Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Thecaphora solani
(potato smut)

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Datasheet

Thecaphora solani (potato smut)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thecaphora solani
  • Preferred Common Name
  • potato smut
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
  •         Class: Ustilaginomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. solani is a smut fungus attacking tubers and underground stems of Solanum, including potato [Solanum tuberosum] and tomato [Solanum lycopersicum], in the Andean region of South America. It is not restricted to the hi...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Spore balls from potato tuber. Original x200. Note scale bar.
TitleSpore balls
CaptionSpore balls from potato tuber. Original x200. Note scale bar.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Spore balls from potato tuber. Original x200. Note scale bar.
Spore ballsSpore balls from potato tuber. Original x200. Note scale bar. USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Spore balls from potato tuber. Original x400. Note scale bar.
TitleSpore balls
CaptionSpore balls from potato tuber. Original x400. Note scale bar.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Spore balls from potato tuber. Original x400. Note scale bar.
Spore ballsSpore balls from potato tuber. Original x400. Note scale bar. USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Spore balls in cross section of locule in potato tuber. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
TitleSpore balls
CaptionSpore balls in cross section of locule in potato tuber. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Spore balls in cross section of locule in potato tuber. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
Spore ballsSpore balls in cross section of locule in potato tuber. Original x1000. Note scale bar.USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Cross-section of smut locules in tuber of Solanum tuberosum susp. andigenum. Original x50.
TitleSmut locules
CaptionCross-section of smut locules in tuber of Solanum tuberosum susp. andigenum. Original x50.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Cross-section of smut locules in tuber of Solanum tuberosum susp. andigenum. Original x50.
Smut loculesCross-section of smut locules in tuber of Solanum tuberosum susp. andigenum. Original x50. USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thecaphora solani (Thirum & M.J. O'Brien) Mordue 1988

Preferred Common Name

  • potato smut

Other Scientific Names

  • Angiosorus solani Thirum & M.J. O'Brien

International Common Names

  • English: smut of potato; thecaphora smut
  • Spanish: carbón de la patata; el carbon de la papa; gangrena de la papa
  • French: charbon de la pomme de terre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kartoffel-Brand
  • Peru: la gangrena
  • Venezuela: buba

EPPO code

  • THPHSO (Thecaphora solani)

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. solani is a smut fungus attacking tubers and underground stems of Solanum, including potato [Solanum tuberosum] and tomato [Solanum lycopersicum], in the Andean region of South America. It is not restricted to the higher, cooler elevations, but has been a problem in coastal Peru (Bazan de Segura 1960; Zachmann and Baumann, 1975) and also occurs in Mexico. It may be transported in infected tubers and planting material and, very likely, on their surfaces if they become contaminated with the spores. The fungus survives in the soil and is difficult to eradicate; it can infect at least one common solanaceous weed. Losses of 80% or more have been reported in susceptible varieties. EPPO lists it as an A1 plant pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1979).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
  •                 Class: Ustilaginomycetes
  •                     Order: Urocystidiales
  •                         Family: Glomosporiaceae
  •                             Genus: Thecaphora
  •                                 Species: Thecaphora solani

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Barrus (1944) originally named the fungus, but because no Latin description was provided, the combination T. solani Barrus is invalid (Mordue, 1988). Regardless, O’Brien and Thirumalachar (1972) created a species for it in a new genus, Angiosorus, because the spores in spore balls were separable, rather than fused as in some Thecaphora spp. Duran (1987) considered this insufficient justification for a new genus. Mordue (1988) later transferred the species validly to Thecaphora, noting the range of spore ball types in that genus. Based on the high similarity of sequences of the LSU region of rDNA, Andrade et al. (2004) placed T. solani with other Thecaphora species.

Furthermore, the concept of the genus Thecaphora has been enlarged. Vánky and Lutz (2007) merged the smut genus Sorosporium with Thecaphora. The genera Kochmania and Glomosporium are also found to be synonyms of Thecaphora within the Glomosporiaceae (Vánky et al., 2008). Vánky (1999) placed Glomosporium (the type genus of the family) in the Ustilaginales, but the results of Andrade et al. (2004) and Vánky et al. (2008) put it in a clade with the Urocystales (Urocystidales).

