Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Amphitetranychus viennensis
(hawthorn (spider) mite)



Amphitetranychus viennensis (hawthorn (spider) mite)


  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Amphitetranychus viennensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hawthorn (spider) mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Nymph (A) and adult female (B)
TitleAdult and nymph
CaptionNymph (A) and adult female (B)
CopyrightChyi-Chen Ho
Nymph (A) and adult female (B)
Adult and nymphNymph (A) and adult female (B)Chyi-Chen Ho
 Female above.
TitleMating pair
Caption Female above.
CopyrightChyi-Chen Ho
 Female above.
Mating pair Female above.Chyi-Chen Ho


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher)

Preferred Common Name

  • hawthorn (spider) mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Amphitetranychus crataegi (Hirst)
  • Apotetranychus longipenis Ugarov and Nikolskii
  • Apotetranychus virginis Ugarov
  • Epitetranychus viennensis Zacher
  • Tetranychus crataegi Hirst
  • Tetranychus viennensis Zacher

International Common Names

  • English: sweet cherry spider mite
  • French: tetranyque du cerisier
  • Chinese: shan-za-yeh-maan

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: fruit tree spider mite
  • Denmark: tjornespindemide
  • Germany: Spinnmilbe, Weissdorn-
  • Japan: ooto-hadani
  • Romania: fruit tree spider mite
  • Sweden: hagtornsspinnkvalster
  • Turkey: buckthorn red spider mite
  • Ukraine: crataegus mite; Viennese spider mite
  • USA: fruit tree spider mite

EPPO code

  • TETRVI (Tetranychus viennensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Tetranychidae
  •                                     Genus: Amphitetranychus
  •                                         Species: Amphitetranychus viennensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AzerbaijanPresentParkhomenko and, 1979
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentZhang et al., 1993
-FujianPresentDing XueWen, 2006
-GansuPresentZhang et al., 1988
-HenanPresentMao and Liu, 1995
-JiangsuPresentZhang et al., 1988
-JilinPresentSun and Meng, 2002
-LiaoningPresentZhang et al., 1982
-NingxiaPresentZhang et al., 1988
-ShandongPresentSun et al., 1992
-ShanxiPresentLiu et al., 2004
-XinjiangPresentZhang et al., 1988
Georgia (Republic of)PresentLobzhanidze and Ordzhonikidze, 1978
IranPresentSepasgozarian and Schruft, 1975
JapanPresentNomura, 1971; Gotoh and Takayama, 1992
-HokkaidoPresentGotoh and Takayama, 1992
-HonshuWidespreadGotoh and Takayama, 1992
Korea, DPRPresentChoi et al., 1997
PakistanPresentMohyuddin, 1992
TaiwanPresentTseng, 1978
TurkeyPresentTuzun and Gurses, 1972
UzbekistanPresentUgarov and Nikolskii, 1937


AustriaPresentJeppson et al., 1975
BulgariaPresentChakrov, 1970
GermanyPresentJeppson et al., 1975
HungaryPresentBozai, 1976
LithuaniaPresentLabokas, 2002
MoldovaPresentMuntyan et al., 2009
PolandPresentKorcz, 1971; Skorupska, 1976
RomaniaPresentIacob et al., 1972
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentRazumova, 1995
-Russian Far EastPresentEsaulov & Roslavtseve, 1983; Akimov and Kolodochka, 1981
SlovakiaPresentBolland, 2001
SpainPresentFerragut and Santonja, 1989
SwedenPresentNordlander, 1977
UKPresentJeppson et al., 1975
UkrainePresentChepurnaya and Myalova, 1981

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / premature drop
Fruit / reduced size
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius orientalis Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Atractotomus mali Predator Adults/Nymphs
Deraeocoris lutescens Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkey apples
Deraeocoris pallens Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkey apples
Kampimodromus aberrans Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Malacocoris chlorizans Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Gansu; Xinjiang apples
Neoseiulella tiliarum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus fallacis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius horvathi Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkey apples
Orius laticollis Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkey apples
Orius minutus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs Turkey apples
Seiulus finlandicus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Stethorus gilvifrons Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkey apples
Stethorus punctillum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus sternlichti Predator Adults/Nymphs
Zetzellia mali Predator Adults/Nymphs

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) adults Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves adults Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Akimov IA; Kolodochka LA, 1981. Amblyseius longispinosus (Evans) (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) - a potential predatory mite for use in biological control. Vestnik Zoologii, No. 5:78-81

Alekseeva SA, 1992. Nurelle D against apple tree pests. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 3:18

Anon., 1977. An examination of the resistance of Tetranychus viennensis Zacher to organophosphate insecticides. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 20:33-38 (in Chinese).

