Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tabebuia rosea
(pink poui)

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Datasheet

Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tabebuia rosea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pink poui
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. rosea is a tree widely used as an ornamental, due to its beautiful flower display, and cultivated for its wood (Orwa e...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) Bertero ex A. DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • pink poui

Other Scientific Names

  • Bignonia fluviatilis G. Mey
  • Bignonia pentaphylla L.
  • Cauralia rosea Dann
  • Couralia rosea Donn. Sm.
  • Sparattosperma rosea (Bertol.) Miers.
  • Sparattosperma roseum (Bertol.) Miers
  • Tabebuia heterophylla Britton
  • Tabebuia mexicana (Mart. ex DC.) Hemsl.
  • Tabebuia pentaphylla auct.
  • Tabebuia pullida Miers
  • Tabebuia punctatissima (Kraenzl.) Standl.
  • Tecoma evenia Donn. Sm.
  • Tecoma mexicana Mart. ex DC.
  • Tecoma punctatissima Kraenzl.
  • Tecoma rosea Bertol.

International Common Names

  • English: mayflower; pink trumpet-tree; roble; rosy trumpet-tree; white cedar; white wood
  • Spanish: apamate; cortez; falso roble; flormorado; Gauyacan rosado; macuelizo; ocobo; roble
  • French: tabébuia rose

Local Common Names

  • Australia: pink Tecoma
  • Belize: greenheart ebony
  • Bolivia: tajibo
  • Colombia: apamate; flor morado; Guayacán de flor rosada; Guayacán flor rosao; Guayacán lila o morao; ocobo; roble de río; roble flor moradop; roble sabanero
  • Costa Rica: roble blanco; roble de sabana
  • Cuba: roble de yugo
  • Denmark: trompettrae
  • Dominican Republic: roble blanco
  • Ecuador: cañaguaste; ebano; ocobe; roble de Guayaquil
  • El Salvador: macuilís; maculez; maculigua; maquilishuat
  • Honduras: cortés; maculizo; mano de león
  • India: basant rani; chompu
  • Mexico: amapa rosa; amapola; cachahua; maculís; palo rosa; roble de San Luis; roble prieto; rosa morada
  • Nicaragua: roble macuelizo; roble venezolano
  • Peru: paliperro; palo yugoi; tahuari
  • Portugal: ipê -rosa; tabebuia branca; tabebuia cor de rosa
  • Puerto Rico: roble venezolano
  • Singapore: New World trumpet; trumpet tree
  • Suriname: greenheart
  • Sweden: trumpetträd
  • Trinidad and Tobago: phanthip; pink powi
  • Venezuela: apamate; roble blanco; roble negro; uorumo

EPPO code

  • TABRO (Tabebuia rosea)

Subspecies

  • Tabebuia rosea subsp. pentaphylla

Trade name

  • apamate
  • May flower
  • roble

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. rosea is a tree widely used as an ornamental, due to its beautiful flower display, and cultivated for its wood (Orwa et al., 2009; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). It has wind dispersed seeds, and rapid germination and seedling growth, all features which can promote its spread and its invasiveness (PROTA, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). Takaki and Socolowski (2007) regard the species as having a high invasive potential in Sao Paulo, Brazil, due to its highly successful germination and recruitment under both direct sun and shade conditions. It is currently reported as invasive in Singapore and Hawaii, USA, without further details (PIER, 2016). It has the potential of spreading into other countries as it is cultivated in nurseries for its distribution as an ornamental in the Americas, Europe and Asia. Although not reported by Kairo et al. (2003) as invasive in Trinidad and Tobago, it is listed as an exotic in their work about invasive threats in the Caribbean region.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Bignoniaceae
  •                             Genus: Tabebuia
  •                                 Species: Tabebuia rosea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Bignoniaceae is a mostly neotropical family of about 82 genera (Olmstead et al., 2009). Some genera are of horticultural importance due to their spectacular flowering; for example, Bignonia, Jacaranda, Spathodea, and Tabebuia (Grose and Olmstead, 2007). Tabebuia is the largest genus of the family, with about 100 tree and shrub species from tropical America (Gentry, 1970). The word “Tabebuia” was first used by Antonio Gomes in 1803, to describe a new species of Bignonia; it was first used as a generic name by de Candolle in 1838 (Gentry, 1969). The word is a contraction of “tacyba bebuya” meaning “ant wood”. This is a reference to ants living in hollow twigs of some Tabebuia species (Gentry, 1970). The epithet rosea is a reference to the flower colour. Of the synonyms reported for the species, Bignonia fluviatilis is an illegitimate name and Sparattosperma rosea is a name variation of S. roseum (The Plant List, 2013; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of Panama (2016):

