Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Terminalia catappa
(Singapore almond)



Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)


  • Last modified
  • 18 December 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Terminalia catappa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Singapore almond
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. catappa is a perennial tree species that has been extensively introduced into littoral habitats, coastal forests, gardens and parks to be used as an ornamental, shade tree, and sand-dune stabilizer (...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); habit. In exposed coastal situations, the stem may become crooked and/or lean. In sheltered situations the stem is more or less cylindrical and straight.
TitleMature tree
CaptionTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); habit. In exposed coastal situations, the stem may become crooked and/or lean. In sheltered situations the stem is more or less cylindrical and straight.
Copyright©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); habit. In exposed coastal situations, the stem may become crooked and/or lean. In sheltered situations the stem is more or less cylindrical and straight.
Mature treeTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); habit. In exposed coastal situations, the stem may become crooked and/or lean. In sheltered situations the stem is more or less cylindrical and straight.©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); base of mature coastline tree, showing bark and exposed root system
CaptionTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); base of mature coastline tree, showing bark and exposed root system
Copyright©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); base of mature coastline tree, showing bark and exposed root system
BoleTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); base of mature coastline tree, showing bark and exposed root system©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); bark.
CaptionTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); bark.
Copyright©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); bark.
BarkTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); bark.©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); foliage.
CaptionTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); foliage.
Copyright©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); foliage.
FoliageTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); foliage.©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); inflorescence.
CaptionTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); inflorescence.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); inflorescence.
InflorescenceTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); inflorescence.©A.R. Pittaway
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); foliage and maturing fruits.
TitleFruits and foliage
CaptionTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); foliage and maturing fruits.
Copyright©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond); foliage and maturing fruits.
Fruits and foliageTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond); foliage and maturing fruits.©CSIRO/Australian Tree Seed Centre


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Terminalia catappa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Singapore almond

Other Scientific Names

  • Badamia commersonii Gaertn.
  • Buceras catappa (L.) Hitchc.
  • Juglans catappa (L.) Lour.
  • Myrobalanus catappa (L.) Kuntze
  • Phytolacca javanica Osbeck
  • Terminalia badamia DC.
  • Terminalia intermedia Bertero ex Spreng.
  • Terminalia latifolia Blanco
  • Terminalia mauritiana Blanco
  • Terminalia moluccana Lam.
  • Terminalia myrobalana Roth
  • Terminalia ovatifolia Noronha
  • Terminalia paraensis Mart.
  • Terminalia procera Roxb.
  • Terminalia rubrigemmis Tul.
  • Terminalia subcordata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

International Common Names

  • English: beach almond; country almond; Indian almond; Malabar almond; sea almond; tropical almond
  • Spanish: almendra; almendrillo; almendro; almendro de playa
  • French: amandier de la Martinique; amandier des Indes; badamier; myrobolan
  • Chinese: lan ren shu
  • Portuguese: amendoeira; amendoeira da India

Local Common Names

  • Australia: kotamba
  • Brazil: amendoeira-da-India; amendoeira-da-praia; castanha da praia; castanhola; chapéu-de-sol; guarda-sol; sombreiro
  • Brunei Darussalam: telisai; terminalia
  • Cambodia: barang; châmbak barang; kapang; pareang prang
  • Colombia: kotamba
  • Cuba: almendro de la India
  • Fiji: tavali; tivi
  • Germany: etangen baum; indischer Mandelbaum; Katappenbaum
  • Haiti: amadier tropical; amandier des Indes; badannier; zamanne; zammande
  • India: adamaram; badam; badambo; badami; badan; bangla-badam; deshi-bandam; hindi-badam; jangli-badam; patti-badam; vathakottai natavadom; white bombwe
  • India/Andaman and Nicobar Islands: white Bombay; white bombway
  • Indonesia: ketapang
  • Indonesia/Java: katapang
  • Indonesia/Nusa Tenggara: ai calesse catapo
  • Kiribati: te kunikun; te ntarine
  • Laos: hou kouang; hu kwang; huu kwaang; sômz moox dông
  • Lesser Antilles: Barbados almond; Z’amande; zanmann
  • Malaysia: jelawai ketapang; ketapang
  • Malaysia/Peninsular Malaysia: lingkak
  • Malaysia/Sabah: telisai
  • Myanmar: badan
  • Netherlands: amandel boom; wilde amandel
  • Papua New Guinea: jara almond; reddish-brown Terminalia; talis
  • Peru: castana
  • Philippines: dalinsi; kalumpit; logo; talisai
  • Samoa: talie
  • Solomon Islands: saori
  • Sri Lanka: kottamba
  • Thailand: dat mue; hukwang; khon; taa-pang
  • Tonga: telie
  • Tuvalu: talie
  • USA/Hawaii: false kamani; haole; kamani-haole
  • Vanuatu: natapoa
  • Vietnam: b[af]ng; b[af]ng nh[os]c; bang bien; bang nu'o'c; mo c[uws]a

EPPO code

  • TEMCA (Terminalia catappa)

Trade name

  • Andaman badam
  • Indian almond

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

T. catappa is a perennial tree species that has been extensively introduced into littoral habitats, coastal forests, gardens and parks to be used as an ornamental, shade tree, and sand-dune stabilizer (Orwa et al., 2009; ISSG, 2017). This species has become of the most common trees in littoral habitats and beaches across tropical and subtropical regions of America, India, southeastern Asia, and the Pacific Ocean, due in part to human-mediated introductions, the adaptation of its fruits to be dispersed over long-distances by sea currents and its tolerance to salt-spray, coastal-winds and drought conditions (Thomson and Evans, 2006; Brown and Cooprider, 2013). T. catappa is a prolific seed producer and fruits may remain viable for a long time, even after floating in salt water for considerable time periods. 

This species naturalizes readily in littoral habitats and has been listed as invasive in the United States (Florida and Hawaii), Brazil, the Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands where it is displacing native vegetation and altering coastal dynamics (Smith, 2010; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Mir, 2012; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015; FLEPPC, 2017; I3N-Brazil, 2017; ISSG, 2017). 

