Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Animals
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller)
Preferred Common Name
- pine processionary
Other Scientific Names
- Bombyx pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller
- Cnethocampa pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller
- Thaumatopoea pityocampa
International Common Names
- English: pine processionary caterpillar; pine processionary moth; stone-pine processionary caterpillar
- Spanish: procesionaria de los pinos; procesionaria del pino
- French: processionnaire du pin
Local Common Names
- Germany: Pinienprozessionsspinner; Prozessionsspinner, Pinien-
- Italy: processionaria dei pini
- THAUPI (Thaumetopoea pityocampa)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Larval feeding of the pine processionary moth weakens and disfigures pine trees. Semi-natural forests in the Mediterranean area of, for example, the native species P. halepensis or P. pinaster are affected, but not to the extent of damaging their biodiversity. T. pityocampa is most conspicuously damaging on pine plantations, or amenity pines. Such plantations are readily invaded, including those of Pinus spp. originating in other areas. On this basis, it could be said that T. pityocampa is not invasive in its native area, but has a clear potential to become so on other Pinus spp. in any area of Mediterranean climate.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Notodontidae
- Genus: Thaumetopoea
- Species: Thaumetopoea pityocampa
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page The species was described by Denis and Schiffermüller in 1775 in the genus Bombyx. In 1820, Hübner created the genus Thaumetopoea for all species now included in the family Thaumetopoeidae (raised to this category in 1990). Some authors have followed Stephens who, in 1928, included all species of Thaumetopoeidae in the genus Cnethocampa, which he placed in the family Notodontidae (Agenjo, 1941). The populations in eastern Mediterranean countries have been referred to Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams (Schwenke, 1978), and the differentiation is supported by molecular evidence (Salvato et al., 2002). However, this nomenclature has not yet been adopted here. Similarly, the form on cedar in Morocco has been called Thaumetopoea bonjeani (Powell) (El Yousfi, 1989).
DescriptionTop of page Eggs
The typical cylindrical egg masses range in length from 4 to 5 cm. They are covered with the scales of the female anal tuft, which mimics the pine shoots.
The larvae develop through five instars, recognized by differences in head capsule size. The average head width of the fifth-instar caterpillar is 4.8 mm for the male and 3.4 mm for the female. The full-grown caterpillar is about 40 mm in length. The head capsule is black. The body of the first-instar caterpillar is dull apple-green. After the second moult, the caterpillar assumes its definitive appearance and the reddish dorsal urticating hair patches on each body segment appear, arranged in pairs. The integument and hairs that clothe the body vary considerably with different provenances. In general, the integument is darker in colder areas and varies from dull bluish-grey to black. The pleural hairs vary from white to dark yellow; the dorsal hairs range from yellow to dull orange.
Pupation takes place in the soil in an oval, ochreous-white silken cocoon. The obtect pupae are about 20 mm in length, oval, and of a pale brownish-yellow colour that later changes to dark reddish-brown.
The female moth has a wingspan of 36-49 mm. The wingspan of the male is 31-39 mm. The antennae are filiform in females and pectinate in males. Both sexes have a hairy thorax. The abdomen is stout and its last segments are covered with a tuft of large scales; the abdomen of the male is brushy and sharp. The forewings are dull ashen-grey; the veins, margins and three transverse bands are darker. The hindwings are white, grey-fringed, with a characteristic dark spot in the anal region.
For further details, see also MAPA (1981).
