):1089-1091.

Burkholder, W., 1916. Some root diseases of the bean. Phytopathology, 6:104.

CAB International, 1979. Thielaviopsis basicola. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution maps of plant diseases, April (Edn. 3). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 218.

Candole, B.L., Rothrock, C.S., 1997. Characterization of the suppressiveness of hairy vetch-amended soils to Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytopathology, 87(2):197-202. DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO.1997.87.2.197

Canter-Visscher, T.W., Linden, A.J.O. de, 1972. Root and basal stem rot of grapevine caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Br.) Ferraris. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 15(1):184-185.

Cedeno, L., Fermin, G., Ruiz-Arellano, R., Carrero, C., Morales, N., Pino, H., Quintero, K., 2016. Black rot disease on yellow-colored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. (Podredumbre negra en yuca amarilla (Manihot esculenta Crantz) causada por Thielaviopsis basicola). Agronomía & Ambiente, 36(2). http://ri.agro.uba.ar/files/download/revista/agronomiayambiente/2016cedenoluis.pdf

Chittaranjan, S., Punja, Z.K., 1993. A semiselective medium and procedures for isolation and enumeration of Chalara elegans from organic soil. Plant Disease, 77(9):930-932. DOI: 10.1094/PD-77-0930

Chittenden, F.J., 1911. The sweet pea annual. 35-39.

Choi, O.H., Cho, J.Y., Kim, J.W., 2016. Black root rot caused by Thielaviopsis basicola on Korean ginseng seedlings grown for the fresh salad market. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 38(2):258-261. DOI: 10.1080/07060661.2016.1160956

Christou, T., 1962. Penetration and host-parasite relationships of Thielaviopsis basicola in the bean plant. Phytopathology, 52(3):194-198.

Cilliers, A., 2001. Resistance in new groundnut breeding lines to black pod rot caused by Chalara elegans. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 18(4):174-175.

Clayton, E.E., 1969. Studies of resistance to black root rot disease of tobacco. Tobacco Science, 13:30-37.

Clough, K.S., Patrick, Z.A., 1976. Biotic factors affecting the viability of chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk & Br.) Ferraris, in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8(6):465-472. DOI: 10.1016/0038-0717(76)90087-0

Copes, W.E., Hendrix, F.F., 1996. Chemical disinfestation of greenhouse growing surface materials contaminated with Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Disease, 80(8):885-886. DOI: 10.1094/PD-80-0885

Corbaz, R., 1985. Pathotypes and variations of pathogenicity in Chalara elegans Nag Raj & Kendrick (= Thielaviopsis basicola). (Pathotypes et variations du pouvoir pathogène chez Chalara elegans Nag Raj et Kendrick (= Thielaviopsis basicola)). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 113(4):289-299.

Dalbosco, M., El Tassa, S.O.M., Duarte, V., 2004. Ocurrence of black root, caused of Chalara elegans, in carrot rot in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. (Ocorrência de podridão negra, causada por Chalara elegans, em raízes de cenoura no Rio Grande do Sul). Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(3):336.

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Schippers, B., 1970. Survival of endoconidia of Thielaviopsis basicola in soil. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 76(3):206-211. DOI: 10.1007/BF01974332

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Shukla, P.K., Fatima, T., Kumari, N., 2021. First report of Berkeleyomyces basicola causing mango root rot and decline in India. Plant Disease, 105(4):1214.

Silva, G.S. da, Costa, D.L.M.M. de, 2013. Occurrence of black rot of carrots in the state of Maranhão. (Ocorrência da podridão negra da cenoura no estado do Maranhão). Summa Phytopathologica, 39(4):294. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-54052013000400013

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Tosi, L., Giovannetti, M., Zazzerini, A., Torre, G. della, 1988. Influence of mycorrhizal tobacco roots, incorporated into the soil, on the development of Thielaviopsis basicola. Journal of Phytopathology, 122(2):186-189. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.1988.tb01006.x

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Wang, F., Zhang, W., Yuan, X., Liu, D.W., 2019. First report of black root rot on Cucumis melo caused by Berkeleyomyces rouxiae in Heilongjiang Province of China. Plant Disease, 103(10):2675. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-11-18-2007-PDN

Wheeler, T.A., Hake, K.D., Dever, J.K., 2000. Survey of Meloidogyne incognita and Thielaviopsis basicola: their impact on cotton fruiting and producers' management choices in infested fields. Journal of Nematology, 32(4S): 576-583.

