Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tectona grandis
(teak)

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Datasheet

Tectona grandis (teak)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tectona grandis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • teak
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
The largest teak in India with a height of 49 m and a dbh of 224 cm. Located at Idamalayar in Malayattur Forest Division, Kerala State, India.
TitleTree
CaptionThe largest teak in India with a height of 49 m and a dbh of 224 cm. Located at Idamalayar in Malayattur Forest Division, Kerala State, India.
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
The largest teak in India with a height of 49 m and a dbh of 224 cm. Located at Idamalayar in Malayattur Forest Division, Kerala State, India.
TreeThe largest teak in India with a height of 49 m and a dbh of 224 cm. Located at Idamalayar in Malayattur Forest Division, Kerala State, India. Subhash Kuriakose/KFRI
58-year-old plantation in Nellikkutha, Nilambur, Kerala.
TitlePlantation
Caption58-year-old plantation in Nellikkutha, Nilambur, Kerala.
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
58-year-old plantation in Nellikkutha, Nilambur, Kerala.
Plantation58-year-old plantation in Nellikkutha, Nilambur, Kerala.Subhash Kuriakose/KFRI
After first thinning.
TitleYoung plantation
CaptionAfter first thinning.
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
After first thinning.
Young plantationAfter first thinning.Subhash Kuriakose/KFRI
One-year-old plantation in Kerala.
TitleYoung plantation
CaptionOne-year-old plantation in Kerala.
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
One-year-old plantation in Kerala.
Young plantationOne-year-old plantation in Kerala.Subhash Kuriakose/KFRI
Traditional production of planting stock using stump plants in Kerala, India.
TitleNursery
CaptionTraditional production of planting stock using stump plants in Kerala, India.
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
Traditional production of planting stock using stump plants in Kerala, India.
NurseryTraditional production of planting stock using stump plants in Kerala, India.Subhash Kuriakose/KFRI
1. tree habit
2. fruiting twig
3. fruits with inflated calyx
4. flower
5. fruit with opened calyx
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. tree habit 2. fruiting twig 3. fruits with inflated calyx 4. flower 5. fruit with opened calyx
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. tree habit
2. fruiting twig
3. fruits with inflated calyx
4. flower
5. fruit with opened calyx
Line artwork1. tree habit 2. fruiting twig 3. fruits with inflated calyx 4. flower 5. fruit with opened calyxPROSEA Foundation
Flowering twig with panicles, flowers and fruits.
A. flowering twig
B. node showing branching pattern
C. cross-section of leaf
D. flowers
E. enlarged flower
F. calyx
G. cross-section of flower showing carpel and bracts
H. anther - ventral view
I. anther - dorsal view
J. pistil
K. part of style showing indumentum
L. fruit with calyx
M. naked fruit
N. cross-section of fruit
TitleDetailed line artwork
CaptionFlowering twig with panicles, flowers and fruits. A. flowering twig B. node showing branching pattern C. cross-section of leaf D. flowers E. enlarged flower F. calyx G. cross-section of flower showing carpel and bracts H. anther - ventral view I. anther - dorsal view J. pistil K. part of style showing indumentum L. fruit with calyx M. naked fruit N. cross-section of fruit
CopyrightN. Sasidharan/KFRI
Flowering twig with panicles, flowers and fruits.
A. flowering twig
B. node showing branching pattern
C. cross-section of leaf
D. flowers
E. enlarged flower
F. calyx
G. cross-section of flower showing carpel and bracts
H. anther - ventral view
I. anther - dorsal view
J. pistil
K. part of style showing indumentum
L. fruit with calyx
M. naked fruit
N. cross-section of fruit
Detailed line artworkFlowering twig with panicles, flowers and fruits. A. flowering twig B. node showing branching pattern C. cross-section of leaf D. flowers E. enlarged flower F. calyx G. cross-section of flower showing carpel and bracts H. anther - ventral view I. anther - dorsal view J. pistil K. part of style showing indumentum L. fruit with calyx M. naked fruit N. cross-section of fruitN. Sasidharan/KFRI
TitleFlowers and fruits
Caption
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
Flowers and fruitsSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
TitleFlowers
Caption
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
FlowersSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
Left to right:
1. Fruit with inflated calyx
2. Fruit with ruptured calyx
3. Fruit without calyx (seed)
4. Fruit without mesocarp (with stony endocarp)
TitleFruits
CaptionLeft to right: 1. Fruit with inflated calyx 2. Fruit with ruptured calyx 3. Fruit without calyx (seed) 4. Fruit without mesocarp (with stony endocarp)
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
Left to right:
1. Fruit with inflated calyx
2. Fruit with ruptured calyx
3. Fruit without calyx (seed)
4. Fruit without mesocarp (with stony endocarp)
FruitsLeft to right: 1. Fruit with inflated calyx 2. Fruit with ruptured calyx 3. Fruit without calyx (seed) 4. Fruit without mesocarp (with stony endocarp)Subhash Kuriakose/KFRI
Root system of a 55-year-old tree.
TitleRoot system
CaptionRoot system of a 55-year-old tree.
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
Root system of a 55-year-old tree.
Root systemRoot system of a 55-year-old tree.Subhash Kuriakose/KFRI
A serious pest of T. grandis plantations in Kerala.
TitleHyblaea puera, adult (moth)
CaptionA serious pest of T. grandis plantations in Kerala.
CopyrightV.V. Sudheendrakumar/KFRI
A serious pest of T. grandis plantations in Kerala.
Hyblaea puera, adult (moth)A serious pest of T. grandis plantations in Kerala.V.V. Sudheendrakumar/KFRI
Fifth instar larvae dead due to Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus infection.
TitleFifth instar larvae of Hyblaea puera
CaptionFifth instar larvae dead due to Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus infection.
CopyrightShri T.V. Sajeev
Fifth instar larvae dead due to Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus infection.
Fifth instar larvae of Hyblaea pueraFifth instar larvae dead due to Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus infection.Shri T.V. Sajeev
Leaf folds and defoliation caused by fifth instar larvae of Hyblaea puera.
TitleDamaged leaves
CaptionLeaf folds and defoliation caused by fifth instar larvae of Hyblaea puera.
CopyrightShri T.V. Sajeev
Leaf folds and defoliation caused by fifth instar larvae of Hyblaea puera.
Damaged leavesLeaf folds and defoliation caused by fifth instar larvae of Hyblaea puera.Shri T.V. Sajeev
A six-year-old teak plantation of Kerala Forest Department at Nilambur being defoliated by Hyblaea puera larvae.
TitleDefoliated plantation
CaptionA six-year-old teak plantation of Kerala Forest Department at Nilambur being defoliated by Hyblaea puera larvae.
CopyrightShri T.V. Sajeev
A six-year-old teak plantation of Kerala Forest Department at Nilambur being defoliated by Hyblaea puera larvae.
Defoliated plantationA six-year-old teak plantation of Kerala Forest Department at Nilambur being defoliated by Hyblaea puera larvae.Shri T.V. Sajeev
TitleMistletoe damage
Caption
CopyrightSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI
Mistletoe damageSubhash Kuriakose/KFRI