DistributionTop of page
Records of T. pityocampa in Canada and the USA published in previous versions of the Compendium were based on a misinterpretation of a paper from Li et al. (2001) and are now considered invalid.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 26 Nov 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Algeria||Present||UK, CAB International (1977); Tsankov et al. (1995); Chenchouni et al. (2010); Sbabdji and Kadik (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Libya||Present||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Morocco||Present, Widespread||UK, CAB International (1977); Schmidt et al. (1997); EPPO (2020)|
|Tunisia||Present, Localized||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Israel||Present, Localized||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Halperin (1986); EPPO (2020)|
|Syria||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Turkey||Present, Localized||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Mol et al. (2002); Carus (2004); Kanat and Alma (2004); Mirchev et al. (2004); Kanat et al. (2005); Kanat and Özbolat (2006); Mirchev et al. (2007); İnce et al. (2008); Sevİm et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)|
|Albania||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Mirchev et al. (1999); EPPO (2020)|
|Austria||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Bulgaria||Present||UK, CAB International (1977); Tsankov (1990); Tsankov et al. (1996); Mirchev et al. (2011); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|Croatia||Present, Localized||EPPO (2020)|
|Cyprus||Present, Widespread||EPPO (2020)|
|France||Present, Localized||Yarrow (1939); UK, CAB International (1977); Battisti et al. (2005); Dulaurent et al. (2011); Robinet et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)|
|-Corsica||Present||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Germany||Absent, Formerly present||EPPO (2020)|
|Greece||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Bellin et al. (1990); Breuer and Devkota (1990); Devkota and Schmidt (1990); Schmidt (1990); Athanassiou et al. (2007); Mirchev et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)|
|-Crete||Present||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Hungary||Present, Few occurrences||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Italy||Present, Widespread||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Battisti et al. (2000); Shevelev et al. (2001); Triggiani and Tarasco (2002); Salvato et al. (2005); Stastny et al. (2006); Zovi et al. (2008); Hoch et al. (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|-Sardinia||Present||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|-Sicily||Present, Widespread||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|North Macedonia||Present||Tsankov et al. (2006)|
|Portugal||Present, Widespread||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Zhang QingHe and Paiva (1998); Schmidt et al. (1999); Way et al. (1999); Arnaldo and Torres (2006); EPPO (2020)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Slovenia||Present||Native||Jurc (2001); EPPO (2020)|
|Spain||Present, Widespread||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Cuevas et al. (1983); Schmidt et al. (1999); Hódar et al. (2002); Hódar et al. (2003); Hódar and Zamora (2004); Hódar et al. (2004); Cayuela et al. (2011); Hódar et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)|
|-Balearic Islands||Present, Localized||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Switzerland||Present, Widespread||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|United Kingdom||Absent, Formerly present||EPPO (2020)|
|-England||Absent, Formerly present||EPPO (2020)|
|Canada||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)||Li GuiMing et al. (2001)|
|United States||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)||Li GuiMing et al. (2001)|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
T. pityocampa is widespread in the Mediterranean region, but is missing from some smaller islands. Thus, it is present in Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Crete, and the larger Balearic Islands, but the European Union maintains a 'protected zone' for the island of Ibiza. There are no records for Malta. Its survival is limited by temperature but the trend of warmer winters has increased its northern range in France (by 87 km northwards between 1972 and 2004) and its altitude in northern Italy (by 110-230 m upwards between 1975 and 2004; Battisti et al., 2005).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
T. pityocampa is regulated by the European Union, in order to protect the island of Ibiza, Spain. Specific regulations also protect the Canary Islands. This pest is the subject of a risk mapping study assessing its likely spread further north in Europe (Baker et al., 2013). T. pityocampa is a recommended quarantine pest for southern Africa, and could be presumed to present a risk to any area of Mediterranean climate where Pinus species are present or planted (California, USA; Australia, etc.).
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page All species of Pinus and Cedrus native in the Mediterranean area are attacked, and occasionally also Larix decidua. Different species vary in susceptibility, partly because of physical factors such as needle morphology and dimensions, which determine suitability for oviposition (Demolin, 1969a). The host plant also influences larval development. Survival is greater on P. sylvestris and P. nigra than on P. pinaster and P. halepensis (Montoya, personal communication). In field trials in the Thessalonika area of northern Greece, larvae developed faster on the exotic P. radiata than on P. pinea (Avtzis, 1986). Such differences must not be assumed to apply outside the regions where they were observed. For example, P. pinaster is not much attacked in Corsica, southern France or Spain but suffers significant damage in Les Landes, France. Cedrus atlantica is undamaged in the Mont Ventoux area of France, but carries high population levels in North Africa (Geri, 1980). Various exotic conifer species have been attacked in the Mediterranean area.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Cedrus atlantica (Atlas cedar)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Larix decidua (common larch)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus canariensis (Canary pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus mugo (mountain pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus nigra (black pine)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus pinea (stone pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus radiata (radiata pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)||Pinaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page In infested pine forests, it is easy to detect the presence of T. pityocampa from the conspicuous silken nests. The cylindrical egg masses laid on the low branches of trees, and the early damage caused by the first- and second-instar caterpillars, is characteristic. They feed on the needles of twigs close to the silken nest; these partially eaten twigs remain on the tree with their brown and yellowing needles. During the winter, defoliation increases and the white nests stand out plainly.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Stems / dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page The life cycle of T. pityocampa is normally annual but may extend over 2 years at high altitude or in northern latitudes for part or the whole of the population. The life cycle has two phases, the adult, egg and caterpillar being aerial and the pupa hypogeal.