Bolland HR, 2001. Mites (Acari: Tetranychidae and Phytoseiidae) from the Tatra mountains in Slovakia, with special remarks on Tetranycopsis hystriciformis Reck. International Journal of Acarology, 27(3):225-227.

Bozai J, 1976. Detecting larval emergence of spider mites in orchards for timing control measures. XXIIIrd Plant Protection Conference: Forecasting in Plant Protection, Budapest, March 30-31, 1976.: XXIII. Novenyvedelmi Tudomanyos Ertekezlet:Novenyvedelmi Elorejelzes, Budapest, Marcius 30-31, 1976. Budapest. Hungary, 241-244

Bulgak VD, 1979. Harmfulness of spider mites on apple in the Crimea. In: Novozhilov KV, ed. Proceedings of the All-Union Research Institute for Plant Protection. Injuriousness of insect pests and diseases of agricultural crops All-Union Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences Leningrad USSR, 80-86

Cai NH; Qin YC; Hu DX, 1992. Evaluations of the damage of two spider mite species to apple tree. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 19(2):165-170

Cao ZG; Zhang YH; Liu W; Wang ZL, 1990. Study on insecticide resistance of Tetranychus viennensis (Zacher) and Panonychus ulmi (Koch). Insect Knowledge, 27(6):346-349

Chakrov K, 1970. Studies of the winter eggs of fruit-tree mites in the Kamchiiski fruit-growing area. Rastitelna Zashchita, 18:23-25 (in Bulgarian).

Chen YG; Wang CH; Wei HX; Zhu Q; Du ZH; Huang LL, 1986. A preliminary study on control of Tetranychus viennensis Zacker with Metasiulus occidentalis Nesbitt. Insect Knowledge, 23(6):268-269

Chepurnaya VI, 1994. Formulations against pests of peach trees. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 5:14.

Chepurnaya VI; Myalova LA, 1981. Pests and diseases of cherry. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 7:53-55.

China; Spider Mites Research Group; Hopei Institute of Pomology, 1977. An examination of the resistance of Tetranychus viennensis Zacher to organophosphate insecticides. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 20(1):33-38

Choi KH; Kwon YJ; Lee SW; Ryu OH, 1997. The ecology of Tetranychus viennensis Zacher and its chemical control effects. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 36(1):111-117; 30 ref.

Ding XueWen, 2006. The occurrence of two-spotted spider mite on plum trees and its control. China Fruits, No.1:40-41.

Ehara S; Gotoh T, 1990. A new Tetranychus closely related to T. viennensis Zacher (Acari: Tetranychidae). International Journal of Acarology, 16(2):55-58

Erol T; Yasar B, 1996. Studies on determination of harmful and beneficial fauna in the apple orchards in Van province. Tu^umlaut~rkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 20(4):281-293; 20 ref.

Esaulov AG; Roslavtseva SA, 1983. Protection of apple trees from codling moth and hawthorn mite in the south Krasnodar region. Khimiya V Sel'Skom Khozyaistve, 21:36-38 (in Russian).

Ferragut F; Santonja MC, 1989. Taxonomy and distribution of mites of the genus Tetranychus Dufour 1832 (Acari: Tetranychidae), in Spain. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 15(3):271-281

Galetenko SM, 1978. Resistance of tetranychid mites. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 12:21

Galetenko SM; Opanasenko GS, 1971. Chemical control systems for Tetranychus viennensis in fruit orchards of the Crimea. Khimiya V Sel'Skom Khozyaistve, 9(5):26-28 (in Russian).

Gotoh T; Takayama K, 1992. Developmental characteristics, genetic compatibility and esterase zymograms in three strains of the hawthorn spider mite, Tetranychus viennensis Zacher (Acari:Tetranychidae). Journal of the Acarological Society of Japan, 1:45-60.

Iacob N; Balutescu I; Novac N; Vasile I, 1972. Studies on the chemical control of injurious mites in fruit orchards. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 10:415-433

Iren Z; Okul A; Pekyer S, 1972. Treatments against Tetranychus viennensis Zach. with Omite 30W, Fundal 600 SP., Acrex EC30 and Plictran 25W. Tarim Bakanligi Zirai Mucadele ve Zirai Karantina Genel Mudurlugu Arastirma Subesi. Plant Protection Research Annual. Zirai Mucadele Arastirma Yilligi, Ankara, Turkey, 35.

