Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Tetranychus truncatus

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Datasheet

Tetranychus truncatus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tetranychus truncatus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
T. truncatus adults ca 500 µm long.
TitleAdult male
CaptionT. truncatus adults ca 500 µm long.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
T. truncatus adults ca 500 µm long.
Adult maleT. truncatus adults ca 500 µm long.©Natural History Museum, London

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tetranychus truncatus Ehara

EPPO code

  • TETRTC (Tetranychus truncatus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Tetranychidae
  •                                     Genus: Tetranychus
  •                                         Species: Tetranychus truncatus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 18 Dec 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Oceania

GuamPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius largoensis Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs
Amblyseius pseudolongispinosus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Arthrocnodax occidentalis Predator
Euseius ovalis Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs
Neoseiulus longispinosus Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs
Oligota oviformis Predator
Stethorus hirashimai Predator
Stethorus loi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Stethorus punctillum Predator

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Aung Myo Win, Htar Htar Naing, Ah Nge Htwe, Ei Han Kyaw, Thi Tar Oo, 2018. Biology of the cassava mite, Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(1), 44-48.

Baker, E. W., 1975. Plant-feeding mites of Thailand (Tetranychidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tuckerellidae). In: Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin , (No.35) . 43pp.

CABI, EPPO, 1998. Tetranychus truncatus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests , (December) Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Map 587.

Cao Y, Liu ML, Wang MN, 1993. Evaluation on the resistance of cotton spider mites to three insecticides. Plant Protection, 19(2):12-14

Cao, Q., MA, Y., Liu, H., Li, L., Adili, S., Pan, C-d., 2010. Study on Growth-decline and Control Efficacy of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara on Zizyphus jujube. Journal of Xinjiang Agricultural University, 33(6), https://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XJNY201006009.htm

Chao SRS, Lo PKC, 1974. Biological studies of the spider mite, Tetranychus truncatus and its natural enemies. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research, 23(2):126-135

Chen XueYing, Zhou ZhangYi, Li JingHui, 1996. Study on the bionomics and control of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 32(2), 144-149.

Chen XY, Zhou ZY, Li-JH, 1996. Study on the bionomics and control of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 32:144-149

Chen ZJ, Zhang SL, Zhang MR, Zhang X, 1999. On the bionomics and ecological control tactics of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara in corn fields in Shaanxi province. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 26:7-12

Corpuz-Raros, L. A., 2001. New mite pests and new host records of phytophagous mites (Acari) from the Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 84(4), 341-351.

Dong HF, 1990. Control effect of the enhanced Liuyangmycin on leaf spider mites and its influence on the beneficial phytoseiid predators. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 6(3):97-101

Ehara, S. , 1956. Tetranychoid Mites of Mulberry in Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, 12(4), 499-510 pp.

Ehara, S., Wongsiri, T., 1975. The spider mites of Thailand (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Mushi, 48(13), 149-185.

Fan LQ, Lu LS, Jin DY, 2000. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the development of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara. Plant-Protection, 26:14-16

Gao ZR, Qiu F, Li QS, 1990. Study on the infestation of spider mites Tetranychus spp. on cotton and their economic threshold. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 17(4):331-336

Gao, S.-j., Pang, B.-p., Liu, J.-x., Meng, H.-w., Yi, W.-d., 2005. Studies on the population dynamics of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara in Greenhouse. Journal of Inner Mongolia Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 26(1), 5-8. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-NMGM200501002.htm

Gotoh, T., Moriya, D., Nachman, G., 2015. Development and reproduction of five Tetranychus species (Acari: Tetranychidae): do they all have the potential to become major pests?. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 66(4), 453-479. doi: 10.1007/s10493-015-9919-y

Hinomoto N, Dinh Pha Tran, Anh Tuan Pham, Thi Bao Ngoc Le, Tajima R, Ohashi K, Osakabe M, Takafuji A, 2007. Identification of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) by DNA sequences: a case study in northern Vietnam. International Journal of Acarology, 33(1):53-60

Hinomoto, N., Higaki, T., Osakabe, M., Takafuji, A., 2009. Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers in Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of the Acarological Society of Japan, 18(2), 91-98. doi: 10.2300/acari.18.91

Ho, C. C., Chen, W. H., 1992. Species survey of spider mites and seasonal occurrence of Thrips palmi, Chlorita biguttula biguttula, and Tetranychus cinnabarinus on eggplant. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 12(4), 259-268.

