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Monochoria hastata
(hastate-leaved pondweed)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2020. Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.52540909.20203483525

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Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Flower and leaf. Botanical garden Kozikhode, Kerala, India. February 2011.
TitleFlower and leaf
CaptionMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Flower and leaf. Botanical garden Kozikhode, Kerala, India. February 2011.
Copyright©Hendrik Wiethase/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Flower and leaf. Botanical garden Kozikhode, Kerala, India. February 2011.
Flower and leafMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Flower and leaf. Botanical garden Kozikhode, Kerala, India. February 2011.©Hendrik Wiethase/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Inflorescence(s). Thailand. December 2018.
TitleInflorescence(s
CaptionMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Inflorescence(s). Thailand. December 2018.
Copyright©Peak Hora (Peak99)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Inflorescence(s). Thailand. December 2018.
Inflorescence(sMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Inflorescence(s). Thailand. December 2018.©Peak Hora (Peak99)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Inflorescence(s). Thailand. December 2018.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Inflorescence(s). Thailand. December 2018.
Copyright©Peak Hora (Peak99)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Inflorescence(s). Thailand. December 2018.
InflorescenceMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Inflorescence(s). Thailand. December 2018.©Peak Hora (Peak99)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Flowering Habit. Durgapur, Paschim Bardhaman, West Bengal, India. July 2019.
TitleFlowering Habit
CaptionMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Flowering Habit. Durgapur, Paschim Bardhaman, West Bengal, India. July 2019.
Copyright©Sagar Adhurya/via Biodiversity of West Bengal - CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Flowering Habit. Durgapur, Paschim Bardhaman, West Bengal, India. July 2019.
Flowering HabitMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Flowering Habit. Durgapur, Paschim Bardhaman, West Bengal, India. July 2019.©Sagar Adhurya/via Biodiversity of West Bengal - CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Habit. Thailand. November 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Habit. Thailand. November 2017.
Copyright©Shaun Winterton, Aquarium and Pond Plants of the World, Edition 3, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Habit. Thailand. November 2017.
HabitMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Habit. Thailand. November 2017.©Shaun Winterton, Aquarium and Pond Plants of the World, Edition 3, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Seeds, with hilar region (funiculus) at bottom. USA.
TitleSeeds
CaptionMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Seeds, with hilar region (funiculus) at bottom. USA.
Copyright©Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Seeds, with hilar region (funiculus) at bottom. USA.
SeedsMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed); Seeds, with hilar region (funiculus) at bottom. USA.©Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms-Laub.

Preferred Common Name

  • hastate-leaved pondweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Carigola hastata (L.) Raf.
  • Monochoria chinensis Gand.
  • Monochoria dilatata (Buch.-Ham.) Kunth
  • Monochoria hastifolia C.Presl
  • Monochoria sagittata Kunth
  • Pontederia dilatata Buch.-Ham.
  • Pontederia hastata L.

International Common Names

  • English: arrow pond weed; leaf pondweed; monochorea
  • Portuguese: monocória

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: chrach
  • China: jian ye yu jiu hua; laomie; paging
  • India: bhat-meteka; bih-meteka; gachli; garoposki; jonaki phul; junaki-phul; launkia; nukha; pani-meteka
  • Indonesia: bia-bia; eceng gede; wewehan
  • Japan: nan'yo-mizu-aoi
  • Laos: ‘Ii hin; phak thop
  • Malaysia: chacha layar; kangkong air
  • Papua New Guinea: maoa
  • Philippines: calaboa; gabi-gabihan; kasal-kasal; payaw-payaw
  • Sri Lanka: diya-habarela; jabara
  • Thailand: phakpon; phaktop; phaktop-thai; pok tope
  • USA: arrowleaf false pickerelweed; arrow-leaf monochoria
  • Vietnam: dau mac

Summary of Invasiveness

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Monochoria hastata is a tropical aquatic herb, almost entirely restricted to its native distribution of South-East Asia and Oceania (Boonkerd et al., 1993). It is a weed of rice fields in South-East Asia, with a prolific seed production and a high capacity to reproduce vegetatively (Ali et al., 2018). It is only listed as invasive in rice fields in Singapore, without further details (PIER, 2019). M. hastata is not reported as invasive in natural habitats; nor is there information about its effects on biodiversity.

