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Tomato apical stunt viroid

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Tomato apical stunt viroid

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tomato apical stunt viroid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: Viroids
  •     Family: Pospiviroidae
  •       Genus: Pospiviroid
  •         Species: Tomato apical stunt viroid
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) is a serious pathogen of tomato. Pathways for introduction include tomato seedlings, tomato seeds and ornamentals. If spread to tomato, considerable losses could result. TASVd...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tomato apical stunt viroid; (a) healthy Rutgers tomato plant. (b) tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomato plant.
TitleComparison
CaptionTomato apical stunt viroid; (a) healthy Rutgers tomato plant. (b) tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomato plant.
Copyright©Rose Hammond-2018
Tomato apical stunt viroid; (a) healthy Rutgers tomato plant. (b) tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomato plant.
ComparisonTomato apical stunt viroid; (a) healthy Rutgers tomato plant. (b) tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomato plant.©Rose Hammond-2018
Tomato apical stunt viroid; close view of (a) healthy Rutgers tomato plant. (b) tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomato plant.
TitleComparison
CaptionTomato apical stunt viroid; close view of (a) healthy Rutgers tomato plant. (b) tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomato plant.
Copyright©Rose Hammond-2018
Tomato apical stunt viroid; close view of (a) healthy Rutgers tomato plant. (b) tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomato plant.
ComparisonTomato apical stunt viroid; close view of (a) healthy Rutgers tomato plant. (b) tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomato plant.©Rose Hammond-2018
Tomato apical stunt viroid; fruit from tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomatoes.
TitleInfected fruits
CaptionTomato apical stunt viroid; fruit from tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomatoes.
Copyright©Rose Hammond-2018
Tomato apical stunt viroid; fruit from tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomatoes.
Infected fruitsTomato apical stunt viroid; fruit from tomato apical stunt viroid-infected Rutgers tomatoes.©Rose Hammond-2018
Tomato apical stunt viroid; fruit from healthy Rutgers tomatoes.
TitleHealthy fruits
CaptionTomato apical stunt viroid; fruit from healthy Rutgers tomatoes.
Copyright©Rose Hammond-2018
Tomato apical stunt viroid; fruit from healthy Rutgers tomatoes.
Healthy fruitsTomato apical stunt viroid; fruit from healthy Rutgers tomatoes.©Rose Hammond-2018

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tomato apical stunt viroid

Other Scientific Names

  • TASVd
  • Tomato apical stunt pospiviroid

EPPO code

  • TASVD0 (Tomato apical stunt viroid)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) is a serious pathogen of tomato. Pathways for introduction include tomato seedlings, tomato seeds and ornamentals. If spread to tomato, considerable losses could result. TASVd is spread easily through plant sap, e.g. during pruning and propagation, and there is some evidence of insect transmission in the greenhouse. No symptoms appear on infected ornamental solanaceous plants, but these plants can act as a reservoir for the spread of viroids in tomato production, especially in greenhouse conditions. TASVd outbreaks in tomato are rare although it has occurred in several countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The economic impact of TASVd in tomato production is not known, but heavy yield losses may result from infection with certain strains. This viroid has not been reported as an invasive species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: Viroids
  •         Family: Pospiviroidae
  •             Genus: Pospiviroid
  •                 Species: Tomato apical stunt viroid

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Viroids are small, covalently closed, circular single-stranded RNA molecules that are highly base-paired and range in size from 239 to 401 nucleotides. They do not encode peptides or proteins but use host proteins for replication, movement and processing of replication intermediates, which distinguishes them from plant viruses (Diener, 1971, 1987). All viroids contain the -Vd ending in their name to distinguish them from viruses. There are over 30 known viroid species (43 complete genomes, and more than 4700 sequence variants described and assigned to eight genera) taxonomically divided into two families, the Pospiviroidae (the type species of which is Potato spindle tuber viroid, PSTVd) and the Avsunviroidae (the type species of which is Avocado sunblotch viroid, ASBVd). There are also several proposed, unclassified viroids (Di Serio et al., 2014). Most known viroids are members of the Pospiviroidae. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s (Elena et al., 1991) and was revised in 2014 (Di Serio et al., 2014). Tomato apical stunt viroid is a member of the family Pospiviroidae, genus Pospiviroid.