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Combretaceae
  •                             Genus: Terminalia
  •                                 Species: Terminalia catappa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Combretaceae is a family of flowering plants comprising 14 genera and about 500 species distributed largely across tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The genus Terminalia includes 190 species some of them with economic importance as ornamentals and timber yielding plants (Orwa et al., 2009). The generic name is derived from the characteristic clustered spirals of leaves at the twig tips. Terminalia and other tree species within the Combretaceae often look rather pagoda-like, the branches are often arranged in whorls and consisting of flattened sprays of leaf rosettes (Stevens, 2012). Key references to the genus include Exell (1954), Coode (1969, 1973, 1978) and Smith (1971, 1985). 

Terminalia catappa is the type species for the genus and the specific epithet 'catappa' is taken from its name in Malaysia, viz. ketapang (Wheatley, 1992). Closely related species in the South Pacific include T. glabrata Forst. f., T. litoralis Seem. and T. samoensis Rechinger (Fosberg and Sachet, 1981). The species has a vast number of common names, but is most widely known as beach, Indian or sea almond.

T. procera is considered by some to be a synonym of T. catappa (see, for example, Sosef et al., 1995). However, other authors consider T. procera (which has a limited distribution in the Andaman Islands and Myanmar) to be a separate species (Mabberley, 1997; Troup and Joshi, 1984). 


Top of page

Trees to 20 m tall; trunk to 2 m dbh. Bark brownish black, longitudinally peeling. Branches spreading, forming tiers. Branchlets densely brownish yellow tomentose near apex, densely covered with conspicuous leaf scars. Leaves alternate, crowded into pseudo-whorls at apices of branchlets; petiole 0.5–2 cm, stout, tomentose; leaf blade obovate to oblanceolate, narrowed in proximal half, 12–30 × 8–15 cm, both surfaces glabrous or abaxially sparsely softly hairy when young, base narrow, cordate or truncate, apex obtuse or mucronate; lateral veins in 10–12 pairs. Inflorescences axillary, simple, long, slender spikes, 15–20 cm, numerous flowered; axis shortly white tomentose. Flowers fragrant. Calyx tube distally cupular, 7–8 mm, abaxially white tomentose, densely so on ovary, sparsely so on cupular part, adaxially glabrous; lobes 5. Stamens 10, exserted, 2–3 mm. Fruit not stipitate, red or blackish green when ripe, ellipsoid, slightly to strongly compressed, strongly 2-ridged to narrowly 2-winged (wings to 3 mm wide), 3–5.5 × 2–3.5 cm, glabrous; pericarp woody, rigid (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Seed propagated


Top of page

T. catappa is native to the Malaysian Peninsula, Southeast Asia and the Andaman Islands. This species together with Casuarina trees and coconut palms is one of the most common trees across tropical and subtropical coastal habitats (Brown and Cooprider, 2013). It can be found naturalized across tropical and subtropical America, the West Indies, tropical and temperate Asia, and East and West Africa (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991; Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated
BangladeshPresentOrwa et al., 2009
Brunei DarussalamPresent Natural
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeThomson and Evans, 2006Native and cultivated
-Indian PunjabPresent Planted
-KarnatakaPresent Planted
-KeralaPresentPlanted, Natural
-MaharashtraPresent Planted
-OdishaPresentPlanted, Natural
-Tamil NaduPresentPlanted, Natural
-Uttar PradeshPresent Planted
-West BengalPresentPlanted, Natural
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-Irian JayaPresent Natural
-JavaPresent Natural
-KalimantanPresentPlanted, Natural
-MoluccasPresentPlanted, Natural
-SulawesiPresentPlanted, Natural
-SumatraPresentNativeValkenburg and Waluyo, 1991
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresent Natural
LaosPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentPlanted, Natural
-SabahPresentPlanted, Natural
-SarawakPresentPlanted, Natural
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
NepalPresent Planted
PakistanPresentIntroducedValkenburg and Waluyo, 1991Cultivated
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
SingaporePresentOrwa et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentOrwa et al., 2009
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
ThailandPresentNativeThomson and Evans, 2006Native and cultivated
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017


BotswanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Haysom and Murphy, 2003
BurundiPresent Planted
CameroonIntroducedPROTA, 2017
Cape VerdePresent Planted
CongoPresent Planted
Congo Democratic RepublicPresent Planted
GabonIntroducedPROTA, 2017
GambiaPresent Planted
GhanaIntroducedPROTA, 2017
KenyaIntroducedPROTA, 2017
LiberiaIntroducedPROTA, 2017
MadagascarIntroducedValkenburg and Waluyo, 1991Cultivated
MalawiPresent Planted
NigeriaIntroducedPROTA, 2017
RéunionPresentPlanted, Natural
RwandaPresent Planted
SenegalIntroducedPROTA, 2017
SeychellesNativeThomson and Evans, 2006Native and cultivated
SomaliaIntroducedPROTA, 2017
SudanIntroducedPROTA, 2017
TanzaniaIntroducedPROTA, 2017
-ZanzibarIntroducedPROTA, 2017
UgandaIntroducedPROTA, 2017
ZimbabwePresent Planted

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MexicoPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
USARestricted distributionIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
-CaliforniaPresent Planted
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Haysom and Murphy, 2003; FLEPPC, 2017
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 2010
BarbadosPresentIntroduced Invasive Haysom and Murphy, 2003; Broome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015Guana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
CuraçaoPresent Planted
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Mir, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Townsend and Newell, 2006
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
PanamaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Haysom and Murphy, 2003; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015
SabaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
Sint EustatiusPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
Sint MaartenPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015St Croix, St Thomas, St John

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
BoliviaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
BrazilPresentIntroduced Invasive
-AcrePresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-CearaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-PiauiPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-SergipePresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2017
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedMarquete and Loiola, 2015Naturalized
ColombiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yánez, 1999
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yánez, 1999
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
ParaguayPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
PeruPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2010