Tree to 25 or 30 m tall and 1 m DBH, the bark narrowly vertically fissured with corky ridges, dark gray to blackish; wood superficially similar to oak, of medium density, light grayish brown with distinct pattern from stripings of brown paratracheal parenchyma, when fresh with faint sweet odour suggesting watermelon; twigs subtetragonal, lepidote, with thick pith, the nodes without interpetiolar glands or pseudostipules. Leaves palmately 5-foliolate, often anisophyllous; the leaflets elliptic to elliptic-oblong, acute to acuminate, basally rounded to cuneate, the terminal leaflet 8-35 cm long and 3-18 cm wide, the intermediate pair 6-34 cm long and 3-17 cm wide, the lateral pair 3.5-25 cm long and 1.4-12 cm wide, entire, subcoriaceous to chartaceous, lepidote above and beneath, gray-green when dry; the terminal petiolule 2-11 cm long, intermediate petiolules 1.5-9.5 cm long, lateral petiolules 0.2-2.4 cm long, the petiole 5-32 cm long, lepidote. Inflorescence a terminal panicle with a pair of subulate bracts subtending each dichotomy, the branches densely lepidote. Flowers slightly sweet-smelling, calyx cupular, bilabiate, 11-21 cm long and 6-12 cm wide, densely lepidote; corolla white to pinkish-lavender or magenta, the throat opening yellow, turning white, tubular-infundibuliform, 5-10 cm long and 1.5-3.2 cm wide at the mouth of tube, the tube 3-5.8 cm long, the lobes 2.2-2.6 cm long, glabrous outside, ciliate, sparsely pubescent within with small mostly unicellular trichomes on throat ridges and gland-tipped trichomes at the point of stamen insertion; stamens didynamous, the thecae divaricate, 2.5-3.5 mm long, the longer filaments 1.4-2.0 cm long, shorter filaments 1.0-1.5 cm long, the staminode 2-6 mm long, inserted 5-10 mm from base of corolla; pistil 1.9-3.2 cm long, the ovary linear, 5-8 mm long and 1 mm wide, densely lepidote, the ovules 2-seriate in each locule; disc tapered-cupular, 2-3 mm long and 3-3.5 mm wide. Capsule linear-cylindric, attenuate at both ends, 22-38 cm long and 0.9-1.5 cm wide, lepidote, the calyx usually persistent; seeds 0.7-1.0 cm long and 2.84.4 cm wide, the wings hyaline-membranaceous, sharply demarcated from the seed body.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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T. rosea is a native tree in southern México, Central America and northern South America into Venezuela and Ecuador (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). The species is now found in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania (see Distribution Table for details). Its distribution is perhaps more extensive than currently published as some internet sites have the species as being propagated in nurseries for its distribution as an ornamental in Europe, the Americas and Asia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
CambodiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ChinaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-ChongqingPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-HainanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-SichuanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-YunnanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
IndiaPresentIntroducedFlowers of India, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-GujaratPresent Planted
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-MaharashtraPresent Planted
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MyanmarPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
PakistanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
QatarPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of Qatar, 2016
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Tan, 2011; PIER, 2016; Urban Forest, 2016With invasive traits and freely naturalising in disturbed habitats
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced1888PROTA, 2016Colombo
ThailandPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
VietnamPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016

Africa

ComorosPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Mayotte
GhanaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2016
MadagascarPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
UgandaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Karani, 1986Ornamental
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016

North America

MexicoWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit. Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán
USARestricted distributionIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016San Francisco
-FloridaPresentIntroducedDave's Garden, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Maui, Big Island. Invasive in Oahu