Huang RH, Kuang HY, 1992. Effects of temperature on the development and reproduction of Tetranychus truncatus. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 19(1):17-21; 5 ref

Jeppson LR, Keifer HH, Baker EW, 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press

Jin, P.-Y., Tian, L., Chen, L., Hong, X.-Y., 2018. Spider mites of agricultural importance in China, with focus on species composition during the last decade (2008-2017). Systematic & Applied Acarology, 23(11), 2087-2098. doi: 10.11158/saa.23.11.1

Kuang HY, 1986. Agricultural Acarology. Beijing, China: Agriculture Press

Lee MyeongLyeol, Suh SooJung, Kwon YongJung, 1999. Phylogeny and diagnostic markers of six Tetranychus species (Acarina: Tetranychidae) in Korea based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 2(2), 85-92.

Li HaiQiang, Li Qian, Wang DongMei, Liu Jian, Zhang JianPing, Lu YanHui, 2020. Effect of a cotton intercrop on spider mite populations in jujube trees. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 23(1), 167-171. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2019.12.004

Li XJ, Win XJ, Sun SX, 1998. The biological characteristics of truncated mite, and its control in jujube trees. China Fruits, 4:11-14

Liu, H., Adili, S., Li, H., Tuersunguli, T., 2013. Effects of Main Meteorological Factors on the Population Fluctuation of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara of Zizyphus jujube. Journal of Xinjiang Agricultural University, 36(1), 51-55. https://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-XJNY201301012.htm

Ma, E. P., Yuan, Y. L., Lin, Y. M., 1979. The spider mites of Hainan Island (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Journal of Jiangxi University, 3(1), 39-49. https://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/spmweb/notebibliography.php?id=7630

Maheswary, J., Haseena Bhaskar, Gowda, C. C., 2015. Phytoseiid mite fauna associated with major vegetable crops of Thrissur District, Kerala. Journal of Biological Control, 29(4), 183-186. doi: 10.18641/jbc/29/4/73410

Manita Kongchuensin, Vatana Charanasri, Takafuji, A., 2005. Geographic distribution of Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) and its habitat plants in Thailand. Journal of the Acarological Society of Japan, 14(1), 1-11. doi: 10.2300/acari.14.1

Namaghi HS, 2010. Mites (Acari: Prostigmata & Mesostigmata) inhabiting green plantings in urban environment of north-eastern Iran, including six new records. Munis Entomology & Zoology, 5(1):123-130. http://www.munisentzool.org

Namaghi, H. S., 2010. Mites (Acari: Prostigmata & Mesostigmata) inhibiting green plantings in urban environment of north-eastern Iran, including six new records. Munis Entomology & Zoology Journal, 5(1), 123-130. https://www.munisentzool.org/yayin/vol5/issue1/123-130.pdf

Nameghi, H. S., 2009. Tetranychoid mites (Prostigmata: Tetranychoidea) associated with forest trees and bushes in suburb parks in Mashhad, NE Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, 7(1), 41-45.

Sakunwarin, S., Baker, G. T., Chandrapatya, A., 2004. Structure of sensilla on the palptarsus and the tarsus I of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology, 9, 133-140.

Srinivasa N, Gowda CC, Mallik B, Raghavendra P, 2012. New record of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) as a potential pest from Karnataka. Indian Journal of Entomology, 74(4):379-383

Thongtab, T., Chandrapatya, A., Baker, G. T., 2001. Biology and efficacy of the predatory mite, Amblyseius longispinosus (Evans) (Acari, Phytoseiidae) as a biological control agent of Eotetranychus cendanai Rimando (Acari, Tetranychidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 125(9/10), 543-549. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0418.2001.00583.x

Tseng YH, 1990. A monograph of the mite family Tetranychidae (Acarina: Trombidiformes) from Taiwan. Taiwan Museum Special Publications Series, No.9,1-224