Jeppson LR; Keifer HH; Baker EW, 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press.

Kennedy GG; Smitley DR, 1985. Dispersal. In: Helle W, Sabelis MW, eds. Spider mites, their biology, natural enemies and control. vol. 1A. Amsterdam, The Netherland: Elsevier, 233-242.

Kiroglu H, 1976. Integrated control of fruit tree pests. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 4:265-269

Korcz A, 1971. Predacious bugs of the order Heteroptera in orchards and their role in the control of mites (Tetranychidae Donn.). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin Warszawa, 12:3-77 (in Polish).

Labokas J, 2002. Properties of common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) populations. Biologija, No.1:59-61.

Li DL; Zhang CT; Xu GL, 1998. A study on the population dynamics and damage of red spider mite (Tetranychus viennensis). Forest Research, 11:335-338 (in Chinese).

Liu CZ; He CG, 1991. Determination of the population intrinsic increase capacity of Tetranychus viennensis (Zacher). Gansu Nongye Daxue Xuebao, 26(2):184-188

Liu JinXiang; Hu MeiYing; Han JuCai; Liu HuiPing; Zhong GuoHua, 2004. Resistance of Tetranychus viennensis Zacher to acaricides and synergistic effect of pesticide combinations. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 31(2):199-204.

Liu QZ, 1994. A study on the spatial patterns and spatial dynamics of the hawthorn spider mite. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica, 9(1):108-113

Lobzhanidze TD, 1980. The development of resistance to organophosphorus insecto-acaricides in the hawthorn spider mite in the conditions of eastern Georgia and chemical measures for its control. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, 98(3):705-708

Lobzhanidze TD; Ordzhonikidze EK, 1978. The effect of some new acaricides on the hawthorn mite (Tetranychus viennensis Zach.). Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, 90(1):177-180

Loladse S, 1989. Red spiders in orchards in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) and possibilities of control. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 43(10):198-200

Mamaladze LP, 1978. The results of tests of some acaricides on the hawthorn mite in plum plantings. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, 90(1):185-188

Mao WF; Liu CX, 1995. Effects of apple leaves and amino acid contents on a population of the hawthorn spider mite. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University. 14(2): 138-143.

Matvievskii AS; Khomenko II; Loshitskii VP, 1976. Integrated orchard control. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 6:24-25

Mohyuddin AI, 1992. Interim report on the research programme to develop integrated pest management of fruit and vegetable pests in the Malakand division and transfer the technology to farmers. Swat, Pakistan: Malakand Fruit & Vegetable Development Project, 50 pp.

Muntyan EM; Sumenkova EI; Iordosopol EI; Batko MG; Yazlovetskii IG, 2009. Susceptibility of herbivorous mites to insecto-acaricides. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.8:41-42.

Navajas M; Gutierrez J; Gotoh T, 1997. Convergence of molecular and morphological data reveals phylogenetic information on Tetranychus species and allows the restoration of the genus Amphitetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(3):283-288; 14 ref.

Nomura K, 1971. Acaricide resistance in orchard mites. Japan Pesticide Information, 6:31-34.

Nordlander G, 1977. Observations on the insect fauna in apple trees in connection with tests on insecticides for integrated control. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 41(2):39-48.

Parkhomenko AA, 1979. Resistance of the hawthorn spider mite to organophosphorus acaricides in apple orchards of Azerbaijan. In: Zil'bermints IV, Smirnova AA, Matov GN, ed. Ustoichivost' vreditelei k khimicheskim sredstvam zashchity rastenii "Kolos". Moscow USSR, 27-32

Qin YC; Cai NH; Hu DX; Huang KX, 1990. Study on the mixed damage of sweet cherry spider mite and European red mite to apple leaf and fruit. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 17(4):349-353

Razumova AP, 1995. Annual rhythms in geographical populations of the hawthorn mite Tetranychus crataegi Hirst (Acarina, Tetranychidae). E^dot over~ntomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 74(1):227-233; 5 ref.

Reck GF, 1956. Novyje vidy tetranichovych klescej iz vostocnoj Gruzii. Nauk Gruz. SSR: Trudy Inst. Zool. Akad., 15:5-28 (in Russian).

Sepasgozarian H; Schruft G, 1975. The spider mite Tetranychus viennensis Zacher (Acari; Tetranychidae), a new fruit-tree pest in Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 2(2):Pe 65-75 ; de 59-60

Skorupska A, 1976. The occurrence of mites (Tetranychidae) in apple orchards in Greater Poland. Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 18(2):183-196

Skorupska A, 1996. A comparison of food preference of the hawthorn spider mite (Tetranychus viennensis Zacher) and two-spotted mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on new scab-resistant apple varieties. Annaly Sel'Skokhozyaistvennykh Nauk Seriya e Zashchita Rastenii, 25:83-90.