Development lasts 6 months under the most favourable conditions, but the fourth and fifth instars may be prolonged in the winter. The pupal stage can be prolonged considerably by diapause which adjusts, at a given location and within certain limits, to ensure constant adult emergence dates each year. Effects of altitude and latitude are discussed by Demolin (1969b), explaining the variation in behaviour at different sites.
Daily average sunshine plays an important role in defining the northern limit of distribution. Androic (1957) proposed the isohelia of 2000 h for the northern border; this is a good approximation but varies with other climatic factors. Adult emergence dates are earlier at northern latitudes and at higher altitudes. In general, the emergence period lasts less than 1 month for vigorous populations and 1.5 months for weakened populations in regression. In most ecological conditions, the adults fly in July.
A few hours after emergence and mating, the females oviposit on the nearest pines. They can, however, fly several kilometres, and quickly extend outbreaks over large areas. The eggs are laid in cylindrical masses in a helicoid arrangement around pairs of needles. A large proportion of the egg masses are generally laid on the peripheral shoots of the crown and contain 70-300 eggs, according to the feeding conditions of the caterpillars (Geri, 1980).
After 30-45 days, the young larvae bore an opening in the chorion that can be recognized easily. They aggregate in colonies and spin silken nests, which enlarge until the fourth instar when the definitive winter nest is built. In general, this is situated at the branch tips in the upper part of the crown. The caterpillars change colour at each moult and at the third instar urticating hair patches appear (Demolin, 1963). If the autumn is warm and sunny, the caterpillar can reach the fifth instar in early winter.
The pupation 'processions', which occur in late winter and early spring, are a spectacular expression of the social behaviour. The caterpillar at the head of the procession is commonly a future female, leading the colony in a file searching for a suitable site to tunnel underground and pupate in the soil. The processions occur at temperatures of 10-22°C; at lower temperatures the colonies regroup and at higher temperatures they bury themselves wherever soil texture allows. Consequently, the cooler the soil, the more extensive is the spread of pupation sites at forest edges. At higher temperatures, the procession moves towards trunk bases in the shade of trees and may even bury itself close to the base of the original tree (Demolin, 1969c). A colony was observed to travel 37 m in 2 days in a cold mountainous area of Spain, the first 35 m being covered during the first day (Robredo, 1963).
Pupation takes place at a depth of about 10 cm and the pupae enter diapause, which always breaks 1 month before adult emergence. Some pupae or the whole colony may not yield adults in the year of pupation, the diapause period extending until the following year or longer.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki||Pathogen||Larvae||Italy|
|Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis||Pathogen||Larvae|
|Eupelmus seculatus||Parasite||López-Sebastián et al., 2002|
|Ooencyrtus pityocampae||Parasite||Eggs||Yugoslavia; Italy||Pinopsida|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page The major parasitoids and predators of T. pityocampa are as follows (Biliotti, 1958; Biliotti et al., 1965; Cadahía et al., 1967; Demolin and Delmas, 1967; Demolin, 1969c; Du Merle, 1969).
On eggs: the parasitoids Tetrastichus servadei, Oencyrtus pityocampae, Trichogramma sp., Anastatus bifasciatus, and the predators Ephippiger ephippiger, Barbitiste fischeri.
On larvae: the parasitoids Phryxe caudata, Compsilura concinnata, Pales pavida, Erigorgus femorator, Meteorus versicolor and the predator Xantandrus comtus.
On pupae: the parasitoids Villa brunnea, V. quinquefasciata, Coelichneumon rudis.
The most important diseases (Vago, 1958; Atger, 1964) are caused by the viruses Borrelina sp. and Smithiavirus pityocampae, the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Clostridium sp., and the fungi (mainly on pupae) Aspergillus flavus, Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps sp., Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. fumoso-roseus and Scopulariopsis sp.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Females of T. pityocampa are able to fly some kilometres and the pupation processions may cover up to 37 m. Pupae may be transported with plants in attached growing medium which may be infested by buried insect pupae. Any plant cultivated near infested trees could harbour pupae.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Leaves||eggs; larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||eggs; larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
ImpactTop of page In the Mediterranean region, T. pityocampa is considered one of the most important forest pests (Cadahía et al., 1975). It is very common in pine forests. It also commonly occurs in the cedar forests of North Africa. Defoliation damage is extremely serious in young reforested areas where it may lead to death of trees, directly or as a consequence of attack by bark beetles or other wood-boring insects. In mature forests trees are rarely killed but significant losses occur in volume growth.
