Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Megalurothrips distalis

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Datasheet

Megalurothrips distalis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Megalurothrips distalis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
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    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Megalurothrips distalis (Karny) 1913

Other Scientific Names

  • Megalurothrips morosus Bhatti, 1969
  • Physothrips brunneicarnis Bagnall, 1916
  • Taeniothrips brunneicornis Hood, 1925
  • Taeniothrips distalis Karny, 1913
  • Taeniothrips ditissimus Anantha. & Jagd., 1966, Bhatti, 1969
  • Taeniothrips infernalis Priesner, 1938
  • Taeniothrips morosus Priesner, 1938
  • Taeniothrips nigricornis Priesner, 1938

EPPO code

  • TAETDT (Megalurothrips distalis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Thysanoptera
  •                         Family: Thripidae
  •                             Genus: Megalurothrips
  •                                 Species: Megalurothrips distalis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentRahman and Miah (1988); Bhatti (1990); Varatharajan et al. (1992)
BhutanPresentBhatti (1990)
ChinaPresentSakimura (1972); APPPC (1987); Bhatti (1990)
-FujianPresentSakimura (1972)
-GuangdongPresentSTEINWEDEN (1933); Priesner (1938)
-ZhejiangPresentSakimura (1972)
IndiaPresentBagnall (1918); Karny (1926); Bhatti (1990); Agrwal et al. (1993)
-Andhra PradeshPresentRamasubbarao and Thammiraju (1994)
-BiharPresentBhattacharya and Sen (1985)
-DelhiPresentIsaac (1946); Pruthi (1946); Bhatti (1969); Butani (1980); Satyanarayana et al. (1995); Satyanarayana et al. (1995a)
-HaryanaPresentVerma et al. (1980)
-KarnatakaPresentPuttaswamy and Reddy (1981)
-ManipurPresentAnanthakrishnan and Jagadish (1967); Varatharajan et al. (1992); CABI (Undated)
-MeghalayaPresentAnanthakrishnan and Jagadish (1967); CABI (Undated)
-PunjabPresentSandhu (1977); Chhabra (1992)
-RajasthanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Murugesan & Shivesh Kumar, 1996
-Tamil NaduPresentVelayudhan et al. (1985); Bhatti (1990); CABI (Undated)
-Uttar PradeshPresentGupta and Singh (1981); Lal (1981); Lal (1985); Lal et al. (1985); Lal (1987)
-West BengalPresentBhattacharya et al. (1993)
IndonesiaPresentBhatti (1990)
-JavaPresentPriesner (1938); Bhatti (1990)
-SumatraPresentPriesner (1938); Bhatti (1990)
JapanPresentOkada and Kudo (1982); Bhatti (1990); Varatharajan et al. (1992); CABI (Undated)
-HokkaidoPresentKudo (1970); Kudo (1971)
MacauPresentCABI (Undated b)
MongoliaPresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)
MyanmarPresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)
NepalPresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)
North KoreaPresentBhatti (1990); CABI (Undated)
OmanPresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)
PakistanPresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)
PhilippinesPresentMoulton (1936); Bhatti (1990)
SingaporePresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)
Sri LankaPresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)
TaiwanPresentBhatti (1990)
ThailandPresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)
TurkeyPresentVaratharajan et al. (1992)

North America

United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentTyler-Julian et al. (2014)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBhatti (1990); Varatharajan et al. (1992)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / mummification
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Seeds / shrivelled
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Howardula aptini Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Orius minutus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Psallus Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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Agrwal SC; Singh K; Lal SS, 1993. Plant protection of lentils in India. In: Erskine W, Saxena MC, eds. The Proceedings of the Seminar on Lentils in South Asia, 11-15 March, 1991. Aleppo, Syria: ICARDA, 147-167.

Ananthakrishnan TN, 1971. Thrips (Thysanoptera) in agriculture, horticulture and forestry-diagnosis, bionomics and control. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, 30(3):113-46.