American SamoaPresentPlanted, Natural
AustraliaPresentNativeThomson and Evans, 2006
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
Cook IslandsPresentPlanted, Natural
FijiPresentNativeThomson and Evans, 2006
French PolynesiaPresentThomson and Evans, 2006Probably aboriginal introduction
GuamPresent Planted
KiribatiPresentPlanted, Natural
Marshall IslandsPresentPlanted, Natural
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentThomson and Evans, 2006Probably aboriginal introduction
New CaledoniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
NiuePresentPlanted, Natural
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent Planted
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeThomson and Evans, 2006
SamoaPresentThomson and Evans, 2006Probably aboriginal introduction
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeThomson and Evans, 2006
TokelauPresentPlanted, Natural
TongaPresentThomson and Evans, 2006Probably aboriginal introduction
TuvaluPresentPlanted, Natural
VanuatuPresentNativeThomson and Evans, 2006
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentPlanted, Natural

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The rind of the fruit, comprising light, pithy/corky tissue, enables the fruits to float and be naturally dispersed long distances by sea currents (Kadambi, 1954; Nakanishi, 1989; Troup and Joshi, 1984). The extent to which its range has also been extended through movement by humans is difficult to determine.

In Hawaii, T. catappa was introduced probably before 1800. Now it can be found naturalized at low altitudes, mainly near beach shores. Similarly, across the archipelagos of Polynesia and Micronesia it is considered an aboriginal introduction to the eastern parts of its current range, widely naturalized across coastal areas (Thomson and Evans, 2006).

In the West Indies, T. catappa appears in herbarium collections made as early as 1871 in the Dominican Republic, 1880 in Martinique, and 1881 in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (US National Herbarium).


Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii 1800 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Thomson and Evans (2006)
Dominican Republic 1871 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No
Martinique 1880 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No
Puerto Rico 1881 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The likelihood of new introductions of T. catappa is very high. This species is extensively commercialized and planted across tropical and subtropical coastal habitats.  Additionally, it is a prolific seed producer and seeds float and can be carried considerable distances by sea currents and still remain viable (Thomson and Evans, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). A risk assessment carried out for PIER (2017), however, gave the species a low risk score of 4.


Top of page

T. catappa grows in coastal thickets, beaches, rocky shores, sand dunes, parks, gardens, and edges of mangrove swamps. It is a pioneer species in disturbed sites across littoral habitats and in sandy areas just above the level of high tides (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991; Thomson and Evans, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). 

Habitat List

Top of page
Inland saline areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Inland saline areas Present, no further details Natural
Inland saline areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Mangroves Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Mangroves Present, no further details Natural
Mangroves Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

The chromosome number reported for T. catappa is 2n = 24 (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991).

Reproductive Biology
T. catappa is an andromonoecious species, with male and perfect flowers occurring on the same tree. Usually perfect flowers occur at the base of the raceme and male flowers directly above. Flowers of both types are greenish-white or light brown. This species yields fruits by autogamy and geitonogamy, but it is also facultatively apomictic. Flowers produce traces of nectar and large quantities of pollen and are visited and pollinated by insects including bees, flies, wasps and ants.

In India the bee genera Trigona and Apis and the fly genera Chrysomya and Sarcophaga are the most important pollinators. Trees growing isolated or in urban areas tend to be totally apomictic (Atluri et al., 2003; Orwa et al., 2009).

Typically 1–5 fruits are formed on the basal part of the flower spike. Fruits are sessile, laterally compressed, ovoid to ovate, smooth-skinned drupes. During maturation, fruits change colour from green, through yellow to bright red or dark purplish-red at full maturity (Coode, 1978; Whistler, 1992a, 1992b; Jensen, 1995). Fruit size varies considerably, e.g. 3.5–7 cm x 2–5.5 cm (Exell, 1954), with Walter and Sam (1993) reporting an exceptional range in length from 2.5 to 10 cm. The kernel consists of two delicate and intricately entwined cotyledons enclosed in an inconspicuous cream-coloured (sometimes red) testa (Evans, 1991).

Physiology and Phenology
T. catappa sheds its leaves all at once, after they have turned yellow/red. In Southeast Asia and Peninsular Malaysia, this process occurs usually twice a year (January–February and July–August). Across tropical America, trees lose their leaves during the dry season (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991; Brown and Cooprider, 2013). 

Flowers normally appear in early summer and fruits follow quite late in the year in India. In China, T. catappa has been recorded flowering from March to June and in October and fruiting in May and from July to September (Orwa et al., 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). Apparently trees never flower when defoliated (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991).

Flowering and fruiting occur sporadically throughout much of the year in Hawaii (Little and Skolmen, 1989), Fiji (Smith, 1985) and Vanuatu (Walter and Sam, 1993), but flowering and fruiting of cultivated trees seem to be more synchronous in Vanuatu. Flowering peaks around October to January and is followed by fruiting around March to June. In the South Pacific, T. catappa produces fruit sporadically throughout the year at lower latitudes, and has heavier crops towards the end of the year at higher latitudes (Evans, 1996). In Samoa, fruiting occurs in June-July and February-March (Foliga and Blaffart, 1995), while in New Guinea the productive period is between November and March, especially December-February (Bourke, 1996).

T. catappa is a perennial (deciduous or semi-deciduous) tree (Thomson and Evans, 2006).

Activity patterns
T. catappa is a fast growing tree at juvenile stages, moderating the speed of growth as it ages (Brown and Cooprider, 2013). In cultivation, plants usually start flowering and fruiting within 2 to 3 years after planting. Seeds may remain viable for a long time. They germinate readily, even after floating in salt water for considerable time periods. Germination typically occurs 3–8 weeks after sowing with germination rates >50% (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991; Thomson and Evans, 2006).

T. catappa is a food plant for the larval stages of the brown awl butterfly Badamia exclamationis. The foliage is also used for feeding tasar or katkura silk­worms (Thomson and Evans, 2006).

Within its native distribution rage, T. catappa often grows associated with species such as Acacia simplex, Tournefortia argentea, Barringtonia asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cocos nucifera, Cordia subcordata, Excoecaria agallocha, Hernandia nymphaeifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Morinda citrifolia, Scaevola taccada, Schleinitzia insularum, Terminalia littoralis, Thespesia populnea, and Vitex trifoliata (Thomson and Evans, 2006).