Description

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Sori locular, 1-4 mm, in galls on stems, stolons and tubers. Sporiferous hyphae lining locules, producing spore balls to interior. Immature locules surrounded by brown corky tissue of potato [Solanum tuberosum].

Mature spore balls comprised of two to eight teliospores rarely one, cinnamon to rust-brown, 15-50 x 12-40 µm diameter. Spores pressed together, but can often be teased apart, globose to angular, smooth on contiguous side and densely verrucose on free side, 7.5-20 x 8-18 µm.

For additional information, see Barrus (1944), O’Brien and Thirumalachar (1972), Duran (1987), Mordue (1988), and Torres (2001).

Distribution

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T. solani is indigenous to the Andean region of South America, but also occurs in Mexico (UK CAB International, 1993; Andrade et al., 2004). Although it has been reported from Panama (McGuire and Crandall, 1967), its status in Central America is not clear (Piepenbring, 2001; 2006). It has not spread to any other part of the world.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Chile 1974 Yes Andrade et al. (2004); Fajardo (1975) present in several regions in 2002

Risk of Introduction

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T. solani belongs to the group of pathogens on South American potato [Solanum tuberosum], still confined to that continent, which present a high risk to commercial potato-growing areas around the world. The particular risk factors for T. solani are that it attacks tubers directly with immediate effect on yield and quality, that no potato disease resembling it occurs elsewhere in the world, and that it can readily contaminate tuber consignments in the form of latent infections or surface contamination by teliospores. It is soil-borne, therefore it would be virtually impossible to eradicate once established. On the other hand, its potential economic importance in intensive potato production is not clear nor is it certain under what climatic conditions it could establish and, therefore, which areas are the most threatened.

It has mostly been reported from the Andean region, for example, above 3000 m in Venezuela (O'Brien and Thirumulachar, 1972) or from the mountains in Peru (Abbott, 1932). However, Abbott (1932) also mentions its presence at sea level in Peru, and high losses occurred in some cultivars in coastal areas (Bazan de Segura, 1960; Zachmann and Baumann, 1975). Its establishment in countries producing seed potatoes would pose considerable problems for their export certification.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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The principal host is potato [Solanum tuberosum], but various other tuber-bearing species of Solanum are attacked, particularly Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum, as well as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), and the solanaceous weed, Datura stramonium (Mordue, 1988).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
    Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
      Solanum ajanhuiriSolanaceaeOther
        Solanum curtilobumSolanaceaeOther
          Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
            Solanum phurejaSolanaceaeOther
              Solanum stenotomumSolanaceaeOther
                Solanum stoloniferumSolanaceaeWild host
                  Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                    Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenumSolanaceaeOther
                      Solanum x chauchaSolanaceaeOther

                        Growth Stages

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                        Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

                        Symptoms

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                        No symptoms are visible above ground. Infected tubers are misshapen or have warty swellings on the surface, and are hard. The whole or only part of the tuber may be infected. Numerous brown-black specks, interspersed with lighter-brown specks, can be seen in the flesh. The specks (spore sori) are 1 to 4 (or more) mm diameter and are filled with rusty brown spore balls. Completely infected tubers later become dry brown powdery masses of numerous spores. Galls resembling deformed tubers develop on the stems or stolons underground, often encircling them. Roots are not infected. On tomato [Solanum lycopersicum], galls develop particularly at the junction of the stem and roots.

                        For more information, see Barrus and Muller (1943), O'Brien and Thirumalachar (1972), Mordue (1988) and Torres (2001).

                        List of Symptoms/Signs

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                        SignLife StagesType
                        Stems / galls
                        Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration

                        Biology and Ecology

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                        T. solani survives in soil or tuber debris (O'Brien and Thirumalachar, 1972) and the spores are thought to be long-lived. Torres (2001) stated that the fungus can persist for up to 7 years in gall fragments. Nothing is known of the infection process. It is thought that all underground stem organs, but not roots, can be infected, with each gall on a tuber or shoot corresponding to a separate infection. It is not clear whether there can be systemic infection. Disease incidence is increased in the absence of crop rotation and is favoured by high humidity and saline soils (Torres, 2001).