Ananthakrishnan TN, 1982. Thrips and pollination biology. Current Science, 51(4):166-172.

Ananthakrishnan TN, 1993. Bionomics of thrips. Annual Review of Entomology, 38:71-92

Ananthakrishnan TN; Jagadish A, 1966. Coffee and tea infesting thrips from Anamalis (S. India) with description of two new species of Taeniothrips Serville. Indian Journal of Entomology, 28:250-257.

Ananthakrishnan TN; Jagadish A, 1967. Studies on some Taeniothrips species from India. 1. Opusc. Entomol. Lund, 32(1-2):159-170.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Bagnall RS, 1916. Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera-VII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8, 17:214-222.

Bagnall RS, 1918. Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera IX. Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 9, 1:201-221.

Bhattacharya A; Sen AK, 1985. New host record of Megalurothrips distalis Karny (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) and Haplothrips ganglbaueri Schmutz (Phlpothripidae; Thysanoptera). Science and Culture, 51(2):61

Bhattacharya SS; Chakraborty N; Rao KVSN; Sahakundu AK, 1993. Thrips of mulberry in West Bengal and the record of thrips infecting mulberry in India. Environment and Ecology, 11(1):239-240

Bhatti BS, 1990. Catalogue of insects of the order Terebrantia from the Indian Subregion. Zoology, Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology, 2(4):205-352

Bhatti JS, 1969. The taxonomic status of Megalurothrips Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Oriental Insects, 3:239-244.

Butani DK, 1980. Insect pests of vegetables and their control - cluster beans. Pesticides, 14(10):33-35

Caldwell NEH, 1945. Bean pest in Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 60(3):156-171.

Chander S; Singh Y, 1993. Phytotonic and phytotoxic effects of some insecticides in green gram, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Indian Journal of Entomology, 55(2):140-147

Chander S; Yeshbir Singh, 1989. Control of thrips, Megalurothrips distalis (Karny) and pod borers viz., Euchrysops cnejus Fabricius and Maruca testulalis Geyer infesting green gram, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Indian Journal of Entomology, 51(2):131-135

Chhabra KS, 1992. Advances in management of insect pests of Vigna species. In: Sachan JN, ed. New frontiers in pulses research and development. Proceedings of the National Symposium, 10-12 November, 1989:178-186.

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS, 1985. Control thrips in summer mungbean and avoid flower drop. Progressive Farming, 21(10):9.

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS, 1985. Losses in summer mungbean due to insect pests in Punjab. Indian Journal of Entomology, 47(1):103-105

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS, 1985. Problem of flower shedding caused by thrips, Megalurothrips distalis (Karny), on summer mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, and its control. Tropical Pest Management, 31(3):186-188

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS, 1986. Comparative efficacy of different insecticides in controlling thrips, Megalurothrips distalis (Karny) on summer mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Legume Research, 9(1):39-42

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS, 1988. Varietal resistance in mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek to thrips. [Megalurothrips distalis (Karny)]. TVIS News, 3(2):10-11.

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS, 1994. Reaction of certain summer mungbean genotypes towards thrips, Megalurothrips distalis (Karny). Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 28(4):251-256; 7 ref.

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS, 1994. Resistance of certain promising summer mungbean genotypes to Megalurothrips distalis (Karny). Journal of Insect Science, 7(1):32-34; 5 ref.

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS; Saxena AK; Sharma AK, 1994. Role of allomones in varietal resistance in summer mungbean against thrips, Megalurothrips distalis (Karny). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Pulses Research, 2-6 April, 1994, Indian Society for Pulses Research and Development. Kanpur, India: Indian Institute of Pulses Research, 161.

Chhabra KS; Kooner BS; Sharma AK, 1986. Check flower drop in summer mungbean by controlling thrips. Indian Farming, 36(9):25-26

Chhabra KS; Malik SP, 1992. Behaviour of certain summer mungbean genotypes towards thrips, Megalurothrips distalis (Karny). Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 33(1/2):14-20; 9 ref.

