Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytonemus pallidus
(strawberry mite)

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Datasheet

Phytonemus pallidus (strawberry mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 01 April 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytonemus pallidus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • strawberry mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Habitus of adult female, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal aspect on right.
TitleLine artwork of adult female
CaptionHabitus of adult female, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal aspect on right.
CopyrightEvert E. Lindquist
Habitus of adult female, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal aspect on right.
Line artwork of adult femaleHabitus of adult female, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal aspect on right.Evert E. Lindquist
Habitus of adult male, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal aspect on right.
TitleLine artwork of adult male
CaptionHabitus of adult male, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal aspect on right.
CopyrightEvert E. Lindquist
Habitus of adult male, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal aspect on right.
Line artwork of adult maleHabitus of adult male, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal aspect on right.Evert E. Lindquist
Damage to strawberry plant, right, caused by P. pallidus; healthy plant, left.
TitleDamage symptoms on strawberry plant
CaptionDamage to strawberry plant, right, caused by P. pallidus; healthy plant, left.
CopyrightFrom Ochoa et al., 1991
Damage to strawberry plant, right, caused by P. pallidus; healthy plant, left.
Damage symptoms on strawberry plantDamage to strawberry plant, right, caused by P. pallidus; healthy plant, left.From Ochoa et al., 1991
Damage to azalea flowers, left, caused by P. pallidus; healthy flower, right.
TitleDamage symptoms on azalea flowers
CaptionDamage to azalea flowers, left, caused by P. pallidus; healthy flower, right.
CopyrightR.N. Jefferson
Damage to azalea flowers, left, caused by P. pallidus; healthy flower, right.
Damage symptoms on azalea flowersDamage to azalea flowers, left, caused by P. pallidus; healthy flower, right.R.N. Jefferson
Damage to cycamen flowers caused by P. pallidus.
TitleDamage symptoms on cycamen flowers
CaptionDamage to cycamen flowers caused by P. pallidus.
CopyrightF.F. Smith
Damage to cycamen flowers caused by P. pallidus.
Damage symptoms on cycamen flowersDamage to cycamen flowers caused by P. pallidus.F.F. Smith
Damage to gloxinia flowers caused by P. pallidus.
TitleDamage symptoms on gloxinia flowers
CaptionDamage to gloxinia flowers caused by P. pallidus.
CopyrightR.N. Jefferson
Damage to gloxinia flowers caused by P. pallidus.
Damage symptoms on gloxinia flowersDamage to gloxinia flowers caused by P. pallidus.R.N. Jefferson

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytonemus pallidus (Banks)

Preferred Common Name

  • strawberry mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Steneotarsonemus fragariae (Zimmerman)
  • Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks)
  • Tarsonemus destructor Reuter, 1906
  • Tarsonemus fragariae Zimmerman, 1905
  • Tarsonemus pallidus Banks, 1899

International Common Names

  • English: cyclamen mite
  • Spanish: ácaro de la fresa; ácaro del brote; ácaro del ciclamino
  • French: tarsonème du cyclamen; tarsonème du fraisier
  • Chinese: yingcao fuxianman
  • Portuguese: ácaro do morangueiro

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: cyclamenmide; jordbaermide
  • Finland: mansikkapunkki
  • Germany: Cyclamenmilbe; Erdbeermilbe
  • Italy: acaro delle fragole
  • Japan: sikuramen-hokoridani
  • Netherlands: aardbeimijt
  • Norway: jordbaermidd
  • Poland: roztocz truskawkowy
  • South Africa: alpeviooltjie of siklamemyt
  • Sweden: cyclamenkvalster; jordgubbskvalster
  • Switzerland: Cyclamenmilbe; Erdbeermilbe
  • USA: pallid mite; strawberry crown mite

EPPO code

  • TARSPA (Phytonemus pallidus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Tarsonemidae
  •                                     Genus: Phytonemus
  •                                         Species: Phytonemus pallidus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

JapanPresentEhara and, 1980; Nemoto, 1985
-HokkaidoPresentGoto and Tsuchizaki, 1980
-HonshuPresentIto, 1964; Ito, 1977; Fujima, 1995
-KyushuPresentHorikiri and Goizuka, 1977
Korea, Republic ofPresentCho et al., 1993
PhilippinesPresentCorpuz-Raros, 2001
TaiwanPresentTseng and Lo, 1980
TurkeyPresentUysal et al., 2001