Environmental Requirements
T. catappa is well-adapted to grow in littoral areas across subtropical and tropical climates with mean annual rainfall ranging from 1000 mm to 3500 mm and mean annual temperatures around 13–36°C. It has the capability to grow in a wide range of soil types, including saline and alkaline sand, sandy loams, loams, and heavy clays with pH ranging from 4.0 to 8.5. Seedlings and saplings tolerate moderate shade levels but require high light levels to grow. Mature trees prefer full sunlight. The species tolerates strong and steady coastal winds, drought, and coastal salt spray (Thomson and Evans, 2006; Brown and Cooprider, 2013).


Top of page
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25 -30 0 800

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 7
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 26
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 32 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 15 17


Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10003500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anastrepha suspensa Fruits/pods not specific
Bactrocera correcta Whole plant not specific
Bactrocera dorsalis Whole plant not specific
Badamia exclamationis Herbivore Whole plant not specific
Ceratitis capitata Fruits/pods not specific
Cryptotermes brevis Antagonist Whole plant not specific
Ophiusa coronata Fruits/pods not specific
Paecilomyces variotii Pathogen Seedlings not specific
Selenothrips rubrocinctus Herbivore Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

T. catappa is susceptible to defoliating insects, especially when young. Seedlings are often defoliated by grasshoppers and beetles in Thailand and Malaysia. In Papua New Guinea, there is a record of trees being killed after attack by beetles of the genus Agrilus which are cambial feeders (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991). In Puerto Rico, the thrip species Selenothrips rubrocintus causes leaf discoloration and premature defoliation of adult trees. Trees are also susceptible to termites (i.e., Cryptotermes brevis). The sapwood is susceptible to attack by Lyctus species. In Asia, the fungus species Paecilomyces variotii causes dieback of seedlings (Orwa et al., 2009).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

T. catappa spreads by seeds. Each tree has the potential to produce large numbers of fruits. The rind of the fruit is a light, pithy, or corky tissue that enables the fruit to float and be dispersed by sea currents. Trees are also found away from coastal areas due to fruits being carried inland and dropped by frugivorous birds and bats, and as a result of deliberate planting by humans (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991; Thomson and Evans, 2006).

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Sea currents can disperse fruits of T. catappa over long distances (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991; Thomson and Evans, 2006).

Intentional Introduction

T. catappa has been widely planted as an ornamental and shade tree in many coastal habitats across tropical and subtropical regions (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991; Thomson and Evans, 2006).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosOrnamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
DisturbanceOften naturalized along roadsides, disturbed littoral habitats Yes Yes Thomson and Evans, 2006
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Thomson and Evans, 2006
FoodFruits edible – consumed by humans Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
ForestryTimber species Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Habitat restoration and improvementTrees planted for sand-dune stabilization Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
HorticultureWidely commercialized as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Medicinal useFruits and leaves Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Ornamental purposesWidely commercialized as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Timber trade Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debrisFruits float- dispersed by sea-currents Yes Yes Thomson and Evans, 2006
WaterFruits float- dispersed by sea-currents Yes Yes Thomson and Evans, 2006

Environmental Impact

Top of page

T. cattapa is a fast-growing species that produces many new seedlings with the potential of invading large areas along the littoral and outcompeting and displacing native vegetation (Gilman and Watson, 1994; ISSG, 2017).

T. cattapa has a deep-rooting system that may alter the dynamics of coastal areas by inhibiting the natural movement of sand dunes and changing soil chemistry. Sand dunes provide habitat for highly specialized plants and animals, which are affected by the presence of this alien species (Smith, 2010; ISSG, 2017).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Panicum fauriei (Carter's panicgrass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011

Social Impact

Top of page

The fruits of T. catappa contain tannic acid that stains cars and other commodities. Trees produce a significant amount of litter, leaves and fruits, which require constant removal from parks and gardens (Brown and Cooprider, 2013). The tree is difficult to manage because of multiple trunks, requiring regular pruning because of its fast growth. Exposed surface root system can also be hazardous to humans, sidewalks and buildings (Gilman and Watson, 1994).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately


Top of page

In the horticultural trade, T. catappa is promoted as an excellent ornamental for coastal areas and valued for its shade, edible fruits and ability to stabilize soils (Brown and Cooprider, 2013). This species has been used medicinally in India, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Caledonia and the leaves are regarded as a contraceptive. The leaves have a sudorific action and are applied to rheumatic joints. The tannin from bark and leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery and thrush. It is also regarded as diuretic and cardiotonic and is applied externally on skin eruptions. In the Philippines a decoction of the leaves is employed as a vermifuge.

The fibrous fruit has a pleasant smell and is edible though not very tasty. Fruit quality can range from sweet to bitter. The kernel is eaten raw or roasted and has an almond-like taste due to the high oil content (Janick and Paull, 2008). The seed is considered delicious and the pale odourless oil it contains is similar to almond oil. The oil is employed in cooking and medicinally as a substitute for true almond oil to relieve abdominal inflammations, and, cooked with the leaves, in treating leprosy, scabies and other skin diseases. The foliage is used as feed for silkworms and other animals (Valkenburg and Waluyo, 1991; Orwa et al., 2009).

T. catappa is often planted for erosion control, land reclamation and soil improvement. This species has a vast root system that binds together both sands and poor soils and it is also a good provider of mulch for the protection of soil and young crops (Thomson and Evans, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009; ISSG, 2017; PROTA, 2017). The tree is often planted in avenues and gardens as a shade tree. It is very well suited for this purpose because of its pagoda-like habit, with long, horizontal branches and large leaves.

The bark and leaves and sometimes roots and green fruits are locally used for tanning leather and provide a black dye, used for dyeing cottons and rattan and as ink. Fruit yield a red dye.