Chhabra KS; Malik SP, 1992. Development of thrips, Megalurothrips distalis (Karny) on some promising summer mungbean genotypes. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 33(1/2):21-27; 14 ref.

COPR, 1981. Pest control in tropical grain legumes. Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.

Gupta PK; Singh J, 1981. Important insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in agroecosystem of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Zootomy, 22(2):91-95

Gupta PK; Singh J, 1992. Effective control of thrips by soil applicaiton of granular insecticides in greengram. Indian Journal of Entomology, 54(4):465-470.

Hely PC, 1945. DDT as an insecticides. Result of preliminary trials. Agriculture Gazette of New South Wales, 56(9):397-400.

Hood JD, 1925. New species of Taeniothrips (Thysanoptera) from Africa. The Entomologist, 58:132-139.

Isaac PV, 1946. Report of the Imperial Entomologist 1944-45. New Delhi, India: Scientific Report of the Agricultural Research Institute, 73-79.

Jacot-Guillarmod CF, 1970. Catalogue of the Thysanoptera of the world. Part I. Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums (Natural History), 7(1):1-216.

Jacot-Guillarmod CF, 1971. Catalogue of the Thysanoptera of the world. Part II. Annals of the Cape Province Museums, Natural History, 7:217-515.

Jacot-Guillarmod CF, 1975. Catalogue of the Thysanoptera of the world. Part IV. Annals of the Cape Province Museum (Natural History), 7:977-1255.

Karny H, 1913. Thysanoptera von Japan. Archiv. J. Naturgesch, 79A(2):122-128.

Karny H, 1926. Studies on Indian Thysanoptera. Mem. Dept. Agri. India (Ent. Ser.), 9(6):187-239.

Kendre MS; Bhagwat VR; Shivpuje PR, 1996. Laboratory studies on biology of Megalurothrips distalis (Karny). Indian Journal of Pulse Research, 9(2):211-212.

Kooner BS; Chhabra KS, 1994. Control thrips to get higher yields of summer mungbean. Progressive Farming, 28(6):16.

Kudo I, 1970. Preliminary notes on Thysanoptera in Sapporo and the vicinity. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University (Zoology), 17:446-461.

Kudo I, 1971. Obervations on relative abundance, phenology and flower preference of Thysanoptera in Sapporo and vicinity. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University (Zoology), 17:610-627.

Kumar S; Murugesan S; Sundraraj R, 1997. Some biochemical correlation in relaiton to thrips flower interaction of arid and semi-arid tree species. Indian Journal of Entomology, 59(3):290-294.

Lal SS, 1981. Needs and priorities for developing Integrated Pest Management for pigeonpea pests. Pulse Crops Newsletter, 1(4):48-49.

Lal SS, 1985. A review of insect pests of mungbean and their control in India. Tropical Pest Management, 31(2):105-114

Lal SS, 1987. Insect pests of mung, urid, cowpea and pea and their management. In: Veerabhadra Rao M, Sithanantham S, eds. Proceedings of the National Seminar for Plant Protection in Field Crops, 29-31 January 1986. Hyderabad, India: CPPTI, 185-210.

Lal SS; Sachan JN; Chandra S, 1985. Cultural and varietal tools for integrated pest management for increasing pulse production. Plant Protection Bulletin, India, 37(1):13-23

Lal SS; Yadava CP; Dias CAR, 1980. Important pests of pulse crops in India and their management. Kanpur, India: Regional Station, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Publication No.2, 1-20.

Latha CRP; Sriramulu M; Babu TR, 1993. Evaluation of insecticides against insect pest complex of soybean Glycine max (L) Merril. Pesticide Research Journal, 5(2):212-214

Mahabir Singh, 1987. Chemical control of blossom thrips in apple. Indian Journal of Entomology, 49(4):580-582

Mishra RC; Verma AK; Gupta PR, 1987. Insecticides for the control of apple blossom thrips. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 44(1-2):115-120

Moulton D, 1936. Thysanoptera of the Philippines Islands. Philippine Journal of Agriculture, 7(2):263-273.