Africa

South AfricaPresentMeyer et al., 1973; Meyer, 1981; Meyer, 1996

North America

CanadaPresentRoss, 1917; Ross and Caesar, 1929
-OntarioPresentDustan & Mathewman, 1932
-QuebecPresentMaheux, 1923; Dustan, 1929; Parent, 1963
MexicoPresentEstebanes & Rodriguez, 1991; Diaz-Castro, 1981
USAWidespreadBanks, 1915; Banks, 1904; Banks, 1907; Banks, 1912; Banks, 1914; USDA, 1971
-AlabamaPresentEwing, 1939
-CaliforniaWidespreadEwing and Smith, 1934; Smith and Goldsmith, 1936; Essig and Hoskins, 1944; Pritchard and Beer, 1949; Reynolds et al., 1953; Huffaker and Kennett, 1956; Anon, 1981; Welch et al., 1989
-ColoradoPresentMoznette, 1917
-ConnecticutPresentAnon, 1913; Britton, 1913; Britton et al., 1915; Britton, 1927; Ewing, 1939
-DelawarePresentMoznette, 1917
-FloridaPresentDenmark, 1977; Denmark, 1988
-HawaiiPresentBoyle and Haramoto, 1956; Haramoto and Boyle, 1958
-IllinoisPresentFlint, 1929; Ewing, 1939
-IndianaPresentWallace, 1928; Ewing, 1939
-IowaPresentMoznette, 1917; Dahlgren, 1926
-KansasPresentSmith and Goldsmith, 1936
-KentuckyPresentSmith and Goldsmith, 1936
-MainePresentEwing, 1939
-MarylandPresentGarman, 1917a; Ewing, 1939
-MassachusettsPresentWhitcomb, 1935; Ewing, 1939; Driesche and Hauschild, 1987
-MichiganPresentEwing, 1939
-MinnesotaPresentMunger, 1933; Ewing, 1939
-MississippiPresentEwing, 1939
-MissouriPresentMoznette, 1917
-MontanaPresentSmith and Goldsmith, 1936
-NebraskaPresentSmith and Goldsmith, 1936
-New HampshirePresentEwing, 1939
-New JerseyPresentWeiss, 1915
-New YorkWidespreadBanks, 1899; Ewing, 1939; Delfinado, 1976
-OhioPresentEwing, 1939; Neiswander, 1944
-OregonPresentMoznette, 1917; Ewing, 1939
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadEwing, 1939
-TexasPresentSmith and Goldsmith, 1936
-VirginiaPresentEwing, 1939
-WashingtonPresentEwing and Smith, 1934; Ewing, 1939
-WisconsinPresentMoznette, 1917

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentOchoa et al., 1991a; Ochoa et al., 1991b; Calvo and Salas, 1983; Ochoa et al., 1994; Ochoa et al., 1996; Aguilar and Murillo, 2012

South America

BrazilPresentFlechtmann, 1967; Flechtmann, 1971
-Minas GeraisPresentAjila et al., 2018
-Rio Grande do SulPresentAndrade-Bertolo et al., 2013
-Sao PauloPresentFlechtmann, 1967; Flechtmann, 1977; Flechtmann, 1979
ColombiaPresentUreta & Navarro, 1978
PeruPresentGonzales-Bustamente, 1996
VenezuelaPresentDoreste, 1974