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tectona grandis L. f.

Preferred Common Name

  • teak

Other Scientific Names

  • Jatus grandis (L. f.) Kuntze
  • Tectona theka Lour.
  • Theka grandis (L. f.) Lam.

International Common Names

  • English: Bangkok teak; Indian oak; Teak(wood) tree
  • Spanish: teca
  • French: teck

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: teca
  • Germany: Teak(holz)baum; tiek
  • India: sagwan; thekku
  • Indonesia: deleg; jati; kulidawa
  • Italy: teck
  • Laos: sak
  • Myanmar: kyun
  • Philippines: dalanang; djati
  • Thailand: mai-sak; sak
  • Vietnam: c[aa]y t[ees]ch; gi[as]t[ij]

EPPO code

  • TCTGR (Tectona grandis)

Trade name

  • teak

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Tectona
  •                                 Species: Tectona grandis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Tectona, with four Asian species, is treated as belonging to the family Verbenaceae, although some authors treat it as belonging to the closely related family Lamiaceae. The name Tectona is derived from tekku or thekku, the Indian vernacular name for the tree. Tectona grandis is the type species of the genus. Based on leaf characters, Moldenke (1975) recognized several infraspecific taxa in T. grandis.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresent Planted
BhutanUnconfirmed record Planted CAB Abstracts
CambodiaPresent Planted
ChinaUnconfirmed record Planted
-GuangdongUnconfirmed record Planted
-HainanPresent Planted
-HubeiUnconfirmed record Planted CAB Abstracts
-YunnanPresent Planted
IndiaPresentPlanted, NaturalCAB Abstracts
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent Planted
-Andhra PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-AssamPresent Planted
-BiharPresent Planted
-GoaPresent Planted
-GujaratPresentPlanted, Natural
-Indian PunjabUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-KarnatakaPresentPlanted, Natural
-KeralaPresentPlanted, Natural
-Madhya PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-MaharashtraPresentPlanted, Natural
-OdishaPresentPlanted, Natural
-RajasthanPresentPlanted, Natural
-Tamil NaduPresentPlanted, Natural
-TripuraPresent Planted
-Uttar PradeshUnconfirmed recordPlanted, Natural
-West BengalPresent Planted
IndonesiaUnconfirmed recordPlanted, NaturalCAB Abstracts
-JavaPresent Planted
-SumatraPresent Planted
JapanPresent Planted
Korea, DPRPresent Planted
Korea, Republic ofPresent Planted
LaosPresentPlanted, Natural
MalaysiaUnconfirmed record Planted CAB Abstracts
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent Planted
-SabahPresent Planted
-SarawakPresent Planted
MyanmarUnconfirmed recordPlanted, NaturalCAB Abstracts
NepalPresent Planted
OmanPresent Planted
PakistanPresent Planted
PhilippinesPresent Planted
Sri LankaUnconfirmed record Planted
TaiwanPresent Planted
ThailandUnconfirmed recordPlanted, NaturalCAB Abstracts
TurkeyPresent Planted
VietnamPresent Planted

Africa

BeninPresent Planted
CongoPresent Planted
Congo Democratic RepublicPresent Planted
Côte d'IvoirePresent Planted
GabonPresent Planted
GhanaPresent Planted
GuineaPresent Planted
KenyaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
LiberiaPresent Planted
MadagascarPresent Planted
MalawiPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
MozambiquePresent Planted
NamibiaPresent Planted
NigeriaUnconfirmed record Planted CAB Abstracts
SenegalPresent Planted
Sierra LeonePresent Planted
SomaliaPresent Planted
South AfricaPresent Planted
SudanPresent Planted
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
TogoPresent Planted
UgandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
ZambiaPresent Planted
ZimbabwePresent Planted

North America

MexicoPresent Planted
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GeorgiaPresent Planted

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresent Planted
Costa RicaPresent Planted
CubaPresent Planted
El SalvadorPresent Planted
HondurasPresent Planted
JamaicaPresent Planted
NicaraguaPresent Planted
PanamaPresent Planted
Puerto RicoPresentPlanted, Natural
Trinidad and TobagoPresent Planted
United States Virgin IslandsPresent Planted

South America

ArgentinaPresent Planted
BrazilPresent Planted
ChilePresent Planted
ColombiaUnconfirmed record Planted
French GuianaPresent Planted
PeruPresent Planted
SurinamePresent Planted
UruguayPresent Planted
VenezuelaPresent Planted

Oceania

AustraliaPresent Planted
-QueenslandPresent Planted
-VictoriaPresent Planted
FijiPresent Planted
Papua New GuineaPresent Planted
Solomon IslandsPresent Planted

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 9 0 1200

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 3
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 22 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 39
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 12 24

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall12004000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Boats