Mound LA, 1968. A review of RS Bagnall's Thysanoptera collections. Bulletin of the British Museum, Natural History, Entomology Supplement, 1-181.

Mound LA; Houston KJ, 1987. An annotated check-list of Thysanoptera from Australia. Occasional Papers on Systematic Entomology, No. 4:28pp.

Mound LA; Morison GD; Pitkin BR; Palmer JM, 1976. Handbooks for the identification of British insects. Vol. 1, part 11. Thysanoptera. Handbooks for the identification of British insects. Vol. 1, part 11. Thysanoptera. Royal Entomological Society of London. London UK, 79 pp.

Mound LA; Walker AK, 1982. Terebrantia (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 1, 113 pp.

Murugesan S; Shivesh Kumar, 1996. New records and damage of flower thrips in the introduced tree species of arid and semi-arid region. Indian Forester, 122(9):854-855; 5 ref.

Narsi Reddy Y; Nickle WR; Rao PN, 1982. Studies on Howardula aptini (Nematoda-Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in Megaluriothrips sp. in India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):1-5

Okada T; Kudo I, 1982. Relative abundance and phenology of Thysanoptera in a tea field. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 26(2):96-102

Olowe T; Dina SO; Oladiran AO; Olunuga BA, 1987. The control of weed, pest and disease complexes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by the application of pesticides singly and in combination. Crop Protection, 6(4):222-225

Palmer J, 1987. Megalurothrips in the flowers of tropical legumes: a morphometric study. In: Holman J, Pelikan J, Dixon AFG, Weisman L, eds. Population Structure Genetics and Taxonomy of Aphids and Thysanoptera. Proceeding of International Symposium, held at Smolenice Czechoslovakia Sept. 9-14, 1985. The Hague, Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 480-495.

Passlow T, 1968. Navy bean pests. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 94(12)59:762-763.

Passlow T, 1969. Pest control for quality navy beans. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 95(10):711-712.

Priesner H, 1938. Materialien zu einer Revision der Taeniothrips- Arten (Thysanoptera) des Indo-Malayischen Faunengebieten. Treubia, 16(4):469-527.

Priesner H, 1964. A monograph of the Thysanoptera of the Egyptian deserts. Publications de I'Institut du Desert d' Egypte, No. 13.

Priesner H, 1964. Ordnung Thysanoptera (Fransenflügler, Thripse). In: Franz H, ed. Bestimmungsbucher zur Bodenfauna Europas. Vol. II. Berlin, Germany: Akademie-Verlag, 1-242.

Pruthi HS, 1946. Report of The Imperial Entomologist 1941-44. New Delhi, India: Abridged Scientific Report of the Agricultural Research Institute, 64-71.

Puttaswamy; Reddy DRR, 1981. Record of some new pests infecting French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) a popular vegetable. Current Research, 10(3):39-41.

Rahman MM; Miah AA, 1988. Mungbean in Bangladesh - problems and prospects. In: Shanmugasundaram S, McLean BT, eds. Mungbean. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium held at Bangkok, Thailand, 16-20 November 1987. Taipei, Taiwan: AVRDC, 570-579

Rajasekhara K; Snehamoy Chatterji; Ramdas Menon MG, 1964. Biological notes on Psallus species (Miridae:Hemiptera), a predator of Taeniothrips nigricornis Schmutz (Thripidae:Thysanoptera). Indian Journal of Entomology, 26:62-66.

Ramasubbarao V; Thammiraju NB, 1994. New record of blossom thrips Megalurothrips distalis on mango (Mangifera indica). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 64(6):417-418

Rathore YS; Dixit GP, 1997. Reaction of lathyrus genotypes against thrips. Indian Journal of Pulses Research, 10(1):121-122.