Europe

AustriaPresentZimmerman, 1905
BelgiumPresentBruel, 1946; Soenen and Gilles, 1959; Bruel, 1960; Anon, 1972; Anon, 1977; Daele and Heungens, 1979; Heungens, 1986; Lieten and Baets, 1991; Lieten and Baets, 1993
BulgariaPresentKacharmazow et al., 1976; Anon, 1976; Atanasov, 1990
DenmarkPresentFerdinandsen et al., 1919; Gram et al., 1928; Hansen and Schadegg, 1976
FinlandPresentMassee, 1930a; Vappula, 1935
FrancePresentBonnemaison, 1962; Cairaschi and Cangardel, 1962
GermanyWidespreadAnon, 1974a; Anon, 1974b; Jaenichen, 1956a; Jaenichen, 1956b; Reuter, 1906; Morstatt, 1908; Naumann, 1924; Wiesmann, 1938; Lüstner, 1939; Wiesmann, 1939; Hahmann and Müller, 1951; Jaenichen and Heimann, 1951; Jaenichen, 1954; Müller, 1956; Ritschl, 1957; Müller, 1958; Böhm, 1959; Gerstner, 1959; Stahn, 1959; Fritzsche and Schmidt, 1960; Müller, 1960; Karl, 1963; Fritzsche, 1964; Karl, 1964; Pape, 1964; Dame, 1965; Karl, 1967; Müller, 1968; Hauschildt, 1978
GreecePresentPapaioannou-Souliotis et al., 1994
HungaryPresentBognár and Várady, 1967; Mahunka, 1972; Kerényi-Nemestóthy et al., 1982; Kerényi-Nemestóthy, 1983; Kerényi-Nemestóthy, 1984
ItalyPresentUgolini and Lenzi, 1976
LithuaniaPresentRaudonis, 2005
NetherlandsWidespreadHeungens & van Daele, 1980; van Marle, 1944; Poeteren, 1930; Hus, 1933; Harmsen, 1934; Neergaard, 1942; Groenewold, 1957; Vrie, 1957; Vrie and Groenewold, 1958; Anon, 1993
NorwayPresentOydvin, 1980; Schoyen, 1914; Fjelddalen, 1952; Fjelddalen and Stenseth, 1958; Leska, 1964
PolandPresentLabanowska, 1994a; Suski, 1958; Pieniazek and Sypien, 1962; Leska, 1964; Suski, 1968; Suski, 1970; Burdajewicz and Pelczynska, 1978; Labanowska, 1992
PortugalPresentCarmona, 1968
-MadeiraPresentCarmona, 1992
RomaniaPresentSzekely & Iacob, 1972; Szekely and Iacob, 1970a; Mathys, 1958; Baicu, 1982; Korchagin, 1983
Russian FederationPresentSavzdarg, 1928; Aristov and Vodinskaya, 1935; Titov, 1986; Anon, 1990
-Eastern SiberiaPresentBashkatova et al., 1983
-Northern RussiaPresentMalov and Tokunova, 1990
-Southern RussiaPresentLazareva, 1973
SwedenPresentTullgren, 1915; Pettersson, 1979
SwitzerlandPresentOsterwalder, 1928; Wiesmann, 1937; Wiesmann, 1941; Klinger, 1969; Baillod et al., 1989
UKWidespreadHarris, 1968a; Harris, 1968b; Hodson, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1938; Massee, 1930a; Massee, 1930b; Vernon, 1975; Vernon, 1978; Massee, 1931; Howells, 1934; Massee, 1934; Massee, 1937; Massee, 1943; Massee, 1944; Vernon et al., 1965; MAFF, 1972; Walker, 1980
UkrainePresentLivshits et al., 1979

Oceania

AustraliaPresentGooden, 1990
-QueenslandPresentMurray, 1980; Broadley et al., 1988
-TasmaniaPresentMiller, 1952
-VictoriaPresentMorris, 1962

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius reductus Predator Adults/Larvae USSR
Amblyseius reticulatus Predator Adults/Larvae
Hirsutella nodulosa Pathogen
Neoseiulus alpinus Predator Adults/Larvae
Neoseiulus cucumeris Predator Adults/Larvae
Typhlodromus reticulatus Predator

References

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¥ydvin J, 1980. Observasjonar over veksthusspinnmidd Tetranychus urticae Koch, jordbaermidd Steneotarsonemus pallidus Banks, og jordbaermj¢ldogg Sphaerotheca macularis (Wallr.) Magn. i ein familie-test i jordbaer, 1976-77 [Observations on two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, strawberry mite Steneotarsonemus pallidus Banks, and strawberry mildew Sphaerotheca macularis (Wallr.) Magn., in a progeny test of strawberries, 1976-77]. Forskning og Forsök i Landbruket, 31(1):1-9. (In Norwegian)

abanowska BH, 1992. Effectiveness of acaricides in the control of strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus ssp. fragariae Zimm.). Fruit Science Reports, 19(3):137-146