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016New Providence
BelizePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentNativeUseful Tropical Plants, 2016
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
El SalvadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Ahuachapán, Cabañas, Chalatenango, La Libertad, La Paz, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, Usulután
GuadeloupePresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
GuatemalaWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jutiapa, Petén, Quetzaltenango, Retalhuleu, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Sololá, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa
HondurasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Atlántida, Comayagua, Copán, Cortés, El Paraíso, Francisco Morazán, Gracias a Dios, Olancho, Santa Bárbara
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1850Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016St. Andrew; St. Thomas
Lesser AntillesPresent Natural
MartiniquePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MontserratPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
NicaraguaWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Atlántico Norte, Atlántico Sur. Boaco, Carazo, Chontales, Estelí, Granada, Jinotega, León, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rِío San Juan, Rivas, Zelaya
PanamaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Bocas del Toro, Canal Area, Chiriquí, Coclé, Colón Darién, Herrera, Panamá, San Blas, Veraguas.
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLittle et al., 1974; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; UPRRP, 2016Trujillo Alto
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced1909Orwa et al., 2009; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix

South America

BoliviaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Santa Cruz
BrazilPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Espirito SantoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-GoiasPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Minas GeraisPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Rio de JaneiroPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Sao PauloPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSocolowski and Takaki, 2007; Flora do Brasil, 2016
-Sao PauloPresent only in captivity/cultivationSocolowski and Takaki, 2007; Flora do Brasil, 2016Regarded as a potential invasive species due to its successful seed germination under different conditions
ColombiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Guajira, Antioquia, Bolivar, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, La Guajira, Magdalena, Nariño, Santander, Sucre, Valle del Cauca
EcuadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Guayas
GuyanaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
PeruPresentPlanted, Natural
VenezuelaWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Caracas, Anzoátegui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Distrito Federal, Falcón, Guárico, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Táchira, Yaracuy, Zulia

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2016Tahiti, Society Islands
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
New CaledoniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2016Ile Grande Terre

History of Introduction and Spread

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T. rosea is reported in the Caribbean region by the late 1980’s (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). It is also reported as introduced in Sri Lanka in about 1888 (PROTA, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Sri Lanka 1888 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No PROTA (2016) Ornamental tree

Risk of Introduction

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T. rosea is a tree with a high likelihood of introduction due to is extensive use and popularity as an ornamental tree. There are various sites that advertise the species as an ornamental to be used in the Americas, Europe and Asia, so its highly probable that it can be introduced in countries where it is currently absent. A risk assessment carried out for Hawaii gave it a fairly low score of 3 (Evaluate) (PIER, 2016).

Habitat

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T. rosea is dominant in humid forest lowlands, gallery forest and seasonally flooded regions (Lopez and Kursar, 2003; PROTA, 2016). It is also reported for dry tropical forest, riparian forests, upland dry forests, near mangroves, coastal thickets, open fields, roadsides, plains, steep hillsides and abandoned farmlands (Gentry, 1970; Reich and Borchert, 1984; Cortés-Castillo and Rangel-Ch, 2011; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

DNA barcode information for the species is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS, 2016). Germplasm is stored at various institutions (Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2015; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). The chromosome number reported for the species is 2n=20 (Soontornchainaksang and Chaiyasut, 1996).

Reproductive Biology

T. rosea is propagated by seeds, cuttings or air layers (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; Dave’s Garden, 2016; World Agroforestry Centre, 2016). Cuttings are reported to root quickly (World Agroforestry Centre, 2016) .

The species is self-incompatible, not producing any fruits in self-pollination experiments (Bawa, 1974). Pollination is by bees. According to Gentry (1970) the species attracts few pollinators, like Xylocopa, Eulaema and smaller anthophorid bees. Phenolic compounds are reported as responsible for decreased visits from anthophorid bees (Adler, 2000). Centris nitida and Centris flavofasciata bees have also been seen visiting the flowers (Quiroz-Garcia et al., 2001; Quiroz-García and Arreguin-Sánchez, 2006).