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Zhang YanKai, Zhang KaiJun, Sun JingTao, Yang XianMing, Ge Cheng, Hong XiaoYue, 2013. Diversity of Wolbachia in natural populations of spider mites (genus Tetranychus): evidence for complex infection history and disequilibrium distribution. Microbial Ecology, 65(3), 731-739. doi: 10.1007/s00248-013-0198-z

Zhang, S.-l., Chen, Z.-j., Xiang, J.-y., Zhang, F., 2001. Study on the Spatial Pattern and Sampling Technique of Oil Sunflower Leaf Mites. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-occidentalis Sinica, 10(3), 96-99. https://europepmc.org/article/cba/351920

Zhang, X., Wu, S., 1999. A Preliminary Study of Occurrence and Harmfulness of Tetranychus Truncatus in Summer-Sowing Soya Field of Central part of Shanxi Province. Journal of Shanxi Agricultural University, 19. https://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-SXNY901.003.htm

Zhang, Y.-K., Chen, Y.-T., Yang, K., Qiao, G.-X., Hong, X.-Y., 2016. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history. Scientific Reports, 6(27900), 27900. doi: 10.1038/srep27900

Zhu YuXi, Song YueLing, Zhang YanKai, Hoffmann, A. A., Zhou JinCheng, Sun JingTao, Hong XiaoYue, 2018. Incidence of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in spider mites associated with local environments and host plants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 84(6), e02546-17. doi: 10.1128/aem.02546-17

Distribution References

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Aung Myo Win, Htar Htar Naing, Ah Nge Htwe, Ei Han Kyaw, Thi Tar Oo, 2018. Biology of the cassava mite, Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Agricultural Research. 5 (1), 44-48.

Baker E W, 1975. Plant-feeding mites of Thailand (Tetranychidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tuckerellidae). In: Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin, 43pp.

CABI, EPPO, 1998. Tetranychus truncatus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 587. DOI:10.1079/DMPP20066600587

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cao Y, Liu M L, Wang M N, 1993. Evaluation on the resistance of cotton spider mites to three insecticides. Plant Protection. 19 (2), 12-14.

Chao S R S, Lo P K C, 1974. Biological studies of the spider mite, Tetranychus truncatus and its natural enemies. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research. 23 (2), 126-135.

Chen XueYing, Zhou ZhangYi, Li JingHui, 1996. Study on the bionomics and control of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara. Scientia Silvae Sinicae. 32 (2), 144-149.

Chen ZhiJie, Zhang ShuLian, Zhang MeiRong, Zhang Xing, 1999. On the bionomics and ecological control tactics of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara in corn fields in Shaanxi province. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica. 26 (1), 7-12.

Corpuz-Raros L A, 2001. New mite pests and new host records of phytophagous mites (Acari) from the Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist. 84 (4), 341-351.

Ehara S, 1956. Tetranychoid Mites of Mulberry in Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. 12 (4), 499-510 pp.

Ehara S, Wongsiri T, 1975. The spider mites of Thailand (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Mushi. 48 (13), 149-185.

Fan L, Lu L, Jin D, 1999. A study on biological characteristics of Tetransychus truncatus Ehara. 21 (2), https://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-YDNX199902001.htm

Gotoh T, Moriya D, Nachman G, 2015. Development and reproduction of five Tetranychus species (Acari: Tetranychidae): do they all have the potential to become major pests? Experimental and Applied Acarology. 66 (4), 453-479. DOI:10.1007/s10493-015-9919-y

Guo YanLan, Jiao XuDong, Xu JianJun, Yang Shuai, Duan XiangKun, Zhang JianPing, 2013. Growth and reproduction of Tetranychus turkestani and Tetranychus truncatus (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cotton and corn. Systematic and Applied Acarology. 18 (1), 89-98. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/acarology/saas/saa.html

Hinomoto N, Dinh Pha Tran, Anh Tuan Pham, Thi Bao Ngoc Le, Tajima R, Ohashi K, Osakabe M, Takafuji A, 2007. Identification of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) by DNA sequences: a case study in northern Vietnam. International Journal of Acarology. 33 (1), 53-60.

