Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Trachelospermum jasminoides
(star-jasmine)

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Datasheet

Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trachelospermum jasminoides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • star-jasmine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. jasminoides is a fast-growing liana often grown as ornamental that has escaped from cultivation to become invasive in forest edges and disturbed sites near cultivation. Even when this species does not produc...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem.

Preferred Common Name

  • star-jasmine

Other Scientific Names

  • Parechites adnascens Hance
  • Parechites thunbergii A.Gray
  • Rhynchospermum jasminoides LINDL.
  • Trachelospermum adnascens Hance
  • Trachelospermum bowringii (Hance) Hemsl.
  • Trachelospermum divaricatum Kanitz
  • Trachelospermum jasminoides var. heterophyllum Tsiang
  • Trachelospermum jasminoides var. pubescens Makino
  • Trachelospermum jasminoides var. variegatum W.T. Mill.

International Common Names

  • English: Asiatic jasmine; Chinese star jessamine; Confederate jasmine; Japanese star jasmine; small leaf confederate jasmine; star jasmine
  • Chinese: luo shi

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Sternjasmin
  • USA/Hawaii: maile haole

EPPO code

  • TCHJA (Trachelospermum jasminoides)

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. jasminoides is a fast-growing liana often grown as ornamental that has escaped from cultivation to become invasive in forest edges and disturbed sites near cultivation. Even when this species does not produce seeds when growing in cultivation, it spreads vegetatively by cuttings, stem fragments, and lateral extensions of the stems. This species rapidly colonies new areas by self-layers, sending out roots from leaf nodes and stem tips wherever they touch the ground (Gilman, 1999; Clifford and Kobayashi, 2010; PFAF, 2017). It climbs high into the canopy of mature forests smothering native trees, out-competing understory plants, and reducing plant diversity (BEST, 2003; BEST, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Apocynaceae
  •                             Genus: Trachelospermum
  •                                 Species: Trachelospermum jasminoides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Apocynaceae includes about 400 genera and 4,555 species distributed mostly across tropical to warm temperate regions the world (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are characterized by the presence of “milky latex” and include trees, shrubs, vines and rarely subshrubs and herbs. Trachelospermum comprises about 15 species of woody lianas: one in North America and the others circumscribed to Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). The botanical name and many of the common names of T. jasminoides reflect the scented, jasmine-like flowers of this species.

Description

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Lianas woody, to 10 m. Stem brownish, lenticellate; young branchlets pubescent, glabrous when older. Petiole 3-12 mm long; leaf blade ovate to obovate or narrowly elliptic, 2-10 X 1-4.5 cm, papery, glabrous or sometimes sparsely pubescent abaxially. Cymes paniculate, terminal and axillary; peduncle 2-6 cm, puberulent to glabrous. Sepals narrowly oblong, 2-5 mm, spreading or reflexed, pubescent outside, ciliate, apex obtuse or acute. Corolla white, tube dilated at middle, 5-10 mm, throat glabrous or pilose facing stamens; lobes obovate, as long as tube. Stamens included, inserted at middle of corolla tube; ovary glabrous. Follicles linear, 10-25 cm X 3-10 mm. Seeds oblong, 1.5-2 cm, coma 1.5-4 cm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). 

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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T. jasminoides is native to Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). It has been introduced and can be found naturalized in Pakistan, India, the USA, Mexico, Central America, and the Bahamas (BEST, 2003; Govaerts, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). This species is a popular garden plant in Australia, New Zealand and Europe (TGA Australia, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017; Wellington NL, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-HebeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-ShandongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-ShanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-TibetPresent Natural
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
IndiaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-DelhiPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017Cultivated
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017Cultivated in Mumbai
JapanPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
Korea, DPRPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2017Commonly cultivated
TaiwanPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
VietnamPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedWilliams, 1996Sonora
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-HawaiiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedClifford and Kobayashi, 2010
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive BEST, 2003
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017La Libertad, San Salvador
HondurasPresentIntroducedNelson, 2008Cultivated

Europe

PortugalRestricted distributionIntroducedDAISIE, 2017Madeira
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2017Cultivated

Oceania

AustraliaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedTGA Australia, 2017Grown in cultivation, apparently not naturalized
New ZealandPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedWellington NL, 2017Grown in cultivation, apparently not naturalized

Habitat

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T. jasminoides can be found growing in sunny edges of forests, shrublands, disturbed sites, wastelands, along roadsides and trails at elevations between 200 and 1300 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). It is often planted in gardens, parks, cemeteries, recreational sites in coastal areas, and bush tracks (Gilman, 1999; TGA Australia, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for T. jaminoides is 2n = 20 (Laan and Arends, 1985).