Description

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TASVd contains a central conserved region located in the upper and lower strands of the viroid rod-like secondary structure. Isolates range from 362 to 364 nucleotides in length and, phylogenetically, it is most closely related to Citrus exocortis viroid, CEVd (Di Serio et al., 2014). The nucleotide sequences of several TASVd isolates are located in GenBank (NCBI).

Distribution

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TASVd has been reported in tomato and in asymptomatic ornamentals in parts of Asia (Indonesia and Israel), Africa (Cote d’Ivoire, Senegal, Ghana and Tunisia) and in many European countries, including Belgium, Finland, Germany and Italy (Candresse et al., 1987; Spieker et al., 1996; Antignus et al., 2002; Verhoeven et al., 2004, 2006, 2008a, 2008b, 2012; Candresse et al., 2007; EVIRA, 2008; Batuman et al., 2013; Parella and Numitone, 2014). TASVd was reported as the most prevalent pospiviroid in ornamentals in the Netherlands (Verhoeven et al., 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndonesiaPresent1987 Not invasive Candresse et al., 1987; EPPO, 2017Reported in 1987, but no further information is available on incidence or where the samples were collected
IsraelPresentIntroduced Not invasive Antignus et al., 2002; EPPO, 2017

Africa

Côte d'IvoirePresent1980 Not invasive Walter et al., 1980; Walter, 1981; EPPO, 2017No reliable information on current status
GhanaPresentBatuman et al., 2013
SenegalPresent Not invasive Candresse et al., 2007; EPPO, 2017
TunisiaPresent Not invasive Verhoeven et al., 2006; EPPO, 2017

Europe

AustriaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Grausgruber-Gröger and Gottsberger, 2011; EPPO, 2017
BelgiumPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Verhoeven et al., 2008b; Olivier et al., 2011; EPPO, 2017
CroatiaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Milanović et al., 2014A survey of nurseries in 2009-2012 identified one imported S. laxum plant infected with TASVd in Split
Czech RepublicPresent Not invasive Orságová et al., 2015On symptomless S. laxum
FinlandEradicatedIntroduced Not invasive EVIRA, 2008Greenhouse; on symptomless S. laxum
FranceEradicated Not invasive EPPO, 2017Greenhouse; on symptomless Brugmansia, S. laxum, S. lycopersicum
GermanyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Verhoeven et al., 2008b; Spieker, 1996; EPPO, 2017
ItalyPresentParella and Numitone, 2014
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Verhoeven et al., 2008a; Verhoeven et al., 2012
PolandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Hennig et al., 2013On L. rantonnettii
SloveniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Marn and Pleško, 2012; EPPO, 2017

History of Introduction and Spread

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The tomato apical stunt disease was first described from tomato in Cote d’Ivoire, Africa in 1980 (Walter et al., 1980) and the causal agent was characterized as a viroid in 1981 (Walter, 1981). Since then, incidence of the disease has been sporadic and, in many cases, the viroid has been eradicated by destruction of infected material. It was recently detected in the Netherlands 24-year-old seed lots of Capsicum annuum (Verhoeven et al., 2017b). TASVd is likely to have spread through infected seed and by importation of asymptomatic ornamentals. 

Risk of Introduction

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Although TASVd was added to the EPPO Alert List in 2003, it was deleted in 2017 and is now considered within the framework of the regulated, non-quarantine pest project (EPPO, 2017). Pathways for introduction include tomato seedlings, tomato seeds and ornamentals.