1979. Cyclamen mite on glasshouse plants. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No. 588:4pp.

1980. Strawberry mite. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No. 584:4 pp.

1990. Pest and diseases of strawberries. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 9:47-48

Aguilar H, Murillo P, 2012. New hosts and records of plant feeding mites for Costa Rica: interval 2008-2012. (Nuevos hospederos y registros de ácaros fitófagos para Costa Rica: período 2008-2012.) Agronomía Costarricense, 36(2):11-28. http://www.mag.go.cr/rev_agr/index.html

Ajila, H. E. V., Lemos, F., Colares, F., Ferreira, J. A. M., Lofego, A. C., Pallini, A., 2018. A new record of a pest mite on strawberry: Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) arrives in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 101(3), 529-532. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen doi: 10.1653/024.101.0330

Alford DV, 1972. Chemical control of the strawberry mite on mown and unmown strawberry plants. Plant Pathology, 21(2):92-94

Alford DV, 1972. The effect of Tarsonemus fragariae Zimmerman (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) on strawberry yields. Annals of Applied Biology, 70:13-18

Alford DV, 1974. Field spray trials for control of the strawberry mite, Tarsonemus fragariae (Zimm.). Journal of Horticultural Science, 49(1):131-134

Alford DV, 1976. Some observations on the effect of pests on strawberry yields. Annals of Applied Biology, 84(3):440-444

Alford DV, 1979. An entomogenous fungus associated with the strawberry mite, Tarsonemus fragarip Zimm. (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Plant Pathology, 28(1):53

Allen WW, Nakakihara H, Schaefers GA, 1957. The effectiveness of various pesticides against the cyclamen mite on strawberries. Journal of Economic Entomology, 50:648-652

Andrade-Bertolo Fde Ode, Moura RBde, Matioli AL, Ott AP, 2013. New records of mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on Vitis sp. (L.) in Brazil. Comunicata Scientiae, 4(4):414-418. http://comunicata.ufpi.br/index.php/comunicata/article/view/416/213

Anon, 1993. Plant protection in strawberries and woody small fruits. Fruitteelt, 6(9):24-25

Anon., 1913. Miscellaneous insect notes. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Report for 1912, part iii, 291-296.

Anon., 1972. Jaarverslag der Proefbedrijf der Noorderkempen, 1970-1971 [Annual report of the Experimental Farm at Noorderkempen, 1970-1971]. Belgium, Meerle. 89 pp. (In Dutch).

Anon., 1974. [Ornamental plants]. Deutscher Pflanzenschutzdienst, Jahresbericht, 1973 [German Plant Protection Service, Annual report, 1973]. Braunschweig, Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. 180 pp. (In German).

Anon., 1974. [Small fruits]. Deutscher Pflanzenschutzdienst, Jahresbericht, 1973 [German Plant Protection Service, Annual report, 1973]. Braunschweig, Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. 180 pp. (In German).

Anon., 1976. [Interior quarantine enemies and measures for their restriction on the territory of the People's Republic of Bulgaria]. Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, Romania: Papers of the 5th Interbalkanic Plant Protection Conference, Bucharest, 13-18 October 1975. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 1976, 4:119-123. (In Romanian).

Anon., 1977. [Small fruits]. Belgium, Opzoekingsstation van Gorsem: Aktiviteitsrapport 1.3.1975-28.2.1977 [Belgium, Gorsem Research Station: Report of activities between 1 March 1975 and 28 February 1977]. 67 pp. (In Dutch).

Aristov MT, Vodinskaya KI, 1935. [The strawberry mite (Tarsonemus fragariae Zimm.) and its control. Plant Protection, Leningrad, 7:28-43. (In Russian)

Atanasov ND, 1990. Population dynamics and control of spider mites on strawberries in Bulgaria. In: Bostanian NJ, Wilson LT, Dennehy TJ (eds). Monitoring and integrated management of arthropod pests of small fruit crops. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited, 221-230

Baicu T(Co-ordinator), 1982. Tests of pesticides Vol. VII. Testarea pesticidelor Vol. VII. Institutul de Cercetari Pentru Protectia Plantelor Bucharest Romania, 208 pp

Baillod M, Staubli A, Hohn H, 1989. The prinicipal mites of small fruits. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 21(2):103-104

Banks N, 1899. Tarsonemus in America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 4:294-296

Banks N, 1904. Four new species of injurious mites. J. N. J. Ent. Soc., 12:53-56

Banks N, 1907. A catalog of the Acarina, or mites, of the United States. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 32(1553):595-625