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Cooperage
  • Crates
  • Pallets
  • Tanks
  • Vats

Furniture

Railway sleepers

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Piles
  • Pit props
  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures
  • Stakes
  • Transmission poles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Bridges
  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Engineering structures
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction
  • Hydraulic works
  • Shingles
  • Wall panelling

Vehicle bodies

Veneers

Wood extractives (including oil)

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Brushes
  • Cutlery
  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Marquetry
  • Musical instruments
  • Sports equipment
  • Tool handles
  • Toys
  • Turnery
  • Wood carvings

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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An analysis of the effects of predicted climate change on teak production in India indicated that 30% of teak grids were vulnerable to climate change scenarios, although with elevated CO2 levels increases in net primary productivity and biomass could be expected (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2011). Carbon storage to mitigate increased atmospheric CO2 was estimated at 351 t C/ha for teak plantations in Panama (Kraenzel et al., 2003). However, Varadharajan et al. (2010) showed that CO2 enrichment had an adverse effect on teak growth.

References

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Abood F, Bajwa GA, Ibrahim YB, AbRasip AG, 2008. A review of insect defoliators on teak with special reference to Paliga damastesalis Walker in Malaysia. Malaysian Forester, 71(1):1-10

Alexander TG, Sankar S, Balagopalan M, Thomas TP, 1987. Soil in teak plantations of different site quality. KFRI Research Report, No. 45

Ansari SA, Narayanan C, Wali SA, Kumar R, Shukla N, Rahangdale SK, 2012. ISSR markers for analysis of molecular diversity and genetic structure of Indian teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) populations. Annals of Forest Research, 55(1):11-23. http://www.editurasilvica.ro/afr/index.php?=pp

Araújo Filho JVde, Machado ACZ, Faria RSCAde, Camargo LEA, 2012. Root-knot disease caused by Meloidogyne arenaria and M. javanica in teak in São Paulo State, Brazil. Plant Disease, 96(1):151. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bachheti RK, Ashutosh Sharma, Indra Rai, Archana Joshi, Ritu Mamgain, 2012. Fatty acid composition and elemental analysis of seed oil of Tectona grandis collected from Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 4(3):1119-1123. http://www.sphinxsai.com/2012/july_sept12/Chem/pdfchem/CT=45(1119-1123)%20JS%2012.pdf

Bailey JD, Harjanto NA, 2005. Teak (Tectona grandis L.) tree growth, stem quality and health in coppiced plantations in Java, Indonesia. New Forests, 30(1):55-65

Bakshi BK, 1976. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. Controller of Publications. New Delhi India, 400 pp

Balasundaran M, Sharma JK, Maria Florence EJ, Mohanan C, 1995. Leaf spot diseases of teak and their impact on seedling production in nurseries. In: Caring for the Forest in a Changing World. Proceedings (Abstract of invited papers) IUFRO XX World Congress, 6-12 August, 1995 Tampere, Finland. Finninsh IUFRO World Congress Committee, IUFRO Secretariat, Vienna, Austria, 170

Banik RL, 1993. Teak in Bangaladesh. In: Wood H, ed. Teak in Asia. FORSPA Publication 4. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO, 1-10

Bedell PE, 1989. Preliminary observations on variability of teak in India. Indian Forester, 115(2):72-81

Beeson CFC, 1941. The ecology and control of the forest insects of India and the neighbouring countries. Published by the author and printed at the Vasant Press, Dehra Dun, India. pp. ii + 1007

Bhat KM, 1998. Properties of fast-grown teak: the impact on end-user's requirements. Proc. XX IUFRO World Congress, Tampere, Finland. Journal of Tropical Forest Products, 4(1) (in press)

Bhat KM, 2000. Timber quality of teak from managed tropical plantations with special reference to Indian plantations. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, No. 263:6-16

Bhat KM, Indira EP, 1997. Effects of faster growth on timber quality of teak. KFRI Research Report 132. Peechi, Kerala, India: Kerala Forest Research Institute