Economic Value
Trees of T. catappa provide a red, good-quality, elastic, cross-grained timber often used for the construction of buildings, boats, bridges, floors, boxes, crates, planks, carts, barrels, wheelbarrows and furniture (Thomson and Evans, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). The distinctive pagoda-like shape of the tree and the red leaves along with its fast growth make it valuable as an ornamental species (Janick and Paull, 2008).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food for silkworms


  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter


  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Fruits
  • Nuts
  • Seeds


  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Gum/resin
  • Lipids
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Resins
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore


  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Wood Products

Top of page



  • Boxes
  • Crates



  • Building poles
  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Bridges
  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Engineering structures
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction
  • Hydraulic works

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood


  • Industrial and domestic woodware

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Biological Control

The ISSG website suggests that bio-control agents could potentially be used in the control and management of T. catappa, but this website does not provide specific information. Beetles, grasshoppers, leaf rollers, leaf miners, fruit flies have been observed to affecting plants at different stages in India, Malaysia, Puerto Rico and Costa Rica and could potentially be used for its bio-control. However, further investigation is needed to establish the effectiveness of such vectors, as well as their possibility of becoming invasive species themselves (ISSG, 2017).

Chemical Control

In Florida (USA) areas invaded by T. catappa are treated with basal applications of herbicides such as triclopyr (Hadden et al., 2005). In Santa Catarina, Brazil, cutting the tree and applying 4% triclopyr to the stump was the most effective treatment for T. catappa (Dechoum and Ziller, 2013).


Top of page Burgess PF, 1966. Timbers of Sabah. Sabah Forest Records 6. Forest Department, Sabah, Malaysia, 82-85.

Corner EJH, 1988. Wayside trees of Malaya. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. The Malayan Nature Society. United Selangor Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 193-194.

Exell WA, 1954. Combretaceae. In: van Steenis CGGJ, ed. Flora Malesiana, Series I, 4(5):566-568.

Morton JF, 1985. Indian almond (Terminalia catappa), salt-tolerant, useful, tropical tree with 'nut' worthy of improvement. Economic Botany, 39(2): 101-112.


Top of page

Abdul Assis, Gopikumar K, Anoop EV, Assis A, 1992. Correlation studies between seed and seedling characters in Terminalia species. Myforest, 28(2):159-163; 2 fig. (unpaginated); 14 ref

Abdullahi AH, Anelli G, 1980. Rivista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale, 74: 245

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

Addison GH, Henderson MR, 1953. Notes on the planting of ornamental and shade trees in Malaya, with additional notes on Palms and hedges. Malay Forester, 16 (3), (131-46 + 12 photos)

Akanbi MO, 1988. The immature stages and chptotaxy of Epicerura pulverulenta Hampson (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). Insect Science and its Application, 9(5):659-664

Akanbi MO, 1990. Biology, behaviour and seasonal fluctuations of Epicerura pulverulenta Hampson (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). Discovery and Innovation, 2(2):85-90

Atluri JB, Rao SP, Reddi SC, 2000. Self-incompatibility, nectar resorption and cross-pollination in the Indian laurel Terminalia tomentosa (Combretaceae). International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 26: 27-36

Benthal AP, 1946. The Trees of Calcutta and its neighbourhood. Calcutta, India: Thacker Spink & Co. Ltd. 513 p

Boczek J, Davis R, 1984. New species of eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea). Florida Entomologist, 67(2):198-213

Bolza E, 1975. Properties and uses of 175 timber species from Papua New Guinea and West Irian. Division of Building Research Report, CSIRO, No.34, 35pp.; 24 ref

Bolza E, Kloot NH, 1972. The mechanical properties of 56 Fijian timbers. Division of Forest Products Technological Paper, CSIRO, No. 62, 51pp.; 13 ref

Bourke M, 1996. Edible indigenous nuts in Papua New Guinea: - their potential for commercial development. WANATCA Yearbook, 20:37-40

Bourke RM, 1996. Edible indigenous nuts in Papua New Guinea. In:Stevens ML, Bourke RM, Evans BR, eds, South Pacific indigenous nuts. Proceedings of a workshop 31 October-4 November 1994, Le Lagon Resort, Port Vila, Vanuatu, 45-55; 17 ref

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies.

Brown SH, Cooprider K, 2013. Terminalia catappa. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Lee County Extension, Florida.

Burgess PF, 1966. Timbers of Sabah. Sabah Forest Record No. 6. Sabah, Sandakan: Forest Department

Cambie RC, Ash J, 1994. Fijian medicinal plants. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia

Cervantes-Reza FA, Horelano-Moncada Y, 1987. Terminalia cattapa (Combretaceae) fruits on the ground at Parque Nacional Cahuita, eastern Costa Rica. Tropical Ecology, 28(2):259-263; 6 ref

Chaubey BB, Dobriyal PB, Kumar S, 1986. Structural factors affecting penetration of fluids in Indian hardwoods: a microscopic study. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India, 32(2):5-11; 4 pl.; 8 ref

Common IFB, Waterhouse DF, 1981. Butterflies of Australia. CSIRO Australia.

Coode MJE, 1969. Manual of the forest trees of Papua and New Guinea. Part 1 (revised issue)-Combretaceae. Division of Botany, Department of Forests, Lae, New Guinea. 1969. pp. 86 + 8 maps

Coode MJE, 1973. Notes on Terminalia L. (Combretaceae) in Papuasia. Contributions from Herbarium Australiense, No. 2, 33 pp. + 1 map; 15 ref

Coode MJE, 1978. Combretaceae. IN: Womersley JS, ed, Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea. Vol. 1. Melbourne, Australia; Melbourne University Press

Corner EJH, 1988. Wayside trees of Malaya in two volumes (3rd edition). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Malayan Nature Society

Dagar HS, 1989. Plants used as abortifacient and contraceptive by the Nicobarese. Journal of the Andaman Science Association, 5(2):169-170; 10 ref

Das SR, 1993. Notes on plant pathogenic fungi on fruit trees hitherto not recorded in Orissa. Orissa Journal of Horticulture, 21(1/2):89-94; 5 ref

Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. Flora Mesoamericana. 4(1): i–xvi, 1–855. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden

Dechoum M de S, Ziller SR, 2013. Control techniques for invasive alien plants. Biotemas, 26(1):69-77

Degener O, 1946. Flora Hawaiensis (new illustrated Flora of the Hawaiian Islands). Books 1-4. 2nd edition. Author, Riverdale, New York, USA

Dias MM, 1978. Morphology and biology of Citheronia laocoon (Cramer, 1777) (Lepidoptera, Adelocephalidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 22(3/4):167-197

Dixon RG, 1970. Species trials and investigations for forestry department. Silvicultural Circular No 1. Apia, Western Samoa; Department of Forestry

Drury H, 1873. The useful plants of India. Second edition. London, UK; Allen

Esposito-Avella M, Brown P, Tejeira I, Buitrago R, Barrios L, Sanchez C, Gupta MP, Cedeno J, 1985. Pharmacological screening of Panamanian medicinal plants. Part 1. International Journal of Crude Drug Research, 23(1):17-25; 5 ref

Evans BR, 1991. A variety collection of edible nut tree crops in Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 8. Dodo Creek Research Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara, Solomon Islands. 96 pp

Evans BR, 1996. Overview of Resource Potential for Indigenous Nut Production in the South Pacific. In: Stevens ML, Bourke RM, Evans BR (eds.): South Pacific Indigenous Nuts Workshop. Port Vila, Vanuatu. ACIAR Proceedings No. 69:10-35

Exell AW, 1953. Florae Malesianae precursores IV. New species of Terminalia from Malaysia. Blumea 1953. 7 (2), (322-8)

Exell AW, 1954. Combretaceae. In: Flora Malesiana, series 1, vol 4 (5), 533-589 (Van Steenis CG, ed.)

Fenton R, Roper RE, Watt GR, 1977. Lowland tropical hardwoods. An annotated bibliography of selected species with plantation potential. Wellington, New Zealand: External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Fisher JB, 1985. Induction of reaction wood in Terminalia (Combretaceae): roles of gravity and stress. Annals of Botany, 55(2):237-248; 15 ref

Fisher JB, Hibbs DE, 1982. Plasticity of tree architecture: specific and ecological variations found in Aubreville's model. American Journal of Botany, 69(5):690-702; 23 ref

FLEPPC, 2017. Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council lists of invasive plants in Florida.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.

Foliga T, Blaffart H, 1995. 20 Western Samoan species. Watershed management and conservation education project working paper. Apia, Samoa: Government of Western Samoa/UNDP/FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization, 1982. Fruit-bearing forest trees: technical notes. FAO Forestry Paper, No. 34, v + 177 pp.; Also available in Fr and Es; many ref

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, 1981. Terminalia L. (Combretaceae) in eastern Polynesia. Smithsonian Contr. Bot., 47: 13-17

Francis JK, 1989. Terminalia catappa L. Indian almond, almendra. Combretaceae. Combretum family. Publication No. SO-ITF-SM-23, Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. 4 pp.; 35 ref

Fronius K, Haupthoff W, 1986. A German sawmill foreman in the tropics. [Ein deutscher Sagewerksmeister in den Tropen.] Holz Zentralblatt, 112(16):225-226, 232

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp

Gamble JS, 1922. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Dehradun, India: Bishen Singh and Mahendra Pal Singh

Genaro J, Kingsolver JM, 1997. Amblycerus schwarzi (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) attacking the seeds of the tropical-almond terminalia (Combretaceae) in Cuba. Entomological News, 108(3): 229-230

Gerlach J, 1996. Native or introduced plant species? Phelsuma, 4: 70-74

Gilman E, Watson D, 1994. Terminalia catappa: Tropical-Almond. Report ENH-784. UF/IFAS, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Gopakumar S, Gopikumar K, 1993. Standardisation of containers for growth and vigour of tree seedlings in the nursery. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 6(1):26-36; 5 ref

Graham SA, 1964. The genera of Rhizophoraceae and Combretaceae in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 45 (3), (285-301). 85 refs

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text]

Guzman E de, Umali RM, Sotalbo ED, 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Center, Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippine. Manila, Philippines: JMC Press Inc

Hadden K, Frank K, Byrd C, 2005. Identification Guide For Invasive Exotic Plants of the Florida Key. The Nature Conservancy, USA.

Hasei HF, 1981. L'utilizzazione dei semi di Terminalia catappa per la produzione di olio alimentare [Use of the seeds of Terminalia catappa for the production of edible oil]. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, National University, Somalia. ii + 35 pp.; 14 ref

Hawkeswood TJ, 1986. New larval host records for eight Australian jewel beetles (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Giornale Italiano di Entomologia, 3(12):173-177

Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. The status of invasiveness of forest tree species outside their natural habitat: a global review and discussion paper. Rome, Italy: FAO.

Hayward DF, 1990. The phenology and economic potential of Terminalia catappa L. in south-central Ghana. Vegetatio, 90(2):125-131; 16 ref

Hearne DA, 1975. Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service

Heinsleigh TE, Holaway BK, 1988. Agroforestry species for the Philippines. Metro Manila Philippines: US Peace Corps, AJA Printers

Henderson CP, Hancock IR, 1988. A guide to the Useful Plants of Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands Research Department/Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2010. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela. 1–859. Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela

I3N-Brasil, 2017. National Database of Invasive Alien Species. Florianópolis, Brazil: Horus Institute for Development and Environmental Conservation.

Instituto Horus, 2011. Alien Invasive Species: Fact Sheets., Brazil.

ISSG, 2017. Species profile for Terminalia catappa in the Global Invasive Species Database.

Ivani Sde A, Silva e Silva BMda, Oliveira Cde, Môro FV, 2008. Morphology of the fruit, the seed and the seedlings of chestnut tree (Terminalia catappa L. - Combretaceae). (Morfologia de frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira (Terminalia catappa L. - Combretaceae).) Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 30(2):517-522.