Outside its native range, M. hastata is reported as expected to spread and invade rice fields in Pakistan, facilitated by flooding events associated to monsoon rains (Ali et al., 2018). Although is not found in the New World, M. hastata is declared as a Federal Noxious Weed in the USA, because of the detrimental effects it could cause to agriculture (Coile, 1996).

In Oceania, M. hastata is reported only as cultivated in Fiji, without further details (PIER, 2019). In the Northern Territory of Australia, M. hastata is classified as vulnerable because of the deterioration of aquatic habitats and the invasion of exotic weeds (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Pontederiales
  •                         Family: Pontederiaceae
  •                             Genus: Monochoria
  •                                 Species: Monochoria hastata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Pontederiaceae is a small family of six genera and about 40 species, mostly in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide (Eckenwalder and Barrett, 1986; Ali et al., 2018). The genus Monochoria includes eight species from the Old World; M. hastata being native to Asia and Oceania (Boonkerd et al., 1993). Of the synonyms reported for the species, Calcarunia hastata and Pontederia sagitifolia are invalid names; and Pontederia sagittata and P. vaginalis are illegitimate names (World Flora Online, 2019).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China (2019):

Herb perennial, aquatic. Vegetative stems often long and robust. Radical leaves with sheath broadened at base; petiole 30-90 cm; leaf blade triangular or triangular-ovate, 5-15(-25) × 3-15 cm, base sagittate to hastate, apex acute to acuminate. Flowering stems erect or obliquely so, 50-90 cm; leaf petiole 7-10 cm. Inflorescences erect or suberect, remaining so after anthesis, subumbellate to shortly racemose, 10-40-flowered; peduncle distinctly shorter than associated leaf petiole. Pedicels 1-3 cm. Perianth segments bluish with green median vein and reddish blotch, ovate, 1-1.6 cm. Larger stamen: anther 5.3-6.5 mm. Smaller stamens: filaments filiform; anthers 3-4 mm. Style densely and shortly spreading, hairy at apex. Capsule oblong, ca. 1 cm. Seeds brown, oblong; wings ca. 10.

Plant Type

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Aquatic
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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M. hastata is a tropical perennial herb native to South-East Asia and Oceania (Steenis, 1947; Boonkerd et al., 1993). Outside of its native range, the species has been reported from Pakistan (Ali et al., 2018) and Fiji (Greenwood, 1949; PIER, 2019). It is regarded as possibly not native to Singapore because it is found only in artificial water bodies (The DNA of Singapore, 2019). Although it is reported in Brazil (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019), according to Flora do Brasil (2019) it is not present in that country. For details, see the Distribution Table (Ali et al., 2018; Flora of China, 2019; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019; PIER, 2019; The DNA of Singapore, 2019).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresent, Localized
BhutanPresentNative
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-BorneoPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
-SulawesiPresentNative
-SumatraPresentNative
CambodiaPresent, Localized
ChinaPresent, Localized
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
Hong KongPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-BiharPresentNative
-GujaratPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-OdishaPresentNative
-PunjabPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresent, Localized
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresentNative
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentNativeInvasiveAs native, but with note of 'uncertain if introduced'
Sri LankaPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative
-Northern TerritoryPresent, Few occurrencesNativeAs vulnerable
FijiPresent, Localized
Papua New GuineaPresentNative

South America

BrazilAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

History of Introduction and Spread

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M. hastata is a tropical aquatic herb only reported as introduced in Pakistan and Fiji (Greenwood, 1949; Ali et al., 2018; PