Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tecoma capensis
(Cape honeysuckle)

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Datasheet

Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tecoma capensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Cape honeysuckle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. capensis is an evergreen vine-like shrub that is widely cultivated in tropical areas and in warm temperate regions of the world as an ornamental and hedge plant (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers and leaves. Keokea, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers and leaves. Keokea, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers and leaves. Keokea, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
HabitTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers and leaves. Keokea, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
FlowersTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); habit with flowers. Holiday Inn Express Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. December 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); habit with flowers. Holiday Inn Express Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. December 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); habit with flowers. Holiday Inn Express Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. December 2007.
HabitTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); habit with flowers. Holiday Inn Express Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. December 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); open seedpod. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
TitleSeedpod
CaptionTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); open seedpod. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); open seedpod. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
SeedpodTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); open seedpod. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tecoma capensis (Thunb.) Lindl.

Preferred Common Name

  • Cape honeysuckle

Other Scientific Names

  • Bignonia capensis Thunb.
  • Ducoudraea capensis Bureau
  • Gelseminum capense (Lindl.) Kuntze
  • Tecoma petersii Klotzsch
  • Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Spach
  • Tecomaria capensis var. flava Verdc.
  • Tecomaria krebsii Klotzsch
  • Tecomaria petersii Klotzsch

International Common Names

  • English: tecoma; fire flower; flame vine; red tecoma
  • Spanish: bejuco trompeta; flor trompeta; jazmín trompeta
  • French: bignone; bouquet; jasmin du Cap; técome; bignone du Cap; chèvrefeuille du Cap
  • German: Kapgeißblatt

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: bignonia de río; jazmín de virginia; jazmín trompeta
  • Dominican Republic: flor trompeta; jazmín trompeta; bejuco trompeta; terebinto
  • Germany: Trompetenwinde, Kapländische
  • Italy: bignonia del Capo
  • South Africa: umsilingi ; malangula
  • Sweden: kaptrumpet
  • USA/Hawaii: ‘i‘iwi haole

EPPO code

  • TEOCA (Tecomaria capensis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. capensis is an evergreen vine-like shrub that is widely cultivated in tropical areas and in warm temperate regions of the world as an ornamental and hedge plant (Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2016). T. capensis spreads by wind-dispersed seeds, but also by cuttings and rooted suckers which are traits that have helped it to escape from cultivation and become naturalized in secondary forests, forest margins and ruderal sites (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). Currently, it is listed as invasive in Cuba, the Azores, Madeira, Australia and New Zealand, mainly due to its scrambling habit and the capability to form dense thickets that smother other plants (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; DAISIE, 2016; ISSG, 2016Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Bignoniaceae
  •                             Genus: Tecomaria
  •                                 Species: Tecoma capensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Bignoniaceae includes about 110 genera and 800 species (Stevens, 2012) of trees, shrubs, and lianas distributed predominantly in the Neotropics, but also in Africa and tropical Asia (Olmstead et al., 2009). Approximately half of both genera and species belong to the New World endemic tribe Bignonieae, which comprise a major component of the neotropical liana flora (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Olmstead et al., 2009).

Tecoma is a small genus comprising between 10 and 14 species (Wood, 2008; The Plant List, 2013), with two species being found in southern Africa and the remainder in tropical America. The African species have sometimes been treated as a separate genus: Tecomaria, but botanists working on this family considered that there was no robust morphological evidence to support the separation from Tecoma and thus they should be treated as one (Wood, 2008; Stevens, 2012). More recently, however, molecular studies have shown that Tecomaria is in fact more closely related to the genus Podranea (the only other African member of the clade Tecomeae) than to the genus Tecoma (Olmstead et al., 2009). Mutshinyalo and Notten (2016), therefore, state that the genus Tecomaria has been reinstated for the African species, and Tecoma kept for New World species. This datasheet follows The Plant List (2013) in using Tecoma capensis.

Despite the common name Cape honeysuckle for this species, it is not closely related to the true honeysuckle, Lonicera spp. The species name capensis means ‘of or from the Cape’, referring to the native range in the Cape of South Africa. Tecoma is a contraction of the Mexican name for one of the species: tecomaxachitl (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016).

Description

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T. capensis is a clambering or semi-erect shrub, 3-4 m in length. Stems cylindrical, lenticellate, puberulous; cross section of the mature stem with peripheral phloem not forming a cross. Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, 7-11-foliolate, without tendrils; leaflets 1.5-4.2 × 1-3 cm, elliptical to sub-rounded, membranaceous, sessile, the apex rounded, the base rounded or abruptly cuneate, the margins serrate; upper surface dull, pale, with slightly prominent venation; lower surface light green, dull, punctate, with slightly prominent venation, forming a conspicuous network, with tufts of hairs in the axils; petioles 1.5-2.5 cm long; pseudo-stipules absent. Flowers numerous in axillary racemes; pedicel 6-10 mm long. Calyx green, 5-7 mm long, 5-dentate, ciliate, puberulent; corolla orange or reddish orange, tubular, curved, 3.5-5 cm long, with 5 oblong, unequal lobes, the 2 upper lobes smaller than the 3 lower; stamens 4, of equal length; ovary superior, oblong, glabrous. Capsule linear, 5-11 cm long and 7-8 mm wide; seeds in 2 rows, slender, 2-winged, the wings hyaline-membranaceous (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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T. capensis is native to southern Africa (i.e., South Africa, Swaziland and southern Mozambique) (PROTA, 2016; Ulloa, 2016). In South Africa, it is widely distributed throughout Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and along the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape coasts (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016). It is widely commercialized and cultivated as an ornamental in Europe, India, Singapore, Australia, tropical America and on islands in the Indian and the Pacific Oceans (PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
China
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009Cultivated

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeUlloa, 2016
Central African RepublicPresentNativeUlloa, 2016
ChadPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
KenyaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016; Witt and Luke, 2017
LesothoPresentNativePROTA, 2016
MalawiPresentNativeUlloa, 2016
MozambiquePresentNativeUlloa, 2016
RéunionPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
RwandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
South AfricaPresentNativeUlloa, 2016
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016Naturalized
SwazilandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
TanzaniaPresentNativeUlloa, 2016
UgandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
ZambiaPresentNativePROTA, 2016

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
MexicoPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-CaliforniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016Cultivated
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-HawaiiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016Cultivated

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016Naturalized
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Tortola
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016Cultivated
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016Cultivated
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al., 2004
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
SabaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016Cultivated
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St Croix, St Thomas

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
BoliviaPresentIntroducedJørgensen et al., 2014
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011
EcuadorPresentIntroducedUlloa, 2016
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Isla Margarita

Europe

Italy
-SicilyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Listed as Tecomaria capensis
Portugal
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016Listed as Tecomaria capensis
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016Listed as Tecomaria capensis
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Listed as Tecomaria capensis

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2007Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2013Listed as Tecomaria capensis
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994Cultivated
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2016
NiuePresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2016Naturalized
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Naturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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T. capensis has been widely cultivated as an ornamental for its showy and bright flowers (Orwa et al., 2009). This species was introduced to the United States from South Africa in 1954 (Everett, 1982). In Australia, it can be found widely naturalized in the coastal districts of Queensland, in the coastal districts of central and northern New South Wales, and in eastern Victoria (Weeds of Australia, 2016). It was introduced into Hawaii in the early 1900’s and is grown as an ornamental hedge plant (ZipCodeZoo, 2016). In New Zealand it was reported as naturalized in 1958 (NZPCN, 2016). In the West Indies it appears in herbarium collections made in 1886 in Puerto Rico, 1907 in Jamaica, 1908 in Bermuda and in 1911 in Cuba (Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA South Africa 1954 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Everett (1982)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of T. capensis is high. Risk assessment evaluations have shown that this species has the potential to escape from cultivation and become naturalized and invasive in natural areas. In addition, it is well adapted to a wide variety of habitats and soil types (PIER, 2016; ISSG, 2016). In a Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawaii, it was given a score of 6, Evaluate (PIER, 2016).

Habitat

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T. capensis grows in moist areas, dry scrublands, on slopes of rocky hills, and in woodlands at elevations from sea level up to 2300 m. It can also be found in forest margins but more commonly along drainage lines (Orwa et al., 2009). In South Africa, T. capensis occurs on coastal dune scrubs, woodlands and dry thickets (PROTA, 2016), and occasionally in forest margins (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016). In Puerto Rico it is cultivated in gardens along the Cordillera Central (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for T. capensis is 2n=36 (PROTA, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

The flowers of T. capensis are visited and pollinated by nectar-feeding birds, especially sunbirds. Flowers are also by visited by honeybees and butterflies (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016; PROTA, 2016). 