Reproductive Biology

T. jasminoides has bisexual flowers that are visited and pollinated by hawk moths. No evidence of seed production in cultivation (Gilman, 1999; Clifford and Kobayashi, 2010).

Physiology and Phenology

In China, T. jaminoides is a perennial, fast-growing liana which has been recorded flowering from March to August and fruiting from June to December (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). In Pakistan flowers are produced from April to July (Flora of Pakistan, 2017).

Environmental Requirements

T. jasminoides prefers to grow in well-drained soil with pH in the range 4.5 to 8. It tolerates full sun to partial shade conditions and light frost (Clifford and Kobayashi, 2010; TGA Australia, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 26

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspidiotus nerii Pathogen Whole plant not specific
Cladosporium Pathogen Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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T. jasminoides is susceptible to oleander scale Aspidiotus nerii, and sooty molds such as Cladosporium and Alternaria species (Clifford and Kobayashi, 2010).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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T. jasminoides spreads by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings, stem fragments and layering. This species self-layers, sending out roots from leaf nodes and stem tips wherever they touch the ground (PFAF, 2017). Stem fragments can be dispersed as garden waste (Gilman, 1999; Clifford and Kobayashi, 2010).

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Seeds are mainly dispersed by wind and water, aided by the silky coma (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Accidental Introduction

Stem fragments dumped in garden waste (Gilman, 1999; Clifford and Kobayashi, 2010).

Intentional introduction

T. jasminoides is a popular ornamental plant that has been widely introduced and commercialized in the horticultural trade (TGA Australia, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017; Wellington NL, 2017).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapeStem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Garden waste disposalStem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Habitat restoration and improvementOften grown as ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
HorticultureOrnamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Nursery tradeOrnamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ornamental purposesOrnamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesStem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
WaterSeeds Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
WindSeeds Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017

Environmental Impact

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Currently, T. jasminoides is listed as invasive only in the Bahamas, where it has escaped from cultivation and is smothering native vegetation. This species is an aggressive liana that grows forming dense colonies that engulf native vegetation, climbing high into forest canopies and shading-out native herbs, shrubs, and trees in the understory. This species may also impact forest communities by making trees top heavy and subject to falling (BEST, 2003; BEST, 2013). The whole plant is poisonous (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). It is found in a weed in Chinese gardens, where it grows on walls and trees (Useful Tropical Plants, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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T. jasminoides is commonly grown as a climbing ornamental and as a ground cover. It is often used as coverage on walls and fences around houses, gardens, cemeteries and recreational parks (TGA Australia, 2017). In Asia, a strong bast fibre obtained from the inner bark is used in making rope, sacks, and paper. The stem is used for the treatment of rheumatism and injury. The flowers yield perfumed oil (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Essential oils
  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

References

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BEST Commission, 2003. The National Invasive Species Strategy for the Bahamas. Nassau, The Bahamas, 34 pp

BEST Commission, 2013. Updated list of invasive species for The Bahamas. Nassau, The Bahamas

Clifford P, Kobayashi KD, 2010. Non-invasive Landscape Plants with Fragrant Flowers. OF-46. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2017. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gilman EF, 1999. Trachelospermum jasminoides. Fact sheet FPS-586. Environmental Horticulture Department. Extension Service. University of Florida

Govaerts R, 2017. World Checklist of Apocynaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Laan, F. M. van der, Arends, J. C., 1985. Cytotaxonomy of the Apocynaceae. Genetica, Netherlands, 68(1), 3-35.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Nelson CH, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Honduras. Secretaría de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente, Tegucigalpa. pp 1576

PFAF, 2017. Plants for a Future Database. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trachelospermum+jasminoides

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

TGA Australia, 2017. Profile for Trachelospermum 'Star Jasmine. http://www.tgaaustralia.com.au/list_product_details.php?pid=829

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Useful Tropical Plants, 2017. Useful tropical plants database. http://tropical.theferns.info/

Wellington NL, 2017. Chinese Star Jasmine Trachelospermum jasminoides. https://www.hedge.co.nz/chinese-star-jasmine

Williams JK, 1996. The Mexican genera of the Apocynaceae (sensu A. DC.), with key and additional taxonomic notes. Sida, 17, 197-213.

Contributors

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18/09/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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