Seeds are produced in moderate quantities and germinating capacity is maintained for a short time (PROTA, 2016; World Agroforestry Centre, 2016). There are about 42,000 seeds/kg (Orwa et al., 2009). Seeds are wind dispersed (PROTA, 2016; Urban Forest, 2016).

The seeds are classified as orthodox and remain viable for 12-14 days if untreated. Germination usually takes place in 3­4 days (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). Soil scarification promotes germination and initial seedling development (Santacruz et al., 2006). The species has photosynthetic cotyledons that makes embryos respond to light earlier than more shade-tolerant species (Kitajima, 2002). The seeds can germinate in a wide range of temperatures, in open environments and shaded places (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2016; Word Agroforestry Centre, 2016). Flooding is reported as reducing germination (Lopez, 2001).

Physiology and Phenology

T. rosea is a fast growing species, especially when young, reaching a height of over 9 m in about three years (PROTA, 2016). Fruiting begins when the tree is four years old (Orwa et al., 2009). When conditions are not favourable, bark­burst has been observed; branches are easily broken by strong winds (World Agroforestry Centre, 2016).

T. rosea normally requires a distinct dry period in order to flower (Gentry, 1970; Soltero-Gardea and Negrete-Ramos, 1997). The leaves are shed just before flowering, resulting in a massive flowering, hence its popularity as an ornamental. Flowering has been reported to occur in February-June in Mexico to Central America; and in February-April in South America (Arizmendi and Ornelas, 1990; Bullock and Solis-Magallanes, 1990; Orwa et al., 2009; Paul et al., 2012; PROTA, 2016). Fruits develop during the months following anthesis (Orwa et al., 2009). In climates where rains occur throughout the year, and there is no dry season, flowers tend to bloom intermittently through the year in smaller episodes (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015). It flowers throughout the year in India (Sivaraj and Krishnamurthy, 1989), but also reported to flower there in some areas between December and February (Flowers of India, 2016). Flowering in Asia is reported for April, and August to September (National Parks Board, 2016; Urban Forest, 2016).

Longevity

The species is a long-lived pioneer with a lifespan of about 50 years (Piotto, 2007; Orwa et al., 2009).

Associations

Lichens listed as growing on T. rosea are: Caloplaca cerina, Dirinaria picta, Parmotrema austrosinense (Den Boom et al., 2007). T. rosea is reported to grow in association with Cordia alliodora and Cedrela odorata. Ants form nests on hollow twigs of the species (Armbrecht et al., 2004).

Environmental Requirements

T. rosea grows best in deep, fertile, moist, well drained soils in full sun (Farji-Brener, 2001; Orwa et al., 2009; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015). It prefers sandy soil, yet will also tolerate clay loams and poor soils (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2016). It tolerates shade for short intermediate periods and occasional flooding (Augspurger, 1984). It is found from sea level to 1200 m, in average temperatures of 20°C to 30°C, with a mean annual rainfall of 1250-2500 mm, and soils with very variable pH from mildly acidic to mildly alkaline (Orwa et al., 2009; Dave’s Garden, 2016; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
37 34 100 1900

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 23 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 17 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration03number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall12002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleurodicus Herbivore Leaves not specific
Atta cephalotes Herbivore Leaves not specific
Brevipalpus phoenicis Herbivore Whole plant not specific
Eulepte gastralis Herbivore Leaves not specific
Hylesia lineata Herbivore Leaves not specific
Hypsipyla grandella Herbivore Leaves not specific
Meloidogyne incognita Parasite Roots not specific
Prospodium bicolor Pathogen Leaves not specific
Rhabdotalebra signata Herbivore Whole plant not specific
Rhizoctonia Pathogen Seedlings not specific
Walterianella inscripta Herbivore Leaves not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Wood in contact with the ground is susceptible to insect attack. Various insects are reported as affecting the species: Aleurodicus sp., Brevipalpus phoenicis; Phylloicus sp., Rhabdotalebra signata, Hypsipyla grandella, Walterianella inscripta, Eulepte gastralis, Atta cephalotes and Hylesia lineata (Rockwood, 1976; Janzen, 1981; Arnal et al., 1993; Evans et al., 1993; Rincón and Martínez, 2006; Plath et al., 2012).