Physiology and Phenology

T. capensis is a perennial fast-growing vine-like shrub (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In southern Africa, T. capensis has been recorded flowering from June to November and fruiting from October to February (Orwa et al., 2009). In Puerto Rico, it has been collected in flower in February and March (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Associations

In Southern Africa the larvae of two hawkmoth species Acherontia atropos and Coelonia mauritii have been reported eating the leaves of T. capensis (PROTA, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

T. capensis thrives in both wet and dry habitats on areas with full to partial sun. It prefers to grow on well-drained, fertile soil with pH ranging from 5.5 to 7.8  (Staples and Herbst, 2005; PROTA, 2016). Plants are salt-tolerant and remarkably tolerant to drought periods (Orwa et al., 2009; Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
37 40

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 22 26
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10 17

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7501750mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acherontia atropos Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
Alfalfa mosaic virus Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Coelonia mauritii Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
Phytophthora palmivora Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The pathogenic fungus Phytophthora palmivora and the Alfalfa mosaic virus have been detected on T. capensis (Orwa et al., 2009; Lockhart and Mollov, 2012). In Southern Africa the larvae of two hawkmoth species Acherontia atropos and Coelonia mauritii have been reported eating the leaves of T. capensis (PROTA, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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T. capensis spreads by seeds and vegetatively by runners (i.e., plants root wherever they touch the ground: Staples and Herbst, 2005). T. capensis seeds have two membranous wings and are dispersed by wind (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosGrown in botanical gardens Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
DisturbanceOccur in secondary forests and along drainage lines Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation/gardens Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Hedges and windbreaksOften grown as an ornamental hedge plant Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
HorticultureOrnamental – showy flowers Yes Yes Everett, 1982
Internet salesSeeds sold online Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesCommercialized as ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesCapsules and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes NZPCN, 2016
WindWinged seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2016

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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T. capensis is regarded as an environmental weed in Queensland and New South Wales (Weeds of Australia, 2016). Additionally, it has been listed as invasive in Cuba, the Azores, Madeira, New Zealand and Australia mainly due to its scrambling habit. This species spreads and becomes naturalized in natural areas where it can grow forming dense thickets that smother native vegetation (Oviedo et al., 2012; DAISIE, 2016; ISSG, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). In New Zealand this invasive species has a strong tendency to ramble if left uncut, and ability to layer itself indefinitely away from the original hedge site (NZPCN, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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T. capensis is planted to protect surrounding soil from erosion. The foliage is readily browsed by stock and game. Because the flowers are rich in nectar, it is sometimes planted by beekeepers as a food source for honey bees. It is often planted in gardens and parks to attract birds and butterflies (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2016; Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016).

Economic Value

T. capensis is widely commercialized as an ornamental garden plant. It is commonly planted for screening and decorative purposes. It can also be trimmed to form hedges (Orwa et al., 2009; Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Social Benefit

In Southern Africa, the powdered bark of this species is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of fever, pneumonia and stomach troubles, also rubbed on bleeding gums to promote blood clotting. A leaf decoction is used to treat diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation (Orwa et al., 2009; Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Seed trade

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

Even though T. capensis has been listed as invasive in many countries, there is no information available for the mitigation, control or management of this species.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions to U.S. National Herbarium, 51:1-483. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/PRFlora/vines.html

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Correa A, Galdames C, Stapf M, 2004. Panama, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.599 pp.

DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Everett TH, 1982. USA, Taylor & Francis.

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Medellín, Colombia, Universidad de Antioquia.939 pp.

ISSG, 2016. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Jørgensen PM, Nee MH, Beck SG, 2014. Catalogue of vascular plants of Bolivia. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 127:1-1744

Lockhart BE, Mollov D, 2012. First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus Occurrence in Tecoma capensis in the USA. Plant Management Network. https://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2012/honeysuckle/

MacKee HS, 1994. Paris, France, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.164 pp.

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Mutshinyalo TT, Notten A, 2016. Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Spach. In: PlantZAfrica.com - Online resources. Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden. http://pza.sanbi.org/tecomaria-capensis

NZPCN, 2016. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Olmstead RG, Zjhra ML, Lohmann LG, Grose SO, Eckert AJ, 2009. A molecular phylogeny and classification of Bignoniaceae. American Journal of Botany, 96, 1731-1743.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

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ZipCodeZoo, 2016. Online information for Tecoma capensis. http://zipcodezoo.com/index.php?title=Tecoma_capensis&redirect=no

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
PlantzAfrica fact-sheet for Tecomaria capensishttp://pza.sanbi.org/tecomaria-capensis
The New Zealand Plant Conservation Networkhttp://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2824

Contributors

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07/10/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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