Calas (1897) estimated a 60% reduction in height growth of Pinus nigra trees. In young reforestations of Pinus radiata, Cadahía and Insua (1970), by controlling infestations on young trees, demonstrated losses of wood volume increment between 14 and 33% for light and high infestations, respectively. Bouchon and Toth (1971) showed by dendrochronological techniques that forests of P. nigra periodically subject to heavy attacks lost about 45% of their volume in 50 years. Lemoine (1977) found a reduction of 30% in circumference growth after an attack on Pinus pinaster in Les Landes, France. Defoliation of P. nigra on Mont Ventoux by T. pityocampa caused a missing growth ring the year after a severe attack, resulting in radial growth reductions of 35% (Laurent-Hervouet, 1986). In Corsica, radial growth losses on P. nigra were 20% for the 28 years studied, but the attacks only took place every other year.
Defoliation damage and the presence of caterpillars are important on amenity trees in recreational and residential areas, where defoliation may also cause severe deterioration and greater maintenance costs.
Environmental ImpactTop of page T. pityocampa is most conspicuously damaging on pine plantations, or amenity pines. Such plantations are readily invaded, including those of Pinus spp. originating in other areas. On this basis, it could be said that T. pityocampa is not invasive in its native area, but has a clear potential to become so on other Pinus spp. in any area of Mediterranean climate. It may also have the potential to be invasive as a result of climate change; for example, in France, Pinus nigra forests in the centre of the country have been more severely damaged by the pest in the recent series of warm years (Goussard et al., 1999), whereas in Italy Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo are now attacked in mountain areas (Benigni and Battisti, 1999).
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page Larval feeding weakens and disfigures pine trees. Semi-natural forests in the Mediterranean area of, for example, the native Pinus halepensis or P. pinaster are affected, but not to the extent of damaging their biodiversity. T. pityocampa could potentially affect the biodiversity of natural forests of native Pinus spp. in areas with a Mediterranean climate where the pest does not now occur.
In Spain, Pinus sylvestris persists naturally as an ice-age relict in small mountain forests. Their survival is threatened by T. pityocampa, which damages them especially in warmer years (Hodar et al., 2003).
Social ImpactTop of page The caterpillars have urticating hairs from the third instar onwards (Demolin, 1963), which may cause allergies resulting in conjunctivitis, respiratory congestions and asthma (Ziprkowski and Roland, 1966). Domestic and farm animals may also be affected. These effects occur not only when the caterpillars are present, but also during the following summer because of the persistence of allergenic hairs in the remains of winter nests. This problem not only affects recreational and residential areas but also hinders sylvicultural operations and grazing in forests (Marti Morera and Barri Baya, 1959).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Thaumetopoea is the only genus of its family (processionaries) in the Euro-Mediterranean area. Thaumetopoea pinivora is very similar, occurring on Pinus sylvestris in northern and central Europe, and is only occasionally damaging (Schwenke, 1978). The other widespread species, T. processionea, attacks oak.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Chemical Control
Chemical control treatments are mainly applied by ULV aerial spraying with rotary atomizers, with petroleum oil or vegetable oils as solvents. Dosages of active substances (diflubenzuron, cypermethrin, deltamethrin) are given by Robredo (1980) and Robredo and Obama (1987). All larval instars are susceptible to these treatments, but the fourth and fifth instars need the highest dosages. At this stage of development, during the winter months, the impact of pyrethroids on the beneficial insect fauna is minimized (Robredo and Obama, 1991).
In small areas or at low population density, mechanical control is also recommended, by cutting and burning of winter nests. Sex pheromone traps may be used, both for monitoring and for mass trapping (Cadahía et al., 1975; Montoya, 1984, 1988).
Numerous natural enemies occur naturally on T. pityocampa (see Notes of Natural Enemies) and regulate populations to a certain degree. They are not specifically used as biological control agents.
Bacillus thuringiensis can be used successfully as a 'microbial insecticide', under the same conditions as the substances mentioned under Chemical Control. Recently, entomopathogenic nematodes have been evaluated to control overwintering larvae (Triggiani et al., 2003), and the Argentine ant Linepithema humile has been found to be a very active predator of larvae (Way et al., 1999).
The measures used for 'protected zones' in the European Union are to require plants for planting of Pinus to be produced in nurseries, which should with their immediate vicinity be found free from the pest. Because the pest is conspicuous, such requirements are probably easier to implement than inspection of traded plants for eggs and larvae, or of accompanying soil for pupae, which would be a more direct approach.