Banks N, 1912. New American mites. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 14:96-99, 2 pl

Banks N, 1914. New Acarina. Journal of Entomology and Zoology, 6:55-63, 3 pl

Banks, N, 1915. The Acarina or mites. A review of the group for the use of economic entomologists. United States Department of Agriculture Report No. 108. USA: USDA, 153pp

Bashkatova TV, Prokof'ev MA, Ogneva LI, Shamanskaya LD, 1983. Tested in orchards in Siberia. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 8:30

Beer RE, 1954. A revision of the Tarsonemidae of the Western Hemisphere (Order Acarina). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 36(16):1091-1387

Bodenstein G, Müller-Bastgen G, 1957. Kelthane, ein neues Akarizid [Kelthane, a new acaricide]. Anzeiger für SchSdlingskunde, 30:207-209

Bognár S, Várady M, 1967. Biológiae és ökologiai megfigyelések a szamócán él_ atkafaiokkal kapcsolatosan, különös tekintettal a Tarsonemus pallidus Banksra [Biological and ecological studies on strawberry mites, with special reference to Tarsonemus pallidus Banks]. In: Szalay-Marzsó L (editor), A XVII. Növényvédelmi tudományos értekezlet (1967 február 20-24). Válogatott anyaga. II Kötet [The XVIIth Scientific Conference on Plant Protection (1967 February 20-24). Selected material. Volume II. 583-587

Bolland HR, Magowski WL, 1995. The chromosome number in tarsonemid and pyemotid mites (Acari: Heterostigmata: Tarsonemidae, Pyemotidae). Entomologische Berichten, 55:166-167

Bonnemaison L, 1961-62. The Animal Pests of Cultivated Plants and Forests. I-III. Paris, France: Soc. Edit. Publ. Agric

Bonnemaison L, 1961-62. The Animal Pests of Cultivated Plants and Forests. I-III. Paris, France: Soc. Edit. Publ. Agric

Boyd DO, Hodson WEH, 1936. Transference of mite from cyclamen to strawberry. Nature, London, 137:581

Boyle WW, Haramoto FH, 1956. Cyclamen mite on pikake. Hawaii Farm Science, 5(2):1, 7, 8

Britton WE, 1913. Mites on chrysanthemum flowers. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 12th Annual Report, 1911/1912, part 3:296

Britton WE, 1927. Twenty-sixth report of the State Entomologist of Connecticut, 1926. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 285:161-283

Britton WE, Walden BH, Lowry QS, 1915. Experiments in controlling a mite (Tarsonemus pallidus Banks) injuring snapdragon plants in the greenhouse. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Annual Report 1914, part 3:176-179, 1 pl

Broadley RH, Waite GK, Gage J, Greber RS, 1988. Strawberry pests. Strawberry pests., 61 pp.; [25 x 17.5 cm]

Bruel WE van den, 1946. Sur la présence en Belgique d'un redoutable ravageur du fraisier Tarsonemus pallidus Banks (syn. T. fragariae Zim) [On the presence in Belgium of a formidable pest of strawberry, Tarsonemus pallidus Banks (syn. T. fragariae Zim.)]. Parasitica, 2:129-136, 2 pl. (In French)

Bruel WE van den, 1960. Le problFme du tarsonFme du fraisier Tarsonemus pallidus Banks [The problem of the strawberry mite Tarsonemus pallidus Banks]. Revue de l'Agriculture, Bruxelles, 13:1-9. (In French)

Bruel WE van den, Colin G, 1954. Confrontation des méthodes de lutte proposées (essais 1953 + 1954). Parasitica, 10:133-156

Burdajewicz S, Pelczynska I, 1978. Injurious fauna of ornamental plants in the Poznan region. I. Mites (Acarina) under greenhouse conditions. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, E, 7(1):161-170

Böhm O, 1959. Fadenfussmilben als SchSdlinge an EfeugewSchsen. Pflanzenarzt, 12:7-10

Cairaschi EA, Cangardel H, 1962. Essais de lutte contre le tarsonFme du cyclamen (Steneotarsonemus pallidus Banks) [Tests on the control of the cyclamen mite (S. pallidus Banks)]. Phytiatie-phytopharmacie, 11:179-189. (In French)