Habitat

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TASVd has primarily been found in greenhouse-grown tomatoes and solanaceous ornamentals (Verhoeven et al., 2012). TASVd has been found infrequently in nurseries and garden plots (Grausgruber-Gröger and Gottsberger, 2011).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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The primary host of TASVd is tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). TASVd can be mechanically transmitted to several species, most of which are in the family Solanaceae (Walter, 1987), with varying symptoms on susceptible hosts. Ornamentals are also infected by TASVd, but are asymptomatic (Verhoeven et al., 2010Verhoeven et al., 2012). There are no reports of TASVd in weedy plant species. Mechanical inoculation of weed species did not result in the detection of additional hosts (Antignus et al., 2007).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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Symptoms of TASVd on tomato include curling of leaves, apical stunting, necrotic lesions, vein yellowing, deformation and small fruit (Walter, 1987). Symptoms in tomato are similar to those of other pospiviroid species, therefore, molecular methods are required to determine that the infection is caused by TASVd.

Ornamentals infected by TASVd are asymptomatic (Verhoeven et al., 2017a).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / premature drop
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Similarly to other pospiviroids, mechanical transmission of TASVd to tomato occurs very easily (Walter, 1987). It is also transmitted via tomato seed (Antignus et al., 2006, 2007; Matsushita and Tsuda, 2016).

TASVd was transmitted at a rate of 30% via commercial bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in greenhouse tomato (Antignus et al., 2007). However, in the same study, no transmission was observed by aphids or whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci).

A study by Bogaert et al. (2015) sought to determine the mechanism of viroid transmission by aphids i.e. whether it is due to mechanical contact through contaminated mouth and body parts or by feeding through the stylet. The study examined the distribution of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and TASVd in green peach aphids fed on viroid-infected plants, using quantitative real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with viroid-specific primers and probes. Viroid RNAs were detected in 29% of aphids after a 24-hour feeding period and were present in the stylets and the stomach, but not in the embryo. The partial and low concentration of viroid uptake shows that aphids can ingest viroids, potentially increasing the transmission risk. In another study, Bogaert et al. (2016) assessed the transmission of four viroids, including TASVd, by three insects and found that there was a low level of transmission of Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid by Bombus terrestris. However, transmission of TASVd by insects was not reported.

Seedborne Aspects

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Effect on Seed Quality

TASVd-infected tomato seed causes direct or indirect injury to the seed and failure of the infected seed to germinate (R. Hammond, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, personal observation, 2018).

Pathogen Transmission

TASVd was transmitted at a rate of 80% through tomato seed from plants mechanically inoculated at the four-leaf stage with crude sap of viroid-infected plants (Antignus et al., 2007). Disinfestation of the seed did not prevent viroid transmission to germinated seedlings. However, in separate studies, Fiaggioli et al. (2015) and Matsushita and Tsuda (2016) found no transmission of TASVd from tomato seeds to seedlings. Furthermore, Verhoeven et al. (2017b) found no transmission of TASVd from pepper seeds to seedlings. Contradictory results have also been reported on seed transmission for other pospiviroids (Faggioli et al., 2015Simmons et al., 2015; Yanagisawa and Matsushita, 2017).

Seed Treatments

Decontamination of tomato seed with 1% sodium hypochlorite did not reduce seed transmission of the related PSTVd (Simmons et al., 2015).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes
Horticulture Yes Yes
People sharing resources Yes Yes
Research Yes Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact: Economic

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Seed transmission of TASVd in tomato may cause direct or indirect injury to the seed as evidenced by smaller seeds and reduced rates of germination (R. Hammond, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, unpublished results), infected plants, survival of the inoculum from one crop season to the next and dissemination of the disease worldwide through exchange of seeds. The global production and international exchange of tomato seed is central to agricultural production. The economic impact of TASVd in tomato production is not known, but heavy yield losses may result from infection with certain strains.