Rawat RR; Singh Z; Jakhmola SS, 1969. Effect of infestation of blossom-thrips on pod setting in pigeon-pea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 39(7):623-625

Reddy YN; Nickle WR; Rao PN, 1982. Studies on Howardula aptini (Nematoda-Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in Megaluriothrips sp. in India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):1-5

Sahakundu AK, 1994. Population dynamics of mulberry thrips in West Bengal. Environment and Ecology, 12(2):356-359; 4 ref.

Sahoo BK; Patnaik NC, 1994. Insect pests in greengram and blackgram in the South Coastal Region of Orissa with notes on their seasonal activity. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 7(suppl):74-76; 6 ref.

Sakimura K, 1969. Date of publication of Schmutz's Thysanopteran fauna von Ceylon. Oriental Insects, 3:165-167.

Sakimura K, 1972. Male of Megalurothrips distalis and changes in nomenclature (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Kontyu, 40(3):188-193

Sandhu GS, 1977. Some insects recorded as pests of fodder crops at Ludhiana (Punjab). Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University, 14:449-459.

Satpathy JM; Das MS; Naik K, 1977. Effect of multiple and mixed cropping on the incidence of some important pests. Journal of Entomological Research, 1(1):78-85

Satyanarayana J; Singh KM; Singh RN, 1995. Insect pest succession in rice bean. Bulletin of Entomology, 36(1-2):78-83.

Satyanarayana J; Singh KM; Singh RN, 1995. Pest complex of rice bean, Vigna umbellata. Bulletin of Entomology, 36(1-2):28-33.

Satyanarayana J; Singh KM; Singh RN; Subedar Singh, 1997. Influence of intercropping and insecticide. I. Incidence of major pests in rice bean, Vigna umbellata. Indian Journal of Entomology, 59(3):316-325; 9 ref.

Schliephake G; Klimt K, 1979. Thysanoptera, thrips [Thysanoptera, Fransenflugler]. Jena, German Democratic Republic: Gustav Fischer Verlag, Die Tierwelt Deutchlands, No. 66, 477 pp.

Sehgal VK; Ram Ujagir, 1988. Insect pests and pest management of mungbean in India. In: Shanmugasundaram S, McLean BT, eds. Mungbean. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium held at Bangkok, Thailand, 16-20 November 1987. Taipei, Taiwan: AVRDC, 315-328.

Sen SK; Sur SC, 1964. A study on vicinism in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.). Agriculture Lourain, 12.

Shaw HB, 1914. Thrip as pollinators of beet flowers. Bulletin of the United States Department of Agriculture, 104.

Singh KJ; Singh OP, 1994. Role of volunteer soybean plants in the outbreak of thrips, Megalurothrips distalis (Karny), on lentil in India. Lens Newsletter, 21(1):41-42; 2 ref.

Srinivasa N; Verma S, 1997. Persistence of cypermethrin and endosulfan against pest complex of greengram. Pesticide Research Journal, 9(2):198-206.

Stannard LJ, 1968. The thrips, or Thysanoptera, of Illinois. Bulletin, Illinois Natural History Survey, 29(4):215-552.

Steinweden BJ, 1933. Key to all known species of the genus Taeniothrips Amyot & Serville (Thysanoptera:Thripidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 59:269-293.

Takahashi R, 1936. Thysanoptera of Formosa. Philippine Journal of Science, 60(4):427-458.

Tyler-Julian K; Funderburk J; Mound L, 2014. Megalurothrips distalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) breeding in the flowers of kudzu in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 97(2):835-840. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Vaishampayan SM; Zile Singh, 1969. Comparative effectiveness of some modern insecticides against the blossom thrips of Redgram, (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.). Indian Journal Agricultural Science, 39(1):52-56.

Varatharajan R; Singh OD; Sen S, 1992. On some flower thrips from Manipur. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 33(1/2):68-73; 7 ref.