Calvo IG, Salas LA, 1983. Combate quimico del ácaro Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks) en fresa (Fragaria spp.). Agronomia y Ciencia, Costa Rica, 1(1):4. (In Spanish)

Carmona MM, 1968. Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks), um ácaro com importância económica na cultura do morangueiro [Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks), a mite of economic importance to our culture of strawberries]. Brotéria, Série de CiOncias Naturais, 37:95-103, 1 pl. (In Portugese)

Carmona MM, 1992. Phytophagous and predatory mites of Madeira - II. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 18(2):469-482

Cho MyoungRae, Chung SoonKyung, Lee WonKoo, 1993. Taxonomic study on cyclamen mite (Phytonemus pallidus) and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus). Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 32(4):433-439; 19 ref

Corpuz-Raros LA, 2001. New mite pests and new host records of phytophagous mites (Acari) from the Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 84(4):341-351

Daele E van, Heungens A, 1979. Mijten- en Collemboleninventarisatie van Doornzeledries. Medelelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 44:1149-1158. (In Dutch)

Dahlgren E, 1926. Some important greenhouse pests. Report of the Iowa Horticultural Society 1925, 60:187-192

Dame F, 1965. Milben an Blumen und Zierpflanzen [Mites on flowers and ornamental plants]. Gesunde Pflanzen, 17:193-196. (In German)

Dana MN, Oatman ER, 1962. Cyclamen mite eradication on strawberry transplants. Journal of Economic Entomology, 55:1000-1001

Delfinado MD, 1978. Terrestrial mites of New York - VI. Further notes on Tarsonemidae (Acarina). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 86(2):66-86

Denmark HA, 1977. The cyclamen mite, Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks) (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) on African violets. Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 177:2 pp

Denmark HA, 1988. The Cyclamen mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Entomology Circular No. 306, Florida, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 2 pp

Diaz-Castro G, 1981. La ara±a ciclamina Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks) y su control en plantaciones de fresa en Guanajuato [The cyclamen mite Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks) and its control in strawberry fields in Guanajuato]. Agricultura Técnica en México, 7(2):97-112. (In Spanish)

Doreste S E, 1974. The strawberry mite (Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks)) in Venezuela. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, 7(4):63-74

Doucette CF, Baker WW, 1932. Indications of a control measure for Tarsonemus pallidus Banks on strawberry. Journal of Economic Entomology, 25:417-418

Driesche RG van, Hauschild K, 1987. Potential for increased use of biological control agents in small fruit crops in Massachusetts. Research Bulletin, Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 718:22-34

Dustan AG, 1929. Notes on the distribution of the cyclamen mite (Tarsonemus pallidus Banks). 21st Annual Report, Quebec Society for the Protection of Plants, 1928-29, pp. 48, 53

Dustan AG, Matthewman WG, 1932. Some notes on the cyclamen mite (Tarsonemus pallidus Banks), a pest of strawberry plants. 62nd Annual Report, Entomological Society of Ontario, 1931:34-37

Ehara S, ed. , 1980. Illustrations of the mites and ticks of Japan. Illustrations of the mites and ticks of Japan. Zenkoko Noson Kyoiku Kyokai Tokyo Japan, 563 pp

EPPO, 1996. Guideline on good plant protection. No. 9. Strawberry. Bulletin, Organization for European Plant Protection, 26:369-390

Essig EO, Hoskins WM, 1944. Insects and other pests attacking agricultural crops. California Extension Circular 87, pp. 118-119

Estebanes-Gonzalez ML, Rodriguez-Navarro S, 1991. Observations on some mites of the families Tetranychidae, Eriophyidae, Acaridae and Tarsonemidae (Acari), in horticultural crops from Mexico. Folia Entomologica Mexicana, No. 83:199-212

Ewing HE, 1917. New species of economic mites. Journal of Economic Entomology, 10:497-501

Ewing HE, 1922. Studies on the taxonomy and biology of tarsonemid mites, together with a note on the transformations of Acarapis (Tarsonemus) woodi Rennie (Acarina). Canadian Entomologist, 54:104-113

Ewing HE, 1932. Notes on the taxonomy of three economic species of mites, including the description of a new species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 45(27):99-102

Ewing HE, 1939. A revision of the mites of the subfamily Tarsoneminae of North America, the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands. Technical Bulletin, United States Department of Agriculture 653. USA: USDA. 63pp

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