For a study of the risk management of solanaceous viroids in the EU territory, see ESFA Panel on Plant Health (2011).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses List

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General

  • Research model

Diagnosis

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Viroids can be identified by bioassay on indicator hosts (Nie and Singh, 2017), gel electrophoresis of known and unknown viroids based on the physical properties of circular viroid molecules (Singh and Boucher, 1987; Hanold and Vadamalai, 2017) and by nucleic acid hybridisation (Owens and Diener, 1981; Botermans et al., 2013; Pallas et al., 2017). More recently viroid detection methods have included RT-PCR, RT-PCR followed by nucleic acid sequencing of the amplicons (Bostan et al., 2004; Olivier et al, 2014; 2016; Orsagova et al., 2015; Faggioli et al., 2017), microarray (Tiberini and Barba, 2012; Zhang et al., 2013; Van Brunschot et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017) and Next Generation Sequencing (Barba and Hadidi, 2017).

Testing is an important tool to prevent the introduction of viroids in seed. Nucleic acid hybridisation tests were developed for large scale testing for PSTVd in potato seed, with a detection sensitivity of one contaminated seed in 80 or 150 non-contaminated seeds, respectively (Salazar et al., 1983Borkhardt et al., 1994). Higher sensitivity using RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR has been obtained in potato and tomato seeds. Bakker et al. (2015) reported a high throughput, multiplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR that could detect one infected seed in 1000 non-infected seeds in tomatoes infected with PSTVd and Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd).

For more information on the detection of pospiviroids on tomato seed, see International Seed Federation (2015) and the reference protocols below.

In 2017, the Netherlands Inspection Service for Horticulture, Naktuinbouw, published an update of their reference protocol for testing tomato seed for pospiviroids, including TASVd. From a sample of 3000 or 20,000 seeds, either three subsamples of 1000 seeds or 50 subsamples of 400 seeds are used for RNA isolation. Seeds are soaked in extraction buffer for 30-60 minutes prior to extraction. Positive RNA controls are included in the analysis and several primer sets are used (Naktuinbouw, 2017). An earlier version of this protocol was used by Verhoeven et al. (2017b) to detect TASVd in pepper seed.

New revised emergency seed import (pre-export or on-arrival) requirements for tomato and pepper (sweet and chilli), were issued by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Australia in 2012 (FTA, 2012). Tomato seed lots are tested for six pospiviroids (including TASVd and PSTVd) based on the Australian testing requirements using RT-PCR. Testing requires a 20,000 seed sample. Seed lots of 300 g or less may be tested using a smaller seed sample and can be pooled.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Symptoms of TASVd infection on tomato are similar to those caused by other pospiviroids.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Infected plant material (plants, seeds) should be discarded. The disease is often eradicated by the destruction of infected plant material. Sanitary measures include disinfection of tools and greenhouse benches with agents permitted for the control of viroids.

Crop and ornamental solanaceous species should be grown separately, and employees should take measures to prevent viroid introduction when they start working on host crops.

References

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Antignus Y, Pearlsman M, Lachman O, Feigelson F, 2006. Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd), a pathogen of greenhouse tomatoes in Israel is seedborne and transmitted by bumble bees. Phytoparasitica, 34(3), 306-307.

Antignus, Y., Lachman, O., Pearlsman, M., 2007. Spread of Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) in greenhouse tomato crops is associated with seed transmission and bumble bee activity. Plant Disease, 91(1), 47-50. HTTP://www.apsnet.org doi: 10.1094/PD-91-0047

Antignus, Y., Lachman, O., Pearlsman, M., Gofman, R., Bar-Joseph, M., 2002. A new disease of greenhouse tomatoes in Israel caused by a distinct strain of Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd). Phytoparasitica, 30(5), 502-510.

Bakker, D., Bruinsma, M., Dekter, R. W., Toonen, M. A. J., Verhoeven, J. T. J., Koenraadt, H. M. S., 2015. Detection of PSTVd and TCDVd in seeds of tomato using real-time RT-PCR. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 45(1), 14-21. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 doi: 10.1111/epp.12195

Barba M, Hadidi A, 2017. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies to viroids. In: Viroids and Satellites, London, UK: Academic Press. 401-412.

