Invasive Species Compendium

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Thaumetopoea pityocampa
(pine processionary)

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Datasheet

Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thaumetopoea pityocampa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pine processionary
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Larval feeding of the pine processionary moth weakens and disfigures pine trees. Semi-natural forests in the Mediterranean area of, for example, the native species P. halepensis or P. pinaster are affected, but not to...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of mature larvae in tent on Turkish pine (Pinus brutia).
TitleLarval tent
CaptionThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of mature larvae in tent on Turkish pine (Pinus brutia).
Copyright©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of mature larvae in tent on Turkish pine (Pinus brutia).
Larval tentThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of mature larvae in tent on Turkish pine (Pinus brutia).©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of sixth-instar larvae. NB: Occurrence of this insect on Cupressus sempervirens is extremely unusual.
TitleLarval colony
CaptionThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of sixth-instar larvae. NB: Occurrence of this insect on Cupressus sempervirens is extremely unusual.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of sixth-instar larvae. NB: Occurrence of this insect on Cupressus sempervirens is extremely unusual.
Larval colonyThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of sixth-instar larvae. NB: Occurrence of this insect on Cupressus sempervirens is extremely unusual.©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); heavy defoliation and tent of mature larvae on Turkish pine (Pinus brutia).
TitleDefoliation
CaptionThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); heavy defoliation and tent of mature larvae on Turkish pine (Pinus brutia).
Copyright©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); heavy defoliation and tent of mature larvae on Turkish pine (Pinus brutia).
DefoliationThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); heavy defoliation and tent of mature larvae on Turkish pine (Pinus brutia).©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); tents of mature larvae.
TitleLarval tents
CaptionThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); tents of mature larvae.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); tents of mature larvae.
Larval tentsThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); tents of mature larvae.©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); heavy defoliation in a young Turkish pine (Pinus bruita) plantation, northern Cyprus.
TitleDefoliation
CaptionThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); heavy defoliation in a young Turkish pine (Pinus bruita) plantation, northern Cyprus.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); heavy defoliation in a young Turkish pine (Pinus bruita) plantation, northern Cyprus.
DefoliationThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); heavy defoliation in a young Turkish pine (Pinus bruita) plantation, northern Cyprus.©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of mature larvae on Turkish pine (Pinus bruita) preparing to migrate to a pupation site.
TitleMature larvae
CaptionThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of mature larvae on Turkish pine (Pinus bruita) preparing to migrate to a pupation site.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of mature larvae on Turkish pine (Pinus bruita) preparing to migrate to a pupation site.
Mature larvaeThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of mature larvae on Turkish pine (Pinus bruita) preparing to migrate to a pupation site.©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of sixth-instar larvae in a 'procession' toward a pupation site.
TitleLarval procession
CaptionThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of sixth-instar larvae in a 'procession' toward a pupation site.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of sixth-instar larvae in a 'procession' toward a pupation site.
Larval processionThaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary); colony of sixth-instar larvae in a 'procession' toward a pupation site.©William M. Ciesla

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller)

Preferred Common Name

  • pine processionary

Other Scientific Names

  • Bombyx pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Cnethocampa pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Thaumatopoea pityocampa

International Common Names

  • English: pine processionary caterpillar; pine processionary moth; stone-pine processionary caterpillar
  • Spanish: procesionaria de los pinos; procesionaria del pino
  • French: processionnaire du pin

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Pinienprozessionsspinner; Prozessionsspinner, Pinien-
  • Italy: processionaria dei pini

EPPO code

  • THAUPI (Thaumetopoea pityocampa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Larval feeding of the pine processionary moth weakens and disfigures pine trees. Semi-natural forests in the Mediterranean area of, for example, the native species P. halepensis or P. pinaster are affected, but not to the extent of damaging their biodiversity. T. pityocampa is most conspicuously damaging on pine plantations, or amenity pines. Such plantations are readily invaded, including those of Pinus spp. originating in other areas. On this basis, it could be said that T. pityocampa is not invasive in its native area, but has a clear potential to become so on other Pinus spp. in any area of Mediterranean climate.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Notodontidae
  •                             Genus: Thaumetopoea
  •                                 Species: Thaumetopoea pityocampa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The species was described by Denis and Schiffermüller in 1775 in the genus Bombyx. In 1820, Hübner created the genus Thaumetopoea for all species now included in the family Thaumetopoeidae (raised to this category in 1990). Some authors have followed Stephens who, in 1928, included all species of Thaumetopoeidae in the genus Cnethocampa, which he placed in the family Notodontidae (Agenjo, 1941). The populations in eastern Mediterranean countries have been referred to Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams (Schwenke, 1978), and the differentiation is supported by molecular evidence (Salvato et al., 2002). However, this nomenclature has not yet been adopted here. Similarly, the form on cedar in Morocco has been called Thaumetopoea bonjeani (Powell) (El Yousfi, 1989).

