Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tetranychus cinnabarinus
(carmine spider mite)

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Datasheet

Tetranychus cinnabarinus (carmine spider mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tetranychus cinnabarinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • carmine spider mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleEggs
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
EggsAgrEvo
TitleAdult and eggs
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
Adult and eggsAgrEvo
TitleDamage symptoms on cotton leaves
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
Damage symptoms on cotton leavesAgrEvo
TitleDamage symptoms on cottom boll
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
Damage symptoms on cottom bollAgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)

Preferred Common Name

  • carmine spider mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Acarus cinnabarinus
  • Eutetranychus cinnabarinus
  • Eutetranychus cucurbitacearum
  • Eutetranychus dianthica
  • Tetranychus cucurbitacearum (Sayed)
  • Tetranychus dianthica
  • Tetranychus telarius auct.

International Common Names

  • English: carmin spider mite; common red spider mite; common spider mite; red spider mite; tropical red spider mite
  • Spanish: acaro rojo de los trópicos; arana roja de los citricos (Mexico); arana roja del algodon; arana roja del clavel; arañita roja del algodonero; aranuela del frijol; aranuela roja comun (Argentina)
  • French: acarien rouge des tropiques; araignee rouge des serres; tetranyque tisserand

Local Common Names

  • : ácaro carmín; arañita roja
  • Brazil: acaro rasado
  • Denmark: rod væksthusspindemide
  • Germany: Spinnmilbe, Karmin-; Spinnmilbe, Linden-; Spinnmilbe, Nelken-
  • Italy: ragno rosso
  • Japan: nise-namihadani
  • Norway: rod veksthusspinnmidd
  • Turkey: pamuk kirmizi orumcegi

EPPO code

  • TETRCI (Tetranychus cinnabarinus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Tetranychidae
  •                                     Genus: Tetranychus
  •                                         Species: Tetranychus cinnabarinus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentLiu and Li, 1993
-AnhuiPresentLi et al., 2007
-ChongqingPresentHe et al., 2009
-HebeiPresentMiao et al., 2004
-HeilongjiangPresentMiao et al., 2004
-HenanPresentQui and Li, 1988; Guo et al., 1994
-HubeiPresentMiao et al., 2004
-JiangsuPresentYang et al., 1990
-ShandongPresentMiao et al., 2004
-ShanghaiPresentWang et al., 2000
-SichuanPresentWang et al., 2007
-XinjiangPresentWang et al., 2005
-ZhejiangPresentMiao et al., 2004
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GujaratPresentNandagopal and Gedia, 1996
-HaryanaPresentFotedar, 1978
-Himachal PradeshPresentRajpal and Joshi, 2003
-Indian PunjabPresentGrewal, 1992
-Jammu and KashmirPresentAbrol and Singh, 2003
-KarnatakaPresentAbraham et al., 2007
-MaharashtraPresentPawar et al., 1996
-OdishaPresentPatnaik et al., 2004
-RajasthanPresentPande and Yadava, 1976
-Tamil NaduPresentKaruppuchamy et al., 1986
-TripuraPresentPande and Nandi, 1983
-Uttar PradeshPresentSingh et al., 2004
-West BengalPresentMishra and Somchoudhury, 1989
IndonesiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
IranPresentArbabi et al., 2002
IsraelPresentMansour and Karchi, 1990; Erez et al., 1993
JapanPresentYanagida et al., 1996
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
SingaporeWidespreadWaterhouse, 1993; AVA, 2001
TaiwanPresentHo and Chen, 1992
ThailandPresentSombatsiri, 1978; Waterhouse, 1993
TurkeyPresentYigit and Erkilic, 1992; Can and Çobanoglu, 2010

Africa

Cape VerdePresentSchmutterer et al., 1978
EgyptPresentAttiah et al., 1976
KenyaPresentAnyango, 2003
LibyaPresentHessein, 1978
MoroccoPresentMazih, 2015
South AfricaPresentBerg and Dippenaar-Schoeman, 1991
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentPande et al., 1989
TogoPresentDreyer, 1987
TunisiaPresentGrissa and Sahraoui, 2007
UgandaPresentNyiiri and Mutinga, 1977
ZimbabwePresentNorthcraft, 1987