Batuman O, Osei MK, Mochiah MB, Lamptey JN, Miller S, Gilbertson RL, 2013. The first report of tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) in tomatoes in Ghana. Phytopathology, 103(Suppl. 2), 2-12.

Bogaert N van, Olivier T, Bragard C, Maes M, Smagghe G, De Jonghe K, 2016. Assessment of pospiviroid transmission by Myzus persicae, Macrolophus pygmaeus and Bombus terrestris. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 144(2), 289-296.

Bogaert, N. van, Jonghe, K. de, Damme, E. J. M. van, Maes, M., Smagghe, G., 2015. Quantitation and localization of pospiviroids in aphids. Journal of Virological Methods, 211, 51-54. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01660934 doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.10.003

Borkhardt, B., Vongsasitorn, D., Albrechtsen, S. E., 1994. Chemiluminescent detection of potato spindle tuber viroid in true potato seed using a digoxigenin labelled DNA probe. Potato Research, 37(3), 249-255. doi: 10.1007/BF02360517

Bostan, H., Nie XianZhou, Singh, R. P., 2004. An RT-PCR primer pair for the detection of Pospiviroid and its application in surveying ornamental plants for viroids. Journal of Virological Methods, 116(2), 189-193. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2003.11.014

Botermans, M., Vossenberg, B. T. L. H. van de, Verhoeven, J. T. J., Roenhorst, J. W., Hooftman, M., Dekter, R., Meekes, E. T. M., 2013. Development and validation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for generic detection of pospiviroids. Journal of Virological Methods, 187(1), 43-50. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01660934 doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.09.004

Brunschot, S. L. van, Bergervoet, J. H. W., Pagendam, D. E., Weerdt, M. de, Geering, A. D. W., Drenth, A., Vlugt, R. A. A. van der, 2014. Development of a multiplexed bead-based suspension array for the detection and discrimination of Pospiviroid plant pathogens. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e84743. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0084743 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084743

Candresse T, Smith D, Diener TO, 1987. Nucleotide sequence of a full-length infectious clone of the Indonesian strain of tomato apical stunt viroid (TASV). Nucleic Acids Research, 15(24), 10597.

Candresse, T., Marais, A., Ollivier, F., Verdin, E., Blancard, D., 2007. First report of the presence of Tomato apical stunt viroid on tomato in Sénégal. Plant Disease, 91(3), 330. HTTP://www.apsnet.org doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-3-0330C

Di Serio F, Flores R, Verhoeven JT, Li SF, Pallás V, Randles JW, Sano T, Vidalakis G, Owens RA, 2014. Current status of viroid taxonomy. Archives of Virology, 159(12), 3467-3478.

Diener TO, 1971. Potato spindle tuber “virus”. IV. A replicating, low molecular weight RNA. Virology, 45(2), 411-428.

Diener TO, 1987. New York, USA: Plenum Press.344 pp.

EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2011. EFSA Journal, 9(8) : European Food Safety Authority.2330. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/2330.pdf

Elena SF, Dopaza J, Flores R, Diener TO, Moya A, 1991. Phylogeny of viroids and viroid-like satellite RNAs and the viroid-like domain of hepatitis d virus RNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88(13), 5631-5634.

EPPO, 2017. EPPO Global Database. https://gd.eppo.int/

EVIRA, 2008. New tomato pathogen found in Finland. ENVIRA: Finnish Food Safety Authority. https://www.evira.fi/en/shared-topics/news/new-tomato-pathogen-found-in-finland/

Faggioli F, Luigi M, Boubourakas IN, 2017. Viroid amplification methods: RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR, and RT-LAMP. In: Viroids and Satellites, London, UK: Academic Press. 381-391.