                        Essential basic investigation of the fungus was performed by Andrade et al. (2004). Isolates of the fungus were grown in pure culture at 18-20°C on ordinary laboratory media, including potato dextrose agar and malt-yeast-peptone agar, although the teliospores of some isolates did not grow and germination levels for those yielding successful cultures were less than 1%. Germination did not involve the production of basidia and basidiospores or growth of a yeast-like anamorph. Mycelium grew slowly and produced both teliospores and chlamydospore-like structures.

                        In Peru, spores did not germinate in water, soil extract, potato root extract, in the vicinity of growing roots, or on internal tissue of tubers of a susceptible variety (Zachmann and Baumann, 1975).

                        Associations

                        Zachmann and Baumann (1975) observed tubers infected with both the smut fungus and root-knot nematodes. Also, because spores did not germinate under various simple conditions, they suggested a possible requirement for interaction with nematodes.

                        Climate

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                        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                        A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually

                        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                        Accidental Introduction

                        The fungus has a very low natural dispersal potential. Field observations (Abbott, 1932) indicate that seed tubers transmit the disease. Since 1984, T. solani has been intercepted by the USDA over 125 times in tubers of Solanum tuberosum and Solanum stoloniferum, almost all from Mexico (JF Bischoff, USDA/APHIS/PPQ, personal communication, 2009). Soil from infected areas could also carry the fungus, therefore, agents that move soil, such as irrigation water and livestock (Torres, 2001), as well as tools and equipment, can spread it.

                        Pathway Causes

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                        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                        People sharing resourcesseed pieces/tubers Yes Zachmann and Baumann, 1975

                        Pathway Vectors

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                        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                        Livestockcarrying soil Yes Torres, 2001
                        Plants or parts of plantsinfected tubers/seed pieces Yes Yes Torres, 2001; Zachmann and Baumann, 1975
                        Soil, sand and gravelspores or spore masses Yes Abbott, 1932; Torres, 2001
                        Waterirrigation water Yes Torres, 2001

                        Plant Trade

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                        Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                        Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                        Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                        Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                        Bark
                        Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                        Fruits (inc. pods)
                        Growing medium accompanying plants
                        Leaves
                        Roots
                        Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                        True seeds (inc. grain)
                        Wood

                        Impact Summary

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                        CategoryImpact
                        Economic/livelihood Negative

                        Economic Impact

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                        T. solani is reported to cause serious disease (Bazan de Segura, 1960). Losses of up to 80% have been known in the very susceptible potato [Solanum tuberosum] cultivar, Peruanita (Abbott, 1932). The pathogen directly infects the tubers, reducing the quantity and quality of the yield. Gregory (1979) noted that potato smut used to be disregarded as 'a threat mainly to primitive cultivars grown at high altitudes', but it has also caused serious losses to potato at low altitudes in Peru. Little was published on the disease in the 20 years after Gregory’s observation (see citations in Torres, 2001), but spread of the fungus in Chile, where yield losses often exceeded 90%, stimulated the essential work of Andrade et al. (2004).

                        Risk and Impact Factors

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                        Invasiveness
                        • Invasive in its native range
                        • Proved invasive outside its native range
                        • Has high reproductive potential
                        • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
                        • Reproduces asexually
                        Impact outcomes
                        • Host damage
                        • Negatively impacts agriculture
                        • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                        Impact mechanisms
                        • Pathogenic
                        Likelihood of entry/control
                        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                        • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                        • Difficult/costly to control

                        Diagnosis

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                        Sequences of the ITS and LSU regions of rDNA of this species are available for comparison in GenBank (NCBI, 2009).

                        Detection and Inspection

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                        Although malformed tubers are conspicuous (see Symptoms) and the spore sori are distinctive, there is no reliable inspection method to detect spores of T. solani on healthy tubers. A quarantine period is necessary to ensure that tubers are free of the fungus.

                        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                        In South America, the smut fungus, Polysaccopsis hieronymi, on wild Solanum species, has similar sori, but the spore balls produced are black and consist of viable spores surrounded by sterile cells, as in Urocystis (O’Brien and Thirumalachar, 1972).