Description

Top of page Eggs

The typical cylindrical egg masses range in length from 4 to 5 cm. They are covered with the scales of the female anal tuft, which mimics the pine shoots.

Larva

The larvae develop through five instars, recognized by differences in head capsule size. The average head width of the fifth-instar caterpillar is 4.8 mm for the male and 3.4 mm for the female. The full-grown caterpillar is about 40 mm in length. The head capsule is black. The body of the first-instar caterpillar is dull apple-green. After the second moult, the caterpillar assumes its definitive appearance and the reddish dorsal urticating hair patches on each body segment appear, arranged in pairs. The integument and hairs that clothe the body vary considerably with different provenances. In general, the integument is darker in colder areas and varies from dull bluish-grey to black. The pleural hairs vary from white to dark yellow; the dorsal hairs range from yellow to dull orange.

Pupa

Pupation takes place in the soil in an oval, ochreous-white silken cocoon. The obtect pupae are about 20 mm in length, oval, and of a pale brownish-yellow colour that later changes to dark reddish-brown.

Adult

The female moth has a wingspan of 36-49 mm. The wingspan of the male is 31-39 mm. The antennae are filiform in females and pectinate in males. Both sexes have a hairy thorax. The abdomen is stout and its last segments are covered with a tuft of large scales; the abdomen of the male is brushy and sharp. The forewings are dull ashen-grey; the veins, margins and three transverse bands are darker. The hindwings are white, grey-fringed, with a characteristic dark spot in the anal region.

For further details, see also MAPA (1981).

Distribution

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Records of T. pityocampa in Canada and the USA published in previous versions of the Compendium were based on a misinterpretation of a paper from Li et al. (2001) and are now considered invalid.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IsraelRestricted distributionNativeCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentEPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentNativeCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyRestricted distributionNative****CIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoWidespreadCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaRestricted distributionCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaAbsent, invalid recordLi et al., 2001
USAAbsent, invalid recordLi et al., 2001

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
AustriaPresentNativeCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentCIE, 1977; Mirchev et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
CyprusWidespreadEPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionCIE, 1977; Battisti et al., 2005; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
GermanyAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
GreecePresentNativeCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
-CretePresentCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresent, few occurrences****CIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadNative****CIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyWidespreadCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
MacedoniaPresentTsankov et al., 2006
MontenegroPresentEPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadNativeCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentNativeJurc, 2001
SpainWidespreadNativeCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsRestricted distributionCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandWidespreadNative****CIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
UKAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCIE, 1977

History of Introduction and Spread

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T. pityocampa is widespread in the Mediterranean region, but is missing from some smaller islands. Thus, it is present in Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Crete, and the larger Balearic Islands, but the European Union maintains a 'protected zone' for the island of Ibiza. There are no records for Malta. Its survival is limited by temperature but the trend of warmer winters has increased its northern range in France (by 87 km northwards between 1972 and 2004) and its altitude in northern Italy (by 110-230 m upwards between 1975 and 2004; Battisti et al., 2005).

Risk of Introduction

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T. pityocampa is regulated by the European Union, in order to protect the island of Ibiza, Spain. Specific regulations also protect the Canary Islands. This pest is the subject of a risk mapping study assessing its likely spread further north in Europe (Baker et al., 2013). T. pityocampa is a recommended quarantine pest for southern Africa, and could be presumed to present a risk to any area of Mediterranean climate where Pinus species are present or planted (California, USA; Australia, etc.).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page All species of Pinus and Cedrus native in the Mediterranean area are attacked, and occasionally also Larix decidua. Different species vary in susceptibility, partly because of physical factors such as needle morphology and dimensions, which determine suitability for oviposition (Demolin, 1969a). The host plant also influences larval development. Survival is greater on P. sylvestris and P. nigra than on P. pinaster and P. halepensis (Montoya, personal communication). In field trials in the Thessalonika area of northern Greece, larvae developed faster on the exotic P. radiata than on P. pinea (Avtzis, 1986). Such differences must not be assumed to apply outside the regions where they were observed. For example, P. pinaster is not much attacked in Corsica, southern France or Spain but suffers significant damage in Les Landes, France. Cedrus atlantica is undamaged in the Mont Ventoux area of France, but carries high population levels in North Africa (Geri, 1980). Various exotic conifer species have been attacked in the Mediterranean area.