Velayudhan R; Gopinathan K; Bakthavatsalam N, 1985. Pollination potential, population dynamics and dispersal of thrips species (Thysanoptera: Insecta) infesting flowers of Dolichos lablab L. (Fabaceae). Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, B (Biological Sciences), 51(5):574-580

Verma AN; Singh HV; Khurana AD, 1980. Record of some thrips of Hissar (Haryana). Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 10(3):410-412

Verma KL, 1979. Apple blossom thrips and their control. Pesticides, 13(1):32-33

Viswanathan TR; Ananthakrishnan TN, 1974. Population fluctuations of 3 species of anthophilous Thysanoptera in relation to the numerical response of their predator, Orius minutus L. (Anthocoridae: Hemiptera). Current Science, 43(1):19-20

Williams IH, 1977. Behaviour of insects foraging on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) in India. Tropical Agriculture, 54(4):353-363

Distribution References

Agrwal SC, Singh K, Lal SS, 1993. Plant protection of lentils in India. [The Proceedings of the Seminar on Lentils in South Asia, 11-15 March, 1991], [ed. by Erskine W, Saxena MC]. Aleppo, Syria: ICARDA. 147-167.

Ananthakrishnan TN, Jagadish A, 1967. Studies on some Taeniothrips species from India. 1., 32 (1-2) 159-170.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Bagnall R S, 1918. Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera IX. Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 9. 201-221.

Bhattacharya A, Sen A K, 1985. New host record of Megalurothrips distalis Karny (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) and Haplothrips ganglbaueri Schmutz (Phlaeothripidae; Thysanoptera). Science and Culture. 51 (2), 61.

Bhattacharya S S, Chakraborty N, Rao K V S N, Sahakundu A K, 1993. Thrips of mulberry in West Bengal and the record of thrips infecting mulberry in India. Environment and Ecology. 11 (1), 239-240.

Bhatti B S, 1990. Catalogue of insects of the order Terebrantia from the Indian Subregion. Zoology, Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology. 2 (4), 205-352.

Bhatti JS, 1969. The taxonomic status of Megalurothrips Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In: Oriental Insects, 3 239-244.

Butani D K, 1980. Insect pests of vegetables and their control - cluster beans. Pesticides. 14 (10), 33-35.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chhabra KS, 1992. Advances in management of insect pests of Vigna species. [New frontiers in pulses research and development. Proceedings of the National Symposium, 10-12 November, 1989], [ed. by Sachan JN]. 178-186.

Gupta P K, Singh J, 1981. Important insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in agroecosystem of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Zootomy. 22 (2), 91-95.

Isaac P V, 1946. Scientific Report of the Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. 73-79.

Karny H, 1926. Studies on Indian Thysanoptera. Mem. Dept. Agri. India (Ent. Ser.). 9 (6), 187-239.

Kudo I, 1970. Preliminary notes on Thysanoptera in Sapporo and the vicinity. In: Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University (Zoology), 17 446-461.

Kudo I, 1971. Observations on relative abundance, phenology and flower preference of Thysanoptera in Sapporo and vicinity. In: Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University (Zoology), 17 610-627.

Lal S S, 1985. A review of insect pests of mungbean and their control in India. Tropical Pest Management. 31 (2), 105-114.

Lal S S, Sachan J N, Chandra S, 1985. Cultural and varietal tools for integrated pest management for increasing pulse production. Plant Protection Bulletin, India. 37 (1), 13-23.

Lal SS, 1981. Needs and priorities for developing Integrated Pest Management for pigeonpea pests. In: Pulse Crops Newsletter, 1 (4) 48-49.

Lal SS, 1987. Insect pests of mung, urid, cowpea and pea and their management. [Proceedings of the National Seminar for Plant Protection in Field Crops, 29-31 January 1986], [ed. by Veerabhadra Rao M, Sithanantham S]. Hyderabad, India: CPPTI. 185-210.

Moulton D, 1936. Thysanoptera of the Philippines Islands. Philippine Journal of Agriculture. 7 (2), 263-273.

Okada T, Kudo I, 1982. Relative abundance and phenology of Thysanoptera in a tea field. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology. 26 (2), 96-102. DOI:10.1303/jjaez.26.96

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