North America

MexicoPresentUrias-Lopez and Carrillo-Sanchez, 1983
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentMollet and Sevacherian, 1984
-HawaiiPresentFunasaki et al., 1988; Johnson et al., 1989
-TexasPresentEhler, 1974

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentOchoa et al., 1990; Aguilar and Murillo, 2012

South America

BrazilPresentSamways, 1979
ColombiaPresentGuerrero and Bellotti, 1980
PeruPresentVereau et al., 1978
VenezuelaPresentVásquez et al., 2009; Vásquez et al., 2009
VenezuelaPresentVásquez et al., 2009; Vásquez et al., 2009

Europe

AustriaPresentWalzer and Schausberger, 2000
BulgariaPresentAtanasov, 1984
FrancePresentTrottin-Caudal et al., 1989
MontenegroPresentIntroduced Invasive Radonjic and Hrncic, 2011
PolandPresentKropezynska et al., 1996
PortugalPresentFerreira and Carmona, 1994
SpainPresentGarcia-Mari et al., 1986
UKPresentFoster and Barker, 1978

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aeolothrips intermedius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Agistemus africanus Predator
Agistemus exsertus Predator Adults/Nymphs Egypt
Agistemus industani Predator
Amblydromella dalii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius alstoniae Predator
Amblyseius andersoni Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius bibens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius citrifolius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius degenerans Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius herbarius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius mckenziei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius multidentatus Predator
Amblyseius pseudolongispinosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius reductus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius rubicolus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius tutsi Predator
Anthoseius recki Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anthoseius rhenanus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheiracanthium mildei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen
Cunaxa setirostris Predator
Cybocephalus micans Predator Adults/Nymphs
Deraeocoris pallens Predator
Erynia radicans Pathogen
Euseius fustis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius gossipi Predator Adults/Nymphs Egypt
Euseius stipulatus Predator
Feltiella minuta Predator
Frankliniella occidentalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Geocoris pallens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Labidura riparia Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii pineapples
Mexecheles hawaiiensis Predator
Neoseiulus californicus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus cucumeris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus fallacis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus longispinosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus teke Predator
Nephaspis amnicola Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nephaspis oculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Oligota Predator
Oligota flavicornis Predator
Oligota oviformis Predator
Orius minutus Predator
Orius niger Predator
Orius sauteri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius tristicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa crassipalpis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phytoseiulus longipes Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phytoseiulus persimilis Predator Adults/Nymphs France; Latvia
Phytoseius finitimus Predator
Phytoseius minutus Predator
Phytoseius plumifer Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phytoseius roseus Predator
Pronematus spp. Predator
Scirtothrips citri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scolothrips indicus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scolothrips longicornis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Seiulus finlandicus Predator
Stethorus aethiops Predator
Stethorus chengi Predator
Stethorus gilvifrons Predator
Stethorus loi Predator
Stethorus punctillum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stethorus siphonulus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Therodiplosis persicae Predator
Trybomia gossypi Predator
Tydeus grabouwi Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromalus macrosetosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus athiasae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus gopali Predator

References

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Abraham Verghese; Kalleshwaraswamy CM; Kumar HRA, 2007. Pests of papaya and their management with special reference to aphid vectors. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Papaya, Genting Highlands, Malaysia, 22-24 November 2005.], No.740:259-264. http://www.actahort.org

Abrol DP; Singh JB, 2003. Effect of insecticides on the resurgence of the red spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisdual on brinjal in Jammu, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 6(2):213-219.

Abu Elamayem M; Sharif IMF; El-Sebp AH; Marei AM; Soliman SA, 1979. Selection response and cross-resistance in Tetranychus cucurbitacearum (Sayed). Beitrage zur tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin, 17(3):311-317

Aguilar H; Murillo P, 2012. New hosts and records of plant feeding mites for Costa Rica: interval 2008-2012. (Nuevos hospederos y registros de ácaros fitófagos para Costa Rica: período 2008-2012.) Agronomía Costarricense, 36(2):11-28. http://www.mag.go.cr/rev_agr/index.html

Anyango JJ, 2003. A management strategy for mites and the potential for biological control in flower production. Insect Science and its Application [Novel approaches to tick and mite management in Africa. Second African Acarology Symposium, Nairobi, Kenya, 3-9 December 2001.], 23(1):9-13.