Host Animals

Top of page
Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Canis familiaris (dogs)
Homo sapiens

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page In infested pine forests, it is easy to detect the presence of T. pityocampa from the conspicuous silken nests. The cylindrical egg masses laid on the low branches of trees, and the early damage caused by the first- and second-instar caterpillars, is characteristic. They feed on the needles of twigs close to the silken nest; these partially eaten twigs remain on the tree with their brown and yellowing needles. During the winter, defoliation increases and the white nests stand out plainly.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The life cycle of T. pityocampa is normally annual but may extend over 2 years at high altitude or in northern latitudes for part or the whole of the population. The life cycle has two phases, the adult, egg and caterpillar being aerial and the pupa hypogeal.

Development lasts 6 months under the most favourable conditions, but the fourth and fifth instars may be prolonged in the winter. The pupal stage can be prolonged considerably by diapause which adjusts, at a given location and within certain limits, to ensure constant adult emergence dates each year. Effects of altitude and latitude are discussed by Demolin (1969b), explaining the variation in behaviour at different sites.

Daily average sunshine plays an important role in defining the northern limit of distribution. Androic (1957) proposed the isohelia of 2000 h for the northern border; this is a good approximation but varies with other climatic factors. Adult emergence dates are earlier at northern latitudes and at higher altitudes. In general, the emergence period lasts less than 1 month for vigorous populations and 1.5 months for weakened populations in regression. In most ecological conditions, the adults fly in July.

A few hours after emergence and mating, the females oviposit on the nearest pines. They can, however, fly several kilometres, and quickly extend outbreaks over large areas. The eggs are laid in cylindrical masses in a helicoid arrangement around pairs of needles. A large proportion of the egg masses are generally laid on the peripheral shoots of the crown and contain 70-300 eggs, according to the feeding conditions of the caterpillars (Geri, 1980).

After 30-45 days, the young larvae bore an opening in the chorion that can be recognized easily. They aggregate in colonies and spin silken nests, which enlarge until the fourth instar when the definitive winter nest is built. In general, this is situated at the branch tips in the upper part of the crown. The caterpillars change colour at each moult and at the third instar urticating hair patches appear (Demolin, 1963). If the autumn is warm and sunny, the caterpillar can reach the fifth instar in early winter.

The pupation 'processions', which occur in late winter and early spring, are a spectacular expression of the social behaviour. The caterpillar at the head of the procession is commonly a future female, leading the colony in a file searching for a suitable site to tunnel underground and pupate in the soil. The processions occur at temperatures of 10-22°C; at lower temperatures the colonies regroup and at higher temperatures they bury themselves wherever soil texture allows. Consequently, the cooler the soil, the more extensive is the spread of pupation sites at forest edges. At higher temperatures, the procession moves towards trunk bases in the shade of trees and may even bury itself close to the base of the original tree (Demolin, 1969c). A colony was observed to travel 37 m in 2 days in a cold mountainous area of Spain, the first 35 m being covered during the first day (Robredo, 1963).

Pupation takes place at a depth of about 10 cm and the pupae enter diapause, which always breaks 1 month before adult emergence. Some pupae or the whole colony may not yield adults in the year of pupation, the diapause period extending until the following year or longer.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anastatus japonicus Parasite Eggs Yugoslavia Pinopsida
Austrophorocera grandis Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae Albania Pinus
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae Italy
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Baryscapus servadeii Parasite Eggs
Baryscapus transversalis Parasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Pupae
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Coelichneumon rudis Parasite Pupae
Compsilura concinnata Parasite Larvae Yugoslavia Pinopsida
Conomorium patulum Parasite Yugoslavia Pinopsida
Conomorium pityocampae Parasite Pupae
Drassodes lapidosus Predator
Elyomys quercinus Predator
Erigorgus femorator Parasite Larvae
Eupelmus seculatus Parasite López-Sebastián et al., 2002
Exorista fasciata Parasite Larvae Yugoslavia Pinopsida
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae
Exorista segregata Parasite Larvae
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Larvae
Formica polyctena Predator
Formica rufa Predator
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Macroneura vesicularis Parasite
Megaselia propior Parasite Yugoslavia Pinopsida
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Ooencyrtus pityocampae Parasite Eggs Yugoslavia; Italy Pinopsida
Pales pavida Parasite Larvae
Parus major Predator
Phryxe caudata Parasite Larvae Yugoslavia Pinopsida
Phryxe vulgaris Parasite Larvae
Steropleurus ortegai Predator
Steropleurus perezi Predator
Trichogramma telengai Parasite Eggs Yugoslavia
Upupa epops Predator
Villa brunnea Parasite Pupae Yugoslavia Pinopsida
Villa morio Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The major parasitoids and predators of T. pityocampa are as follows (Biliotti, 1958; Biliotti et al., 1965; Cadahía et al., 1967; Demolin and Delmas, 1967; Demolin, 1969c; Du Merle, 1969).