Other organisms affecting the species are: the fungi Antrodiella sp., Diplomitoporus costaricensis, Perenniporia tephropora [Loweporus tephroporus], Physisporinus sanguinolentus [Rigidiporus sanguinolentus], Rhizoctonia sp., Prospodium bicolor; the nematode Meloidogyne incognita; and the myxomycetes Licea kleistobolus, Licea marginata, Licea parasitica, Physarum oblatum (Ing and Haynes, 1999; Lindblad, 2000).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagation Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds could be carried by wind into adjacent areas Yes
ForestryOne of the most important timber trees in Central America Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2016
Habitat restoration and improvementUsed for restoration of degraded areas Yes Yes Hall et al., 2011
Internet sales Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Off-site preservation Seeds preserved at various sites, including the USDA-ARS and the Millennium Seed Bank Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2015
Ornamental purposesUsed as an ornamental tree in urban areas Yes Yes PROTA, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
WindSeeds are wind dispersed Yes PROTA, 2016

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic value

T. rosea is one of the most important timber trees of Central America, being planted and also harvested from the wild for this purpose (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). Its timber is used for light and heavy construction, furniture, cabinetwork, interior finishes, boat building; sport equipment; floors, plywood, veneer, tool handles, posts, carts, crates, fuel, pulp, doors (Aguilar and Condit, 2001; Love et al., 2009; Orwa et al., 2009). A large proportion of the cheaper chairs in Central America are made from this wood (Learn2Grow, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). The species is also used in agroforestry, as a live fence, and in association with coffee, yucca, maize and cacao plantations (Albertin and Nair, 2004).

It is one of the showiest of the flowering trees of the New World and is used as an ornamental in urban areas (World Agroforestry Centre, 2016).

Social benefit

T. rosea is the National Tree of El Salvador (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015). The species has the following medicinal uses reported: as treatment for snake bites, intestinal parasites, fever, anaemia, constipation, malaria, diabetes, allergies, immune system disorders, and to treat cervical cancer (Piotto, 2007; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Its anticancer, antimalarial and antidiabetic activities are attributed to the presence of lapachol, but its potential is under review due to toxic side effects (Girard et al., 1988; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). Oils are reported as used for food preparation (Jiménez-Escobar and Rangel-Ch, 2012). The species is also used for bonsai (PROTA, 2016).

Environmental services

T. rosea has been used for reforestation of degraded lands (Hall et al., 2011; Plath et al., 2011; 2012). Its flowers are visited by hummingbirds who feed on the nectar by puncturing the corollas (Gentry, 1970). Two hummingbirds reported as nectar robbers in Mexico are Amazilia rutila and Cynanthus sp. (Arizmendi and Ornelas, 1990). The flowers are eaten by the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), an endangered species, the Yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona auropalliata), a threatened species, and the White-fronted Amazon (A. albifrons); the flowers, leaves and bark are eaten by the Orange fronted Parakeet (Aratinga canicularis) and the Orange-chinned Parakeet (Brotogeris jugularis) (Matuzak et al., 2008).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Revegetation
  • Wildlife habitat

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Oil/fat

Materials

  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Wood Products

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Boats

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Crates

Furniture

Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp

Roundwood

  • Piles
  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction

Vehicle bodies

Veneers

Wood-based materials

  • Particleboard
  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Sports equipment
  • Tool handles
  • Turnery

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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T. rosea has been confused in India with Handroanthus impetiginosus; they differ in the shape of the corolla, and the length and margins of the leaflets, which are entire in T. rosea and serrate in T. impetiginosus (Flowers of India, 2016). It can be distinguished from the other Tabebuia species planted in Singapore as it has the largest leaflets, ending in sharp apiculate tips (Urban Forest, 2016). It could be confused with T. heterophylla, but the leaves of this species are not as long and are blunt pointed at both ends (Little et al., 1974).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Detailed information about its effects on habitats and biodiversity where reported as invasive is needed. No information about its management and control is available.

References

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Contributors

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28/08/2016 Updated by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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