Arbabi M; Golmohammad zadeh Khiaban N; Askari M, 2002. Plant mite fauna of Sistan-Baluchestan and Hormozgan Provinces. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 22(1):En1-17, Pe87-88.

Atanasov N, 1984. Mites on ornamental plants. Rastitelna Zashchita, 32(11):7-8.

Attiah HH; Hoda FM; El Masry MK, 1976. Testing acaricides against two common spider mites infesting cotton in Lower and Upper Egypt. Agricultural Research Review, 54(1):197-215.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Berg AM van den; Dippenaar-Schoeman AS, 1991. Spiders, predacious insects and mites on South African cotton. Phytophylactica, 23(1):85-86.

Bitton S; Nakash J, 1986. Control of red spider mites by the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in open fields of eggplants and artichokes [globe]. Hassadeh, 66(4):682-684.

Botha JH, 1984. The effect of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cotton yields. Phytophylactica, 16(3):243-250.

Can M; Çobanoglu S, 2010. Studies on the determination of mite (Acari) species and their hosts of greenhouse vegetables in Kumluca, Antalya. (Kumluca (Antalya) ilçesinde sebze üretimi yapilan seralarda bulunan akar (Acari) türlerinin tanimi ve konukçulari üzerinde çalismalar.) Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, Akdeniz Üniversitesi, 23(2):87-92. http://www.akdeniz.edu.tr/ziraat/en/journal.htm

Dreyer M, 1987. Field and laboratory trials with simple neem products as protectants against pests of vegetables and field crops in Togo. Natural pesticides from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other tropical plants. In: Schmutterer R, Ascher KRS, eds. Proceedings of the 3rd International Neem Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 10-15 July, 1986. Eschborn, German Federal Republic; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, 431-447.

Dreyer M, 1987. Field and laboratory trials with simple neem products as protectants against pests of vegetables and field crops in Togo. Natural pesticides from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other tropical plants. In: Schmutterer R, Ascher KRS, eds. Proceedings of the 3rd International Neem Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 10-15 July, 1986. Eschborn, German Federal Republic; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, 431-447.

Dupont LM, 1979. On gene flow between Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) Boudreaux, 1956 (Acari: Tetranychidae): synonymy between the two species. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 25(3):297-303.

Ehler LE, 1974. A review of the spider-mite problem on grain sorghum and corn in West Texas. Bulletin, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, B-1149:15 pp.

Erez A; Wysoki M; Yablowitz Z; Korchinski R, 1993. High density plantings for protected cultivation of fruit crops; net to protect against insects. Acta Horticulturae, No. 349:89-93; 7 ref.

Ferreira MA; Carmona MM, 1994. Acarofauna of Phaseolus in Portugal. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 20(1):111-118.

Foster GN; Barker J, 1978. A new biotype of red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)) causing atypical damage to tomatoes. Plant Pathology, 27(1):47-48.

Fotedar R, 1978. Records of a few phytophagous mites from Hissar, Haryana. Acarology Newsletter, No. 7:4.

Funasaki GY; Nakahara LM; Kumashiro BR, 1988. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii: 1985 and 1986. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 28:101-104.

Gao ZR; Qiu F; Li QS, 1990. Study on the infestation of spider mites Tetranychus spp. on cotton and their economic threshold. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 17(4):331-336.

Garcia Mari F; Ferragut F; Marzal C; Costa Comelles J; Laborda R, 1986. Mites which live in the foliage of Spanish citrus trees. Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales, 1(2):219-250

Goka K; Takafuji A; Toda S; Hamamura T; Osakabe M; Komazaki S, 1996. Genetic distinctness between two forms of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) detected by electrophoresis. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 20(12):683-693; 21 ref.

Gotoh T; Tokioka T, 1996. Genetic compatibility among diapausing red, non-diapausing red and diapausing green forms of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Japanese Journal of Entomology, 64(1):215-225; 21 ref.