Booth TH, Jovanovic T, 2000. Improving descriptions of climatic requirements in the CABI Forestry Compendium. A report for the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products, Client Report No. 758

Bourdillon TF, 1908. The forest trees of Travancore. Trivandrum, India: The Travancore Government Press

Centeno JC, 1997. The management of teak plantations. Tropical Forest Update, 7(2):10-12

Chacko KC, 1995. Silvicultural problems in Management of Teak Plantations. Paper presented at the Second Regional Seminar on Teak, Yangon, Myanmar. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO

Chacko KC, Sankar S, Pandalai RC, Nandakumar UN, 1991. Effects of slash burning on soil properties, weed growth, taungya yield and growth of teak. Indian Forester, 117(4):237-248

Chadha YR, 1976. The wealth of India [- a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products]. Raw materials. Vol. X (Sp-W); Vol. XI (X-Z + cumulative indexes). New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. 665 pp; 412 pp.; 6 pl.; 5 pl. See FA 31, 5170; many ref

Chalerempongse A, Boonthavikoon T, Chairuangsirikul T, 1990. Survillence of disease and insect damage of teak plantations in Thailand. In: Hutacharern C, McDicken KG, Ivory MH, Nair KSS, eds. Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations in the Asia-Pacific Region. Bangok, Thailand: RAPA, FAO, 224-229

Chaudhari NR, 1963. Pre-liminary trial of pre-sprouted stump planting for artificial regeneration of teak. Indian Forester, 89(9):638-640

Chinese Academy of Forestry, 1992. Development of teak in China. In: Wood H, ed. Teak in Asia. FORSPA Publication No. 4. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO, 11-26

Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Copra IC, 1956. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

Cook T, 1906. The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay. London, UK: Taylon & Francis, Vol. 2:503-504

Costa RBda, Resende MDVde, Moraes e Silva VSde, 2007. Experimentation and selection in the genetic improvement Tectona grandis L.f. (Experimentação e seleção no melhoramento genético de Tectona grandis L.f.) Floresta e Ambiente, 14(1):76-92

Cruz AR, Detlefsen G, Ibrahim M, Camino Rde, Galloway G, 2010. Timber production in Belizean silvopastoral systems. (Aprovechamiento del recurso maderable en sistemas silvopastoriles de Belice.) Recursos Naturales y Ambiente, No.59/60:91-98. http://web.catie.ac.cr/informacion/RFCA/rev59/rna59_60_p91_98.pdf

Daly A, 2007. Teak leaf rust. Agnote - Northern Territory of Australia, No.170:2 pp

Day RK, Rudgard SA, Nair KSS, 1994. Asian tree pests: An overview. FORSPA Publication 12. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO

Derkyi NSA, Bailleres H, Chaix G, Thevenon MF, Oteng-Amoako AA, Adu-Bredu S, 2009. Colour variation in teak (Tectona grandis) wood from plantations across the ecological zones of Ghana. Ghana Journal of Forestry, 25:40-48. http://www.ajol.info/journal_index.php?jid=276&ab=gjf

Dymock W, Warden CJH, Hooper D, 1890. Pharmacographia Indica - Part III. London, UK: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd

Espitia C M, Murillo G O, Castillo P C, 2011. Expected genetic gain in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in Córdoba (Colombia). (Ganancia genética esperada en teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) en Córdoba (Colombia).) Revista Colombia Forestal, 14(1):81-93. http://revistas.udistrital.edu.co/ojs/index.php/colfor/article/view/3553/5152

Fermino Junior PCP, Nagao EO, Scherwinski-Pereira JE, 2009. In vitro establishment, germination and multiplication of teak (Tectona grandis L.f) from genotypes of South-Western Amazon. (Estabelecimento, germinação e multiplicação in vitro de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) a partir de genotipos da Amazônia Sul-Ocidental.) Scientia Forestalis, 37(84):427-435. http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/