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Wu, K.J., Xie, X.T., Li, X.J., 1992. Study on the pathogen of root rot of pea in the central region of Gansu province. Gansu Nongye Daxue Xuebao, 27(3):225-231.

Wyk, M. van, Wingfield, B.D., Clegg. P.A., Wingfield, M.J., 2009. Ceratocystis larium sp. nov., a new species from Styrax benzoin wounds associated with incense harvesting in Indonesia. Persoonia, 22:75-82. DOI: 10.3767/003158509X439076

Yarwood, C.E., 1946. Isolation of Thielaviopsis basicola from soil by means of carrot disks. Mycologia, 38:346-348.

Yarwood, C.E., 1974. Habitats of Thielaviopsis in California. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(1):54-56.

Yarwood, C.E., 1981. The occurrence of Chalara elegans. Mycologia, 73(3):524-530. DOI: 10.2307/3759605

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Young, B.R., 1970. Root rot of passionfruit vine (Passiflora edulis Sims.) in the Auckland area. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 13:119-125.

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Zopf, W., 1891. Über die Wurzelbräune der Lupinen, eine neue Pilzkrankheit. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten, 1(2):72-76.

Distribution References

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Shukla P K, Tahseen Fatima, Nidhi Kumari, 2021. First report of Berkeleyomyces basicola causing mango root rot and decline in India. Plant Disease. 105 (4), 1214-1214. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-20-2133-PDN

Silva G S da, Costa D L M de M, 2013. Occurrence of black rot of carrots in the state of Maranhão. (Ocorrência da podridão negra da cenoura no estado do Maranhão.). Summa Phytopathologica. 39 (4), 294. DOI:10.1590/S0100-54052013000400013

Soylu S, Dervİs S, 2011. Determination of prevalence and incidence of fungal disease agents of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants growing in Amik plain of Turkey. Research on Crops. 12 (2), 588-592. http://www.cropresearch.org

Staffeldt E E, 1959. Thielaviopsis basicola, a part of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedling disease complex in New Mexico. Plant Disease Reporter. 506-08.

Tkach M T, Undated. Tobacco protection. (Zashchita tabaka.). Zashchita Rastenii. 34-36.

Tosi L, Giovannetti M, Zazzerini A, Torre G della, 1988. Influence of mycorrhizal tobacco roots, incorporated into the soil, on the development of Thielaviopsis basicola. Journal of Phytopathology. 122 (2), 186-189. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1988.tb01006.x

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Walker N R, Rothrock C S, Kirkpatrick T L, 1999. An important new pest interaction on cotton, Meloidogyne incognita and Thielaviopsis basicola. In: Special Report - Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station [Proceedings of the 1999 cotton research meeting.], Fayetteville, USA: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas. 91-96.

Wheeler TA, Hake KD, Dever JK, 2000. Survey of Meloidogyne incognita and Thielaviopsis basicola: their impact on cotton fruiting and producers’ management choices in infested fields. Journal of Nematology. 32 (4S), 576-583.

Wrather J A, Phipps B, Rothrock C S, 2002. Fungi associated with postemergence cotton seedling disease in Missouri. Plant Health Progress. 1-4. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/research/cottonseedling/

Wu K J, Xie X T, Li X J, 1992. Study on the pathogen of root rot of pea in the central region of Gansu province. Gansu Nongye Daxue Xuebao. 27 (3), 225-231.

Wyk M van, Wingfield B D, Clegg P A, Wingfield M J, 2009. Ceratocystis larium sp. nov., a new species from Styrax benzoin wounds associated with incense harvesting in Indonesia. Persoonia. 75-82. DOI:10.3767/003158509X439076

Yarwood C E, 1946. Isolation of Thielaviopsis basicola from soil by means of carrot disks. Mycologia. 346-348.

Yarwood C E, 1981. The occurrence of Chalara elegans. Mycologia. 73 (3), 524-530. DOI:10.2307/3759605

Yoshinari S, Tamami K, Mayama M, 2010. Annual Bulletin of the Research Institute of Human Life Science, 29-37.

Young B R, 1970. Root rot of passionfruit vine (Passiflora edulis Sims.) in the Auckland area. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 119-25.

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