Grewal JS, 1992. Incidence of various mites on okra (Hibiscus esculentus) in Punjab. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 62(2):169-170; 3 ref.

Grissa KL; Sahraoui H, 2007. Demographic traits of two phytophagous mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus and Aculops lycopersici) and biological control on tomato. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on the Processing Tomato, Tunis, Tunisia, 6-8 June 2006.], No.758:81-87. http://www.actahort.org

Guerrero JM; Bellotti AC, 1980. Contribution to knowlege of some phytophagous mites found on crops of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, in Colombia. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia, 6(3/4):85-98.

Guo YuYuan; Dai XiaoFeng; Liu QinXuan; Gao ZongRen; Li QiaoSi; Qiu Feng, 1994. On the dynamic compound action thresholds of second generation cotton bollworm and spider mites damage to cotton in the northern China cotton area. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 21(4):339-344.

Hazan A; Gerson U; Tahori AS, 1974. Life history and life tables of the carmine spider mite. Acarologia, 15(3):414-440.

He Lin; Xue ChuanHua; Wang JinJun; Li Ming; Lu WenCai; Zhao ZhiMo, 2009. Resistance selection and biochemical mechanism of resistance to two Acaricides in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boiduval). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 93(1):47-52. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WP8-4TYJTVY-1&_user=6686535&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2009&_rdoc=10&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236984%232009%23999069998%23819060%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6984&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=10&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=352f44a18741c9a75a90f6d5a6d24f8c

Helle W; Sabelis MW (Editors), 1985. Spider mites. Their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 1A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 405 pp.

Helle W; Sabelis MW (Editors), 1985. Spider mites. Their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 1B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 458 pp.

Hessein NA, 1978. The role of the predaceous mite Typhlodromus athiasp Porath and Swirski in the control of the carmine mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Bois.) (Tetranychidae: Acarina) infesting lemon seedlings. Libyan Journal of Agriculture, 7:115-118.

Ho CC; Chen WH, 1992. Species survey of spider mites and seasonal occurrence of Thrips palmi, Chlorita biguttula biguttula, and Tetranychus cinnabarinus on eggplant. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 12(4):259-268.

Jaydeb Ghosh; Mukherjee AB; Sarkar PK, 1996. Assessment of loss of bhendi against red spider mite. Environment and Ecology, 14(2):480-481; 1 ref.

Johnson MW; Mau RFL; Martinez AP; Fukuda S, 1989. Foliar pests of watermelon in Hawaii. Tropical Pest Management, 35(1):90-96.

Karuppuchamy P; Dhandapani N; Babu PCS; Mohanasundaram M, 1986. Efficacy of certain acaricides for the control of carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) on jasmine. Madras Agricultural Journal, 73(4):236-239.

Kazak C; Colkesen T; Karut K; Sekeroglu E, 1997. Biological control of Tetranychus cinnabarinus by Phytoseiulus persimilis on greenhouse cultivars. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 20(4):215-220; 17 ref.

Kielkiewicz M, 1994. The appearance of phenolics in tomato leaf tissues exposed to spider mite attack. Acta Horticulturae, 381:687-690.

Kielkiewicz M; Witul A; Pruszynski S, 1995. Effectiveness of integrated control of spider mites on gerbera. Materialy Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 35:133-137.

Kropezynska D; Tomczyk A; Lenteren JC van, 1996. Development of Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd., populations on sweet pepper, and Phytoseiulus persimilis (A-H) effectiveness in their control. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 19(1):71-74.

Kuang HY; Cheng LS, 1990. Studies on the differentiation of two sibling species, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) and T. urticae Koch. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 33(1):109-116.

Li Peng; Li GuiTing; Zhang XinCai; Jiang JunQi; Wang XiangYang, 2007. Dynamics of insect pests and predatory enemy communities in cotton fields in north of the Huaihe River, Anhui Province. Zhongguo Shengtai Nongye Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 15(4):124-129.

Liu QZ; Li RJ, 1993. Bionomics of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) in jujube trees [Ziziphus sativa] and its control. Entomological Knowledge, 30(2):94.

Mansour F; Karchi Z, 1990. The evaluation of antibiosis of selected lines for resistance of melon to the carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 80(3):345-347.