Skorupska A, 1998. Morphologico-anatomical structure of leaves and demographic parameters of the hawthorn spider mite, Tetranychus viennensis Zacher and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acarina, Tetranychidae) on selected scab-resistant apple varieties. Journal of Applied Entomology, 122(8):493-496; 18 ref.

Skorupska A; Boczek J, 1984. Host-plant acceptance and preference of hawthorn spider mite (Tetranychus viennensis Zacher). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 26(1):147-165

Skorupska A; Boczek J, 1985. Effect of the host plants change on the reproduction of hawthorn spider mite (Tetranychus viennensis Zacher). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 27(1):5-22

Skorupska A; Tomczyk A, 1988. Effect of hawthorn spider mite (Tetranychus viennensis Zacher) feeding on some physiological processes in apple-tree seedlings. Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 29(2):47-57

Sun QingTian; Meng ZhaoJun, 2002. Investigation of the fruit mites in Jilin province. China Fruits, No.2:45-46.

Sun SQ; Yang SH; Guo QH; Chen H, 1992. Experiment on the effect of four acaricides. Journal of Fruit Science. 9(1): 23-25.

Sun XG, 1992. Observations on the ontogenesis of five species of spider mites. Entomological Knowledge, 29(5):277-278; 4 ref.

Tseng YH, 1978. A new record tetranychid, Tetranychus (Armenychus) viennensis from Taiwan (Acarina: Prostigmata). Taiwan Agric. Quar. 14:50-53.

Tunc I, 1990. Predaceous Thysanoptera and their habitats in Antalya. Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Biological Control Izmir, Turkey; Ege Universitesi, 181-187

Tuzun S; Gurses A, 1972. Tests of a treatment against Tetranychus viennensis Zacher, a pest of peach in the Marmara region. Tarim Bakanligi Zirai Mucadele ve Zirai Karantina Genel Mudurlugu Arastirma Subesi, Plant Protection Research Annual, Zirai Mucadele Arastirma Yilligi. Ankara, Turkey, 39.

Ugarov AA; Nikolskii VV, 1937. 'K sistematike stedneazyatakogs pautinnovo kleshchika. In: Khlopchatnika VZ, ed. Trudy Sredneaziatskoi Stantsii Zashchaty Rastennii, 26-64 (in Russian).

Wang HF, 1981. Some predatory species of Stigmpidae from Chinese orchards. Insect Knowledge (Kunchong Zhishi), 18(2):81-82, 95

Wu WN; Liang LR; Lan WM, 1997. Economic insect fauna of China. Fasc 53. Acari, Phytoseiidae. Beijing, China: Science Press.

Yigit A; Uygun N, 1982. Investigations on the population dynamics of hawthorn mite, Tetranychus viennensis Zacher (Acarina: Tetranychidae) and its predators in apple orchards. Cukurova Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Yilligi, 13(2):64-69

Zhang CR; Feng SC; Shi GY; Li Y, 1982. A preliminary report on Orius minutus L. -- an important predator of injurious mites in apple orchards. Kunchong Zhishi, 19(4):13-15

Zhang NX; Deng X; Chen JF, 1986. Introduction and application of Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. Plant Protection, 12(2):17-18

Zhang NX; Deng X; Chen JF; Cao ZL; Ren HL; Jia XF, 1987. Biological control of apple spider mites by Metaseiulus occidentalis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 3(3):97-101

Zhang NX; Deng X; Chen JF; Chen YG; Cao ZL; Ren HL; Jia XF, 1988. Preliminary study on the geographic adaptability of Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 15(2):105-109

Zhang NX; Kong JA, 1986. Studies on the feeding habit of Amblyseius fallacis. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 2(1):10-13

Zhang QG; Li GT; Xu L, 1993. Spatial pattern of hawthorn spider mite population and its application. I. Three-dimensional spatial pattern of adult mites in apple trees. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 4(4):399-403

Zhang SY, 1990. Research on the biology and foods of Amblyseius orientalis. Natural Enemies of Insects, 12(1):21-24

Zhang SY; Cao XW; Han ZQ, 1992. Study of the effects of Amblyseius orientalis for controlling two spider mites Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus viennensis in apple orchards. Natural Enemies of Insects, 14(1):21-24; 6 ref.

Distribution Maps

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