Fermino Júnior PCP, Raposo A, Scherwinski-Pereira JE, 2011. Ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated plantlets of Tectona grandis. (Enraizamento ex vitro e aclimatização de plantas micropropagadas de Tectona grandis.) Floresta, 41(1):79-86. http://ojs.c3sl.ufpr.br/ojs2/index.php/floresta/article/view/21184/13976

Fernandes DÂ, Souza RS, Costa RBda, 2011. In vitro cultivation of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.): a review. (Cultivo in vitro de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.): uma revisão.) Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 86(1):32-46. http://www.fealq.org.br/revista_agricultura.asp

FRI, 1970. Growth and Yield Statistics of Common Indian Timber Species (Plains Region) Volume II. Dehra Dun, India: Forest Research Institute & Colleges

Gad SD, Shyama SK, 2009. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos gaurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in two protected areas of Goa. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 1(2):128-130. http://www.threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/February/1589_Suman.htm

Garg VK, 2010. Bio-efficacy of insecticides against teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera Cramer and teak skeletonizer, Eutectona machaeralis Walker. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana), 23(3):308-312

Gharde BD, 2010. Removal of Cu (II) and Ni (II) from aqueous solution using Tectona grandis bark substrate. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 26(1):175-180

Ghosh SK, Balasundaran M, Ali MIM, 1984. Studies on the host-parasite relationship of phanerogamic parasites(s) on teak and their possible control. KFRI Research Report, Kerala Forest Research Institute, No. 21:iii + 39 pp

Gibson IAS, 1975. Diseases of forest trees widely planted as exotics in the tropics and southern hemisphere. Part 1. Important members of the Myrtaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Meliaceae. Diseases of forest trees widely planted as exotics in the tropics and southern hemisphere. Part 1. Important members of the Myrtaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Meliaceae., xii + 51pp.; [8 pl., 1 tab.]

Goh D, Monteuuis O, 1997. Vegetative propagation of Teak. Tropical Forest Update, 7(2):13

Goh DKS, Monteuuis O, 2012. Behaviour of the "YSG Biotech TG1-8" teak clones under various site conditions: first observations. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, No.311:5-19. http://bft.revuesonline.com

Graudal L, Kjaer ED, Suangtho V, Saardavut P, Kaosa-ard A, 1999. Conservation of genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis) in Thailand. Technical Note - DANIDA Forest Seed Centre, No.52:iv + 36 pp

Griffith AL, 1939. Investigations into the best age and diameter of stump to use when stump planting teak (Tectona grandis) in area having general West Coast type climate. Indian Forest Records (n.s) Silvi, 3(5):165-194

Gunaga RP, Hanumantha M, Girish Shahapurmath, Vasudeva R, 2011. Clonal variation for Loranthus infestation in Teak (Tectona grandis L. F). Indian Journal of Forestry, 34(2):203-208

Harsha Hegde, Gopikumar K, Kheen Samom, Nagaraj Hegde, Jha SK, 2011. Calorific value assessment of selected tropical tree species of the Southern India for higher fuelwood potential. Indian Journal of Ecology [IUFRO Symposium on Short Rotation Forestry: Synergies for Wood Production and Environmental Amelioration, Ludhiana, Punjab, India, 10-12 February, 2011.], 38(Special Issue):194-195

Healey SP, Gara RI, 2003. The effect of a teak (Tectona grandis) plantation on the establishment of native species in an abandoned pasture in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management, 176(1/3):497-507

Hutacharern C, 1990. Forest insect pests in Thailand. In: Hutacharern C, McDicken KG, Ivory MH, Nair KSS, eds. Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations in the Asia-Pacific Region. Bangok, Thailand: RAPA, FAO, 75-80

Ilorkar VM, Suroshe SB, Jiotode DJ, 2011. Agroforestry interventions across different agroclimatic zones in Maharashtra, India. Indian Journal of Forestry, 34(1):105-109

Indira EP, Chacko KC, Krishnankutty CN, 1996. Studies on growth performance of teak nursery stock from genetically better sources for developing improved plantations. KFRI Research Report 102. Peechi, Trichur, India: Kerala Forest Research Institute

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