Mazih A, 2015. Status of citrus IPM in the southern Mediterranean basin Morocco, North Africa. Acta Horticulturae [XII International Citrus Congress - International Society of Citriculture, Valencia, Spain.], No.1065:1097-1103. http://www.actahort.org/books/1065/1065_138.htm

Miao Hui; Hong XiaoYue; Xie Lin; Xue XiaoFeng, 2004. Sequencing and sequence analysis of the wsp gene of Wolbachia in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 47(6):738-743.

Mishra KK; Somchoudhury AK, 1989. Seasonal incidence of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on some selected accessions of brinjal and their susceptibility in West Bengal condition. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(1):50-54.

Mollet JA; Sevacherian V, 1984. Pesticide and seasonal effects on within-plant distribution of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acarina: Tetranychidae) in cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(4):925-928.

Nandagopal V; Gedia MV, 1996. Residual effect of pesticides against two spider mites of groundnut. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9(4):601-605; 5 ref.

Navajas M; Cotton D; Kreiter S; Gutierrez J, 1992. Molecular approach in spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae): preliminary data on ribosomal DNA sequences. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 15(4):211-218.

Northcraft PD, 1987. First record of two indigenous predacious mites and a predacious beetle in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research, 25(1):107-108.

Northcraft PD; Watson TF, 1987. Developmental biology of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) under three temperature regimes. Southwestern Entomologist, 12(1):45-50.

Nyiiri ZM; Mutinga MJ, 1977. Tetranychidae pests of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, in Uganda and their natural enemies. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 43(1):1-4.

Ochoa R; Aguilar H; Merino FL, 1990. Chemical control of red spider mite (Tetranychus spp.) on roses (Rosa sp.). Agronomia Costarricense, 14(1):103-108.

Osman AA; Zohdi G, 1976. Suppression of the spider mites on cotton with mass releases of Amblyseius gossipi (El-Badry). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 81(3):245-248.

Palaniswami MS; Venkateswarlu T; Pillai KS, 1980. Studies on the relative susceptibility to aphid and red spidermites in taro collections. Journal of Root Crops, 6(1/2):49-51.

Pande YD; Carnero A; Hernandez M, 1989. Notes on biological observations on some unrecorded species of phytophagous and predatory mites in Canary Islands. Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccioon Vegetales, 4(2):275-281.

Pande YD; Nandi S, 1983. Mites associated with tea in Tripura and the effect of shade on their populations. Science and Culture, 49(5):141-142.

Pande YD; Nandi S, 1983. Mites associated with tea in Tripura and the effect of shade on their populations. Science and Culture, 49(5):141-142.

Pande YD; Yadava SRS, 1976. On the hibernation and pstivation of some tetranychid mites. Journal of Research, Haryana Agricultural University, 6(1):83-84.

Patnaik HP; Mohapatra LN; Maity BK, 2004. Effectiveness of thiamethoxam 25 WG against the insect pests of brinjal under field conditions. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 1(1/2):39-46.

Pawar DB; Lawande KE; Warade SD, 1996. Effects of different sowing dates on the incidence of leafhopper, mite and fruit borer of okra. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 21(3):375-377; 8 ref.

Pillai KS; Palaniswami MS, 1983. Economics on the control of spidermites on cassava. Entomon, 8(4):373-375.

Qui F; Li QS, 1988. Biology and population dynamics of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) on cotton. Insect Knowledge, 25(6):333-338.

Radonjic S; Hrncic S, 2011. An overview of invasive species on vegetables in greenhouses in southern part of Montenegro. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Control in Protected crops, Temperate Climate", Sutton Scotney, UK, 18-22 September 2011.], 68:153-157. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2011_68_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

Rajpal Singh; Joshi AK, 2003. Pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.) in Paonta Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment, 9(4):173-174.

Regev S, 1978. Difference in farnesol content in strawberry varieties and their susceptibility to the carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 24(1):22-26.

Samways MJ, 1979. Immigration, population growth and mortality of insects and mites on cassava in Brazil. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 69(3):491-505.

Schmutterer H; Pires A; Klein Koch C, 1978. Pests of the Cape Verde Islands. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 86(3):320-336.

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