Hinomoto N, Higaki T, Osakabe M, Takafuji A, 2009. Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers in Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of the Acarological Society of Japan. 18 (2), 91-98. DOI:10.2300/acari.18.91

Ho C C, Chen W H, 1992. Species survey of spider mites and seasonal occurrence of Thrips palmi, Chlorita biguttula biguttula, and Tetranychus cinnabarinus on eggplant. Chinese Journal of Entomology. 12 (4), 259-268.

Ho ChyiChen, 2000. Spider-mite problems and control in Taiwan. Experimental & Applied Acarology. 24 (5/6), 453-462. DOI:10.1023/A:1006443619632

Huang R H, Kuang H Y, 1992. Effects of temperature on the development and reproduction of Tetranychus truncatus. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica. 19 (1), 17-21.

Islam M T, Mahbuba Jahan, Gotoh T, Ullah M S, 2017. Host-dependent life history and life table parameters of Tetranychus truncatus (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology. 22 (10/12), 2068-2082. DOI:10.11158/saa.22.12.4

Jeppson L R, Keifer H H, Baker E W, 1975. Mites injurious to economic plants. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press. xxiv + 614 pp.

Jiang JueYingQi, Zhang YanNan, Guo DanDan, Zhang JianPing, Chen Jing, 2017. Morphology and ultrastructure of Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov & Nikolskii (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology. 22 (7/9), 1181-1198. DOI:10.11158/saa.22.8.5

Lee MyeongLyeol, Suh SooJung, Kwon YongJung, 1999. Phylogeny and diagnostic markers of six Tetranychus species (Acarina: Tetranychidae) in Korea based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2 (2), 85-92.

Li HaiQiang, Li Qian, Wang DongMei, Liu Jian, Zhang JianPing, Lu YanHui, 2020. Effect of a cotton intercrop on spider mite populations in jujube trees. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 23 (1), 167-171. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2019.12.004

Maheswary J, Haseena Bhaskar, Gowda C C, 2015. Phytoseiid mite fauna associated with major vegetable crops of Thrissur District, Kerala. Journal of Biological Control. 29 (4), 183-186. DOI:10.18641/jbc/29/4/73410

Manita Kongchuensin, Vatana Charanasri, Takafuji A, 2005. Geographic distribution of Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) and its habitat plants in Thailand. Journal of the Acarological Society of Japan. 14 (1), 1-11. DOI:10.2300/acari.14.1

Men XingYuan, Ge Feng, Edwards C A, Yardİm E N, 2004. Influence of pesticide applications on pest and predatory arthropods associated with transgenic Bt cotton and nontransgenic cotton plants. Phytoparasitica. 32 (3), 246-254. http://www.phytoparasitica.org

Namaghi H S, 2010. Mites (Acari: Prostigmata & Mesostigmata) inhabiting green plantings in urban environment of north-eastern Iran, including six new records. Munis Entomology & Zoology. 5 (1), 123-130. http://www.munisentzool.org

Namaghi H S, 2010a. Mites (Acari: Prostigmata & Mesostigmata) inhibiting green plantings in urban environment of north-eastern Iran, including six new records. Munis Entomology & Zoology Journal. 5 (1), 123-130. https://www.munisentzool.org/yayin/vol5/issue1/123-130.pdf

Nameghi H S, 2009. Tetranychoid mites (Prostigmata: Tetranychoidea) associated with forest trees and bushes in suburb parks in Mashhad, NE Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research. 7 (1), 41-45.

Navasero M M, Corpuz-Raros L A, Garcia R C, Navasero M V, 2004. Mass Rearing of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Tetranychidae, Acarina) on Water Hyacinth, Eichornia crassipes L. 18 (2), 121-126. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=PH2006000177

Osakabe M, Kotsubo Y, Tajima R, Hinomoto N, 2008. Restriction fragment length polymorphism catalog for molecular identification of Japanese Tetranychus spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 101 (4), 1167-1175. DOI:10.1603/0022-0493(2008)101[1167:RFLPCF]2.0.CO;2

Sakunwarin S, Baker G T, Chandrapatya A, 2004. Structure of sensilla on the palptarsus and the tarsus I of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology. 133-140.