                        Root-knot nematodes also cause galling on potato tubers, the size of the galls varying with the cultivar (Santo, 2001). Nematode galls will lack the spore-filled locules, but tubers with mixed infections have been reported (Zachmann and Baumann, 1975).

                        Prevention and Control

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                        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                        Prevention

                        SPS Measures

                        As for other South American pathogens of potato [Solanum tuberosum], the recommended procedure for other parts of the world is post-entry quarantine of planting material, together with equivalent checks before export (OEPP/EPPO, 1979). Only material for scientific purposes should normally be imported from countries where the smut is known to occur.

                        Consignments from areas in which the disease occurs can carry infection at undetectable levels or spores on the surface of healthy tubers. Inspections cannot be fully reliable and there is no alternative to a quarantine period to ensure that tubers are free of the fungus.

                        Control

                        Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

                        Some control measures recommended by Torres (2001) include the planting of smut-free seed potatoes, long crop rotations, elimination of the weed, Datura stramonium, also reported as a host, and the removal of smutted material from fields after harvest.

                        Host Resistance

                        Susceptibility of potato cultivars to infection varies (Bazan de Segura, 1960; Zachmann and Baumann, 1975). Screening for resistance is actively carried out at CIP (Centro Internacional de la Papa or International Potato Centre) in Peru (Torres and Martin, 1986). The use of resistant cultivars is strongly recommended (Zachmann and Baumann, 1975; Torres, 2001).

                        Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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                        Not all of the possible means of T. solani persistence have been examined. Other weeds in the family Solanaceae may be hosts. The possibility of biological control by other soil organisms should be explored.

                        References

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                        Abbott EV, 1932. Diseases of cultivated plants in Peru. Estación Experimental Agricultural Molina (Peru) Circular, No. 18.

                        Andrade O; Muñoz G; Galdames R; Durán P; Honorato R, 2004. Characterization, in vitro culture, and molecular analysis of Thecaphora solani, the causal agent of potato smut. Phytopathology, 94(8):875-882. http://www.apsnet.org/phyto/

                        Barrus MF, 1944. A Thecaphora smut on potates. Phytopathology, 34:712-714.

                        Barrus MF; Muller AS, 1943. An Andean disease of potato tubers. Phytopathology, 33:1086-1089.

                        Bazan de Segura C, 1960. The gangrena disease of potato in Peru. Plant Disease Reporter, 44:257.

                        BPI (US National Fungus Collections), 2009. Fungal Databases - Specimens. Beltsville, USA: Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. www.nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/specimens/specimens.cfm

                        CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

                        Duran R, 1987. Ustilaginales of Mexico. Taxonomy, symptomatology, spore germination, and basidial cytology. Pullman, Washington, USA: Washington State University, 331 pp.

                        EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

                        Fajardo L, 1975. [English title not available]. (El carbon de la papa (Thecaphora solani Bar.), una nueva enfermedad fungosa para Chile.) In: Publicaciones Miscelaneas No. 10., Chile: Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Chile, unpaginated.

                        Farr Marie L; Stevenson JA, 1963. A supplementary list of Bolivian fungi. (Eine Ergänzungsliste bolivianischer Pilze.) Sydowia, 17(1-6):37-69.

                        Gregory RH, 1979. Movement of diseases between neighbouring states: some South American examples. In: Ebbels DL, King JE, eds. Plant Health. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 269-274.

                        Hooker WJ, ed. , 1981. Compendium of Potato Diseases. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 125 pp.

                        McGuire JU; Crandall BS, 1967. Survey of insect pests and plant diseases of selected food crops of Mexico, central America and Panama. USDA Int. agric. Development Service., 157 pp.

                        Mordue JEM, 1988. Thecaphora solani. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No. 97. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Sheet 966.

                        Mordue JEM, 1988. Thecaphora solani. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 966. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                        NCBI, 2009. Entrez cross-database search engine. Maryland, USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/gquery

                        O'Brien MJ; Thirumalachar MJ, 1972. The identity of the potato smut. Sydowia, 26(1/6):199-203

                        OEPP/EPPO, 1979. Data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 4 Angiosorus solani. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 9(2).