ReferencesTop of page
Agenjo R, 1941. Monograph of the family Thaumetopoeidae. EOS, 17:69-130
Androic M, 1957. The pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa): a biological and ecological study. Glasmkza Sumski Pokuse, 13:351-359
Atger P, 1964. Rôle d'un enchaînement virus-bactérie dans le déclenchement d'épizootie chez Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Série D, 258:2430-2432
Baker RHA, Eyre D, Brunel S, 2013. Matching methods to produce maps for pest risk analysis to resources. NeoBiota [Advancing risk assessment models to address climate change, economics and uncertainty. IPRMW Sixth Annual Workshop, Tromsø, Norway, 23-26 July 2012.], No.18:25-40. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/4056/matching-methods-to-produce-maps-for-pest-risk-analysis-to-resources
Battisti A, Stastny M, Netherer S, Robinet C, Schopf A, Roques A, Larsson S, 2005. Expansion of geographic range in the pine processionary moth caused by increased winter temperatures. Ecological Applications, 15(6):2084-2096. http://www.esajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1890%2F04-1903
Biliotti E, 1958. Parasites et prédateurs de Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Entomophaga, 3:23-24
Biliotti E, Demolin G, Du Merle P, 1965. Parasitisme de la processionaire du pin par Villa quinquefasciata Wied. apud Meig. (Diptère, Bombyliidae). Importance du comportement de ponte du parasite. Annales des Epiphyties, 16:279-288
Bouchon J, Toth J, 1971. Etude préliminaire sur pertes de production des pinèdes soumis aux attaques de Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 28:323-340
Cadahía D, Demolin G, Biliotti E, 1967. M. versicolor var. decoloratus, a new parasite of T. pityocampa. Entomophaga, 12:355-361
Cadahía D, Insua A, 1970. Assessment of damage by Thaumetopoea pityocampa in areas reforested with Pinus radiata. Boletín del Servicio de Plagas Forestales, 26:159-171
Calas J, 1897. La processionaire du pin. Revue Eaux et Forêts 1897, 705-723
Demolin G, 1963. Les 'miroires' de la processionnaire du pin Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff. Revue de Zoologie Agricole Appliquée, Nos 11-12
Demolin G, 1969. Bioecology of the pine processionary, Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Incidence of climatic factors. Boletín del Servicio de Plagas Forestales, 23:1-13
Demolin G, 1969. Comportement des adultes de Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Dispersion spatiale, importance économique. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 26:81-102
Demolin G, 1969. Incidence de quelques facteurs agissant sur le comportement social des chenilles de Thaumetopoea pityocampa en procession de nymphose. Répercussion sur l'efficacité des parasites. Colloque de Pont-à-Mousson Novembre 1969
Demolin G, Delmas JC, 1967. Les Ephippigères, prédateurs occasionnels, mais importants de Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Entomophaga, 12:399-401
Du Merle P, 1969. Le complexe parasitaire hypogé de Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Boletín del Servicio de Plagas Forestales, 13:131-132
El Yousfi M, 1989. The cedar processionary moth, Thaumetopoea bonjeani (Powell). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 15:43-56
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Geri C, 1980. Dynamique des populations de la processionnaire du pin Thaumetopoea pityocampa dans l'île de Corse. PhD thesis. Université de Paris-Sud Centre d'Orsay
Goussard F, Saintonge FX, Geri C, Auger-Rozenberg MA, Pasquier-Barre F, Rousselet J, 1999. Increasing risk of damage by the pine processionary Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiff. in the Central Region following climatic change. Annales de la Socie^acute~te^acute~ Entomologique de France, 35(Supp.):341-343; 3 ref
Hodar JA, Castro J, Zamora R, 2003. Pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa as a new threat for relict Mediterranean Scots pine forests under climatic warming. Biological Conservation, 110:123-129
Jurc M, 2001. Harmful entomofauna (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera) on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) in Slovenia. In: Proceedings of the 5th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection, Catez ob Savi, Slovenia, 276-283
Laurent-Hervouet N, 1986. Measurement of radial growth losses in some Pinus species caused by two forest defoliators. Part 1: The pine processionary caterpillar in the Mediterranean region. Annales des Sciences Forestieres, 43(2):239-262
Lemoine B, 1977. Contribution to the measuring of production losses caused by the processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.) to maritime pine in the Landes of Gascony. Annales des Sciences Forestieres, 34(3):205-214
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