Jain DK, Pant SC, 1988. Treatment of processed timber for structural use - I Immersion treatment with organic solvent type preservatives. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India, 34(4):32-36; 4 ref

Janick, J., Paull, R. E., 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, [ed. by Janick, J., Paull, R. E.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.xviii + 954 pp. doi:10.1079/9780851996387.0000

Jensen M, 1995. Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: an illustrated field guide. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO-Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP), No-38, vii + 229 pp.; 29 ref

Joyeux M, Mortier F, Fleurentin J, 1995. Screening of antiradical, antilipoperoxidant and hepatoprotective effects of nine plant extracts used in Caribbean folk medicine. Phytotherapy Research, 9(3):228-230; 7 ref

Jørgensen PM, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75: 1–1181

Kadambi K, 1954. Terminalia catappa, Linn., its silviculture and management. Indian Forester, 80 (11), (718-20 + 1 photo + 1 map). 11 refs

Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. xxi + 362 pp.; 24 pl. (col.); 146 ref. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press

Kininmonth JA, 1982. Properties and uses of the timbers of Western Samoa. Indigenous hardwoods. Rotorua, New Zealand: Forestry Research Institute. 1982, iii + 56 pp.; 2 pl. (1 col.); 7 ref

Krishnapillay B, Marzalina M, Haris Mohd, 1993. Seeds and fruits of some common tropical species used as medicine by folk healers. Buletin FRIM, 3(2):9-11

Kroll R, 1996. Les petits fruits [Small fruits]. Paris, France; Editions Maisonneuve et Larose: 142 pp

Kumar S, Ponnuswami V, Irulappan I, Arumugam R, 1991. Variability studies in Indian almond Terminalia catappa L. South Indian Horticulture, 39(6):374-376; 1 ref

Kumar S, Sharma RP, Dobriyal PB, Chaubey BB, 1990. Pressure impregnation of hardwoods: treatment schedules for easy-to-treat Indian hardwoods. Wood and Fiber Science, 22(1):3-9; 13 ref

Lanting MV, Jr, 1982. Germination of talisai (Terminalia catappa Linn.) seeds. Sylvatrop, 7(1): 27-34

Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers

Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N (Editors), 1991. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 3. Dye and tannin-producing plants. pp.195

Lepofsky D, 1992. Arboriculture in the Mussau Islands, Bismarck Archipelago. Economic Botany, 46(2):192-211; 21 ref

Little EL Jr, Skolmen RG, 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). Agriculture Handbook Washington, 679. Washington, DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Ed. 2: xvi + 858 pp. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Mahendra Phulwaria, Kheta Ram, Harish, Gupta AK, Shekhawat NS, 2012. Micropropagation of mature Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond), a medicinally important forest tree. Journal of Forest Research, 17(2):202-207.

Marquete N, Loiola MIB, 2015. Combretaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.

Martel F, 1998. Rapid rural assessment survey in Samoa, final report. South Pacific Regional Initiative on Forest Genetic Resources (SPRIG)

Matanmi BA, 1988. An outbreak of suspected virosis amongst natural populations of Epicerura pulverulenta Hampson (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 9(1-2):7-10

Mathew G, 1989. Natural enemies of the bagworm, Pteroma plagiophleps Hampson (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Kerala (India). Entomon, 14(3-4):335-338

Maximo V, Lanting JR, 1982. Germination of talisai (Terminalia catappa Linn.) seeds. Sylvatrop, 7(1): 27-32

Mbuya LP, Msanga HP, Ruffo CK, Birnie A, Tengnas B, 1994. Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania: identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities. Technical Handbook: Regional Soil Conservation Unit, Nairobi

Media Komunikasi Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri (Malaysia), 1991. Tumbuhan yang berkhasiat melancarkan air susu ibu.] Media Komunikasi Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri, No. 8, 32-35

Medina-Gaud S, Bennett FD, Franqui RA, 1991. New records of, and notes on, whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 75(3):297-299

Mercer CWL, 1985. Agrilus sp. (Buprestidae) attack on Terminalia catappa L. around the University of Technology Campus [Papua New Guinea]. Klinkii, 3(1):103-105

Mercer CWL, 1986. Research note on Agrilus viridissimus Cobos (Buprestidae). Klinkii, 3(2):89; 3 ref

Mir C, 2012. Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras Realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo, República Dominicana

Mitchell BA, 1964. Ornamental, roadside and shade trees. Malay. Forester 27 (2), (96-144 + 22 photos). 7 refs

Morton JF, 1985. Indian almond (Terminalia catappa), salt-tolerant, useful, tropical tree with "nut" worthy of improvement. Economic Botany, 39(2):101-112; 4 pl.; 47 ref

Nakanishi H, 1989. Dispersal ecology of the maritime plants in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Ecological Research, 3(2):163-173

Ngiefu CK, Paquot C, Vieux A, 1976. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. I. Botanical families providing oils of relatively low unsaturation. [Les plantes a huile du Zaire. I. Familles botaniques fournissant des huiles d'insaturation relativement faible.] Oleagineux, 31(7):335-337; 22 ref

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., et al. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Pacheco de Torres J, 1941. Estudo do lenho de algumas especies florestais de Timor. [A study of the wood of some forest tree species of Timor.] Rev. agron., Lisboa 29 (1), (56-86 + plates)

Papdiwal PB, Deshpande KB, 1979. Occurrence of Xanthomonas pruni (E.F. Smith) Dowson on Terminalia catappa L. Marathwada University Journal of Science (Natural Sciences), 18(11):37-38

Paschoal M, Galetti M, 1995. Seasonal food use by the neotropical squirrel Sciurus ingrami in southeastern Brazil. Biotropica, 27(2):268-273; 33 ref

Pedley L, 1990. Terminalia. In: Flora of Australia. Volume 18. Podostemaceae to Combretaceae. Canberra, Australia; Bureau of Flora and Fauna/Australian Government Publishing Service

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.

Pierlot R, 1958. Report on exotic afforestation species grown in the Belgian Congo and Ruanda Urundi. [Document] 2nd Session Inter-African Forestry Conference, Pointe Noire 1958. pp. 51. Limited distribution

Prins H, Maghembe JA, 1994. Germination studies on seed of fruit trees indigenous to Malawi. In: Maghembe JA, ed, Special Issue: Agroforestry research in the African miombo ecozone. Proceedings of a regional conference on agroforestry research in the African miombo ecozone held in Lilongwe, Malawi, 16-22 June 1991. Forest Ecology and Management, 64(2/3):111-125

PROTA, 2017. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.