                        Piepenbring M, 2001. Smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes and Microbotryales, Basidiomycota) in Panama. Revista de Biología Tropical, 49(2):411-428.

                        Piepenbring M, 2002. Annotated checklist and key for smut fungi in Colombia. Caldasia, 24:103-119.

                        Piepenbring M, 2006. Checklist of fungi in Panama. Puente Biologico, 1:1-190. [Preliminary version.]

                        Santo GS, 2001. Root-knot nematodes. In: Compendium of Potato Diseases, Second edition [ed. by Stevenson, W. R.\Loria, R.\Franc, G. D.\Weingartner, D. P.]. Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 51-53.

                        Torres H, 2001. Thecaphora smut. In: Compendium of Potato Diseases. Second edition [ed. by Stevenson, W. R.\Loria, R.\Franc, G. D.\Weingartner, D. P.]. Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 43-44.

                        Torres H; Henfling J, 1984. Chemical control for potato smut (Thecaphora solani). Fitopatologia, 19(1):1-7

                        Torres H; Martin C, 1986. Field screening for resistance to potato smut in Peru. American Potato Journal, 63(10):559-562

                        UK CAB International, 1993. Thecaphora solani. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 3). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 214.

                        Vánky K, 1999. The new classificatory system for smut fungi, and two new genera. Mycotaxon, 70:35-49.

                        Vánky K; Lutz M, 2007. Revision of some Thecaphora species (Ustilaginomycotina) on Caryophyllaceae. Mycological Research, 111(10):1207-1219. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7XMR-4P2YX2J-6&_user=10&_coverDate=10%2F31%2F2007&_rdoc=7&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2329677%232007%23998889989%23674586%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=29677&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=12&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=9bc0da88d15fd577f03b532c54a73524

                        Vánky K; Lutz M; Bauer R, 2008. About the genus Thecaphora (Glomosporiaceae) and its new synonyms. Mycological Progress, 7(1):31-39. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u7n40116055480px/fulltext.html

                        Zachmann R; Baumann D, 1975. Thecaphora solani on potatoes in Peru: present distribution and varietal resistance. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(11):928-931

                        Distribution References

                        BARRUS M F , MÜLLER A S, 1943. An Andean disease of Potato tubers. Phytopathology. 33 (11), 1086-1089 pp.

                        Barrus M F, 1944. A Thecaphora smut on potatoes. Phytopathology. 712-714.

                        BPI (US National Fungus Collections), 2009. Fungal Databases - Specimens., Beltsville, USA: Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. http://www.nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/specimens/specimens.cfm

                        CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                        CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                        Duran R, 1987. Ustilaginales of Mexico. Taxonomy, symptomatology, spore germination, and basidial cytology. Pullman, Washington, USA: Washington State University. 331 pp.

                        EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                        Fajardo L, 1975. Potato sooty mould (Thecaphora solani Bar.), a new fungal disease for Chile. (El carbon de la papa (Thecaphora solani Bar.), una nueva enfermedad fungosa para Chile.). In: El carbon de la papa (Thecaphora solani Bar.), una nueva enfermedad fungosa para Chile. Chile: Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Chile. unpaginated.

                        Farr M L, Stevenson J A, 1963. A supplementary list of Bolivian fungi. (Eine Ergänzungsliste bolivianischer Pilze.). Sydowia. 17 (1-6), 37-69.

                        Mcguire J U, Crandall B S, 1967. Survey of insect pests and plant diseases of selected food crops of Mexico, central America and Panama. USDA Int. agric. Development Service. 157 pp.

                        O'Brien M J, Thirumalachar M J, 1972. The identity of the potato smut. Sydowia. 26 (1/6), 199-203.

                        Piepenbring M, 2002. Annotated checklist and key for smut fungi in Colombia. Caldasia. 103-119.

                        UK, CAB International, 1993. Thecaphora solani. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 214. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20046500214

                        Organizations

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                        Peru: Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP), Apartado 1558, Lima 12, http://www.cipotato.org

                        Contributors

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                        06/11/09 Updated by:

                        Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705, USA

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