Faggioli, F., Luigi, M., Sveikauskas, V., Olivier, T., Marn, M. V., Plesko, I. M., Jonghe, K. de, Bogaert, N. van, Grausgruber-Gröger, S., 2015. An assessment of the transmission rate of four pospiviroid species through tomato seeds. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 143(3), 613-617. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-015-0707-7

FTA, 2012. DAFF - Revised Emergency Measures on Tomato Seed. Freight & Trade Alliance.http://www.ftalliance.com.au/news.aspx?newsid=153

Grausgruber-Gröger S, Gottsberger RA, 2011. First report of Tomato apical stunt viroid and Chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Solanum jasminoides in Austria. New Disease Reports, 24:Article 4. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=024004

Hanold D, Vadamalai G, 2017. Gel Electrophoresis. In: Viroids and Satellites, London, UK: Academic Press. 369-379.

Hennig E, Piecinska J, Borodynko N, Hasiów-Jaroszewska B, 2013. First reports of Potato spindle tuber viroid on Solanum jasminoides and of Tomato apical stunt viroid on Solanum rantonnetti in Poland. Plant Disease, 97(12):1663. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

International Seed Federation, 2015. Method for the detection of pospiviroids on tomato seed. http://www.worldseed.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Tomato_pospiviroids_Jan2015.pdf

Marn, M. V., Pleško, I. M., 2012. First report of Tomato apical stunt viroid in Solanum jasminoides in Slovenia. New Disease Reports, 26, 7. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=026007 doi: 10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.026.007

Matsushita, Y., Tsuda, S., 2016. Seed transmission of potato spindle tuber viroid, tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid, tomato apical stunt viroid, and Columnea latent viroid in horticultural plants. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 145(4), 1007-1011. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-0868-z

Milanovic, J., Kajic, V., Mihaljevic, S., 2014. Occurrence and molecular variability of Potato spindle tuber viroid and Tomato apical stunt viroid in ornamental plants in Croatia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 139(4), 785-788. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0432-7

Naktuinbouw, 2017. Protocols. http://www.naktuinbouw.nl/en/service/protocols

Nie X, Singh RP, 2017. Viroid detection and identification by bioassay. In: Viroids and Satellites, London, UK: Academic Press. 347-356.

Olivier T, Demonty E, Govers J, Belkheir K, Steyer S, Jongen C, 2011. First report of a Brugmansia sp. infected by Tomato apical stunt viroid in Belgium. Plant Disease, 95(4):495. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Olivier, T., Demonty, E., Fauche, F., Steyer, S., 2014. Generic detection and identification of pospiviroids. Archives of Virology, 159(8), 2097-2102. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00705-014-1978-6 doi: 10.1007/s00705-014-1978-6

Olivier, T., Šveikauskas, V., Demonty, E., Jonghe, K. de, Gentit, P., Viršcek-Marn, M., Grausgruber-Gröger, S., Morio, S., Faggioli, F., Visage, M., Fauche, F., Gusina, M., Luigi, M., Lasner, H., Mavric-Pleško, I., 2016. Inter-laboratory comparison of four RT-PCR based methods for the generic detection of pospiviroids in tomato leaves and seeds. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 144(3), 645-654. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Orságová H, Schlesingerová G, Dziaková M, 2015. Detection of pospiviroids in the Czech Republic and their discrimination by restriction analysis. Acta Horticulturae [XIII International Symposium on Virus Diseases of Ornamental Plants, Ski and Grimstad, Norway.], No.1072:123-128. http://www.actahort.org/books/1072/1072_14.htm

Owens, R. A., Diener, T. O., 1981. Sensitive and rapid diagnosis of potato spindle tuber viroid disease by nucleic acid hybridization. Science, USA, 213(4508), 670-672.

Pallás V, Sánchez-Navarro JA, Kinard GR, Di Serio F, 2017. Molecular hybridization techniques for detecting and studying viroids. In: Viroids and Satellites, London, UK: Academic Press. 369-379.

Parella G, Numitone G, 2014. First report of tomato apical stunt viroid in tomato in Italy. The American Phytopathological Society, 98(8), 1164.

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20/04/18 Original text by:

Rosemarie W Hammond, Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Maryland, USA

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