Ranganath HR, Veenakumari K, D'Souza C, 1994. Bactrocera dorsalis A reported from Andaman Islands. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 42(1/2):71-72

Rekhate DH, Honmode J, 1983. Studies on forage vegetations with reference to selective grazing in sheep. Transactions of Indian Society of Desert Technology and University Centre of Desert Studies, 8(2):72-75; 9 ref

Reyes CG, Palicpic FB, Tenorio IO, 1991. Kapok, Silkcotton tree; Talisai and Dita. Research Information Series on Ecosystems (RISE), 3(10):20-26

Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions, 17: 149-163

Sankaran KV, Sharma JK, 1987. Three new hosts of pink disease caused by Corticium salmonicolor in Kerala. Indian Journal of Forestry, 10(3):198-199

Schutt P, Schuck HJ, Aas G, Lang UM, eds, 1994. Encyclopaedia of woody plants: manual and atlas of dendrology. [Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie]. Landsberg am Lech, Germany: Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft

Sen R, Halder AC, Pal DC, 1987. Botany and ethnobotany of Indian almond. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 10(1): 239-240

Sloover JR de, Fagnant M, De Sloover JR, 1994. Buttresses of tropical forest trees and spatial competition. Phytocoenologia, 24: 573-577; 10 ref

Smith AC, 1971. Studies of Pacific Island plants, XXIV. The genus Terminalia (Combretaceae) in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. Brittonia 23 (4), (394-412). [5 ref.]

Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 3: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 117-163. Lawai, Kauai, Hawai: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. vi + 758 pp

Smith RL, 2010. Invasive Alien Plant Species of the Bahamas and Biodiversity Management. Thesis. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio

Snaith WA, 1973. Forestry development by a bauxite mining company. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 52(1):79-81

Sosef MSM, Boer E, Keating WG, Sudo S, Phuphathanaphong L, 1995. Terminalia. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds, Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden, Netherlands; Backhuys Publishers: 474-492

Stevens ML, Bourke RM, Evans BR, eds, 1996. South Pacific indigenous nuts. 1996, 174 pp.; ACIAR Proceedings No. 69; many ref

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press

Suresh S, Ramamurthy R, Venugopal MS, 1994. New record of host plants of cashew leaf webber, Macalla (Lamida) moncusalis Walker (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera) in India. Journal of Insect Science, 7(2):221

Szolnoki TW, 1985. Food and fruit trees of The Gambia. Hamburg, Germany: Stiftung Walderhaltung in Afrika. Published in conjunction with the Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Forst- und Holzwirtschaft

Taide YB, Babu LC, Abraham CC, 1994. Influence of host species in the initial growth and development of sandal (Santalum album Linn.). Indian Journal of Forestry, 17(4):288-292; 8 ref

Thaman RR, Whistler WA, 1996. A review of uses and status of trees and forests in land-use systems in Samoa, Tonga, Kiribati and Tuvalu with recommendations for future action. Working paper 5. South Pacific Forestry Development Programme, RAS/92/361

Thomson LAJ, Evans B, 2006. Terminalia catappa (tropical almond). In: Elevitch CR, (ed). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii.

Tigvatananont S, Areekul S, 1984. The economic importance of the fruit fly Dacus zonatus (Saunders) in Thailand. Kasetsart Journal, 18(3):180-185

Townsend S, Newell D, 2006. Technical Progress Report. I3N Database in Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: Natural History Division, Institute of Jamaica

Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2017. Lists of Invasive species in Trinidad and Tobago.

Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1984. Troup's The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Volume V. Delhi, India: Controller of Publications

United States Department of Agriculture, 1978. Hawaii pest report. Cooperative Plant Pest Report, 3(44/47):620

Uriarte MT, 1994. Air-pollution resistant species recommended for urban areas (A. Highly resistant species). Techno-Info Series, 4(1) Jan-March. Quezon City, Philippines: ERDS-NCR-DENR

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA.

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Valkenburg JLCH van, Waluyo EB, 1991. Terminalia catappa L. Record from Proseabase. Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipt N, (Eds). PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.

Vieux AS, Kabele-Ngiefu C, 1970. A study of some oil plants in the Congo Democratic Republic [Congo-Brazzaville]. Oleagineux, Paris 25, (395-9). [Fr, en, es, 20 ref.)

Walter A, Sam C, 1993. A variety collection of nut trees and fruit trees in Vanuatu. Note Technique, No. 15. Port-Vila, Vanuatu (unpublished)

Walter A, Sam C, 1996. Indigenous nut trees in Vanuatu: ethnobotany and variability. In: Stevens ML, Bourke RM, Evans BR, eds, South Pacific indigenous nuts. Proceedings of a workshop 31 October-4 November 1994, Le Lagon Resort, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR): 56-66

Wheatley JI, 1992. A guide to the common trees of Vanuatu with lists of their traditional uses & ni-Vanuatu names. 1992, xi + 308 pp.; 13 ref

Whistler WA, 1992. Flowers of the Pacific Island Seashore. A guide to the littoral plants of Hawai'i, Tahiti, Samoa, Tonga, Cook Islands, Fiji and Micronesia. Honolulu, Hawaii: Isle Botanica

Whistler WA, 1992. Tongan Herbal Medicine. Isle Botanica, Hawaii, USA

Whistler WA, 1996. Samoa Herbal Medicine. O le Siosiomaga Society Inc. of Western Samoa. Isle Botanica, Hawaii, USA

Whitmore TC, 1966. Guide to the forests of the British Solomon Islands. pp. xi + 208. Oxford University Press, London

Yen DE, 1974. Arboriculture in the subsistence of Santa Cruz, Solomon Islands. Economic Botany, 28(3):247-284; 47 ref

Links to Websites

Top of page
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.


Top of page

13/04/17 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map