Sakunwarin S, Chandrapatya A, Baker G T, 2003. Biology and life table of the cassava mite, Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology. 13-24.

Seeman O D, Beard J J, 2011. Identification of exotic pest and Australian native and naturalised species of Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae). Zootaxa. 1-72. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/zt02961p072.pdf

Srinivasa N, Gowda C C, Mallik B, Raghavendra P, 2012. New record of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) as a potential pest from Karnataka. Indian Journal of Entomology. 74 (4), 379-383.

Thongtab T, Chandrapatya A, Baker G T, 2001. Biology and efficacy of the predatory mite, Amblyseius longispinosus (Evans) (Acari, Phytoseiidae) as a biological control agent of Eotetranychus cendanai Rimando (Acari, Tetranychidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 125 (9/10), 543-549. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0418.2001.00583.x

Tseng YH, 1990. A monograph of the mite family Tetranychidae (Acarina: Trombidiformes) from Taiwan. In: Taiwan Museum Special Publications Series, 9 1-224.

Ullah M S, Gotoh T, 2013. Laboratory-based toxicity of some acaricides to Tetranychus macfarlanei and Tetranychus truncatus (Acari: Tetranychidae). International Journal of Acarology. 39 (3), 244-251. DOI:10.1080/01647954.2012.758655

Ullah M S, Gotoh T, Lim UnTaek, 2014. Life history parameters of three phytophagous spider mites, Tetranychus piercei, T. truncatus and T. bambusae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 17 (4), 767-773. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2014.07.008

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Yang ShunYi, Zhou XingLong, Song LiWen, Yan XiaoTong, Zhang XiaoYun, Zhang XinHu, Shen HuiMin, 2017. Analysis of genetic differentiation among different geographic populations of Tetranychus truncatus (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Gansu province, northwestern China based on mtDNA COI gene. Acta Entomologica Sinica. 60 (9), 1083-1092. http://www.insect.org.cn/EN/volumn/current.shtml

Zhang S-l, Chen Z-j, Xiang J-y, Zhang F, 2001. Study on the Spatial Pattern and Sampling Technique of Oil Sunflower Leaf Mites. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-occidentalis Sinica. 10 (3), 96-99. https://europepmc.org/article/cba/351920

Zhang X, Wu S, 1999. A Preliminary Study of Occurrence and Harmfulness of Tetranychus Truncatus in Summer-Sowing Soya Field of Central part of Shanxi Province. Journal of Shanxi Agricultural University. https://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-SXNY901.003.htm

Zhang YanKai, Ding XiuLei, Zhang KaiJun, Hong XiaoYue, 2013a. Wolbachia play an important role in affecting mtDNA variation of Tetranychus truncatus (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae). Environmental Entomology. 42 (6), 1240-1245. DOI:10.1603/EN13085

Zhang YanKai, Zhang KaiJun, Sun JingTao, Yang XianMing, Ge Cheng, Hong XiaoYue, 2013. Diversity of Wolbachia in natural populations of spider mites (genus Tetranychus): evidence for complex infection history and disequilibrium distribution. Microbial Ecology. 65 (3), 731-739. DOI:10.1007/s00248-013-0198-z

Zhang Y-K, Chen Y-T, Yang K, Qiao G-X, Hong X-Y, 2016. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history. Scientific Reports. 6 (27900), 27900. DOI:10.1038/srep27900

Zhu YuXi, Song YueLing, Huang HaiJian, Zhao DianShu, Xia Xue, Yang Kun, Lu YiJia, Hong XiaoYue, 2018. Comparative analyses of salivary proteins from the facultative symbiont-infected and uninfected Tetranychus truncatus. Systematic and Applied Acarology. 23 (4/6), 1027-1042. DOI:10.11158/saa.23.6.3

Zhu Y-X, Song Y-L, Zhang Y-K, Hoffmann A A, Zhou J-C, Sun J-T, et al, 2018. Incidence of Faculatative Bacterial Endosymbionts in Spider Mites Associated with Local Environments and Host Plants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 84 (6), 1-11. DOI:10.1128/AEM.02546-17

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