On eggs: the parasitoids Tetrastichus servadei, Oencyrtus pityocampae, Trichogramma sp., Anastatus bifasciatus, and the predators Ephippiger ephippiger, Barbitiste fischeri.

On larvae: the parasitoids Phryxe caudata, Compsilura concinnata, Pales pavida, Erigorgus femorator, Meteorus versicolor and the predator Xantandrus comtus.

On pupae: the parasitoids Villa brunnea, V. quinquefasciata, Coelichneumon rudis.

The most important diseases (Vago, 1958; Atger, 1964) are caused by the viruses Borrelina sp. and Smithiavirus pityocampae, the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Clostridium sp., and the fungi (mainly on pupae) Aspergillus flavus, Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps sp., Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. fumoso-roseus and Scopulariopsis sp.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Females of T. pityocampa are able to fly some kilometres and the pupation processions may cover up to 37 m. Pupae may be transported with plants in attached growing medium which may be infested by buried insect pupae. Any plant cultivated near infested trees could harbour pupae.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact

Top of page In the Mediterranean region, T. pityocampa is considered one of the most important forest pests (Cadahía et al., 1975). It is very common in pine forests. It also commonly occurs in the cedar forests of North Africa. Defoliation damage is extremely serious in young reforested areas where it may lead to death of trees, directly or as a consequence of attack by bark beetles or other wood-boring insects. In mature forests trees are rarely killed but significant losses occur in volume growth.

Calas (1897) estimated a 60% reduction in height growth of Pinus nigra trees. In young reforestations of Pinus radiata, Cadahía and Insua (1970), by controlling infestations on young trees, demonstrated losses of wood volume increment between 14 and 33% for light and high infestations, respectively. Bouchon and Toth (1971) showed by dendrochronological techniques that forests of P. nigra periodically subject to heavy attacks lost about 45% of their volume in 50 years. Lemoine (1977) found a reduction of 30% in circumference growth after an attack on Pinus pinaster in Les Landes, France. Defoliation of P. nigra on Mont Ventoux by T. pityocampa caused a missing growth ring the year after a severe attack, resulting in radial growth reductions of 35% (Laurent-Hervouet, 1986). In Corsica, radial growth losses on P. nigra were 20% for the 28 years studied, but the attacks only took place every other year.

Defoliation damage and the presence of caterpillars are important on amenity trees in recreational and residential areas, where defoliation may also cause severe deterioration and greater maintenance costs.

Environmental Impact

Top of page T. pityocampa is most conspicuously damaging on pine plantations, or amenity pines. Such plantations are readily invaded, including those of Pinus spp. originating in other areas. On this basis, it could be said that T. pityocampa is not invasive in its native area, but has a clear potential to become so on other Pinus spp. in any area of Mediterranean climate. It may also have the potential to be invasive as a result of climate change; for example, in France, Pinus nigra forests in the centre of the country have been more severely damaged by the pest in the recent series of warm years (Goussard et al., 1999), whereas in Italy Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo are now attacked in mountain areas (Benigni and Battisti, 1999).

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page Larval feeding weakens and disfigures pine trees. Semi-natural forests in the Mediterranean area of, for example, the native Pinus halepensis or P. pinaster are affected, but not to the extent of damaging their biodiversity. T. pityocampa could potentially affect the biodiversity of natural forests of native Pinus spp. in areas with a Mediterranean climate where the pest does not now occur.

In Spain, Pinus sylvestris persists naturally as an ice-age relict in small mountain forests. Their survival is threatened by T. pityocampa, which damages them especially in warmer years (Hodar et al., 2003).

Social Impact

Top of page The caterpillars have urticating hairs from the third instar onwards (Demolin, 1963), which may cause allergies resulting in conjunctivitis, respiratory congestions and asthma (Ziprkowski and Roland, 1966). Domestic and farm animals may also be affected. These effects occur not only when the caterpillars are present, but also during the following summer because of the persistence of allergenic hairs in the remains of winter nests. This problem not only affects recreational and residential areas but also hinders sylvicultural operations and grazing in forests (Marti Morera and Barri Baya, 1959).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Thaumetopoea is the only genus of its family (processionaries) in the Euro-Mediterranean area. Thaumetopoea pinivora is very similar, occurring on Pinus sylvestris in northern and central Europe, and is only occasionally damaging (Schwenke, 1978). The other widespread species, T. processionea, attacks oak.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Chemical Control

Chemical control treatments are mainly applied by ULV aerial spraying with rotary atomizers, with petroleum oil or vegetable oils as solvents. Dosages of active substances (diflubenzuron, cypermethrin, deltamethrin) are given by Robredo (1980) and Robredo and Obama (1987). All larval instars are susceptible to these treatments, but the fourth and fifth instars need the highest dosages. At this stage of development, during the winter months, the impact of pyrethroids on the beneficial insect fauna is minimized (Robredo and Obama, 1991).

Cultural Control

In small areas or at low population density, mechanical control is also recommended, by cutting and burning of winter nests. Sex pheromone traps may be used, both for monitoring and for mass trapping (Cadahía et al., 1975; Montoya, 1984, 1988).

Biological Control

Numerous natural enemies occur naturally on T. pityocampa (see Notes of Natural Enemies) and regulate populations to a certain degree. They are not specifically used as biological control agents.

Bacillus thuringiensis can be used successfully as a 'microbial insecticide', under the same conditions as the substances mentioned under Chemical Control. Recently, entomopathogenic nematodes have been evaluated to control overwintering larvae (Triggiani et al., 2003), and the Argentine ant Linepithema humile has been found to be a very active predator of larvae (Way et al., 1999).

Phytosanitary Measures

The measures used for 'protected zones' in the European Union are to require plants for planting of Pinus to be produced in nurseries, which should with their immediate vicinity be found free from the pest. Because the pest is conspicuous, such requirements are probably easier to implement than inspection of traded plants for eggs and larvae, or of accompanying soil for pupae, which would be a more direct approach.

References

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Agenjo R, 1941. Monograph of the family Thaumetopoeidae. EOS, 17:69-130.

Androic M, 1957. The pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa): a biological and ecological study. Glasmkza Sumski Pokuse, 13:351-359.

Atger P, 1964. Rôle d'un enchaînement virus-bactérie dans le déclenchement d'épizootie chez Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Série D, 258:2430-2432.

Avtzis N, 1986. Development of Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in relation to food consumption. Forest Ecology and Management, 15(1):65-68

Baker RHA; Eyre D; Brunel S, 2013. Matching methods to produce maps for pest risk analysis to resources. NeoBiota [Advancing risk assessment models to address climate change, economics and uncertainty. IPRMW Sixth Annual Workshop, Tromsø, Norway, 23-26 July 2012.], No.18:25-40. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/4056/matching-methods-to-produce-maps-for-pest-risk-analysis-to-resources

Battisti A; Stastny M; Netherer S; Robinet C; Schopf A; Roques A; Larsson S, 2005. Expansion of geographic range in the pine processionary moth caused by increased winter temperatures. Ecological Applications, 15(6):2084-2096. http://www.esajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1890%2F04-1903

Benigni M; Battisti A, 1999. Climate change and the pine processionary caterpillar: adaptation of a defoliator to changing environmental conditions. Italia Forestale e Montana, 54(2):76-86; 16 ref.

Biliotti E, 1958. Parasites et prédateurs de Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Entomophaga, 3:23-24.

Biliotti E; Demolin G; Du Merle P, 1965. Parasitisme de la processionaire du pin par Villa quinquefasciata Wied. apud Meig. (Diptère, Bombyliidae). Importance du comportement de ponte du parasite. Annales des Epiphyties, 16:279-288.

Bouchon J; Toth J, 1971. Etude préliminaire sur pertes de production des pinèdes soumis aux attaques de Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 28:323-340.

CABI/EPPO, 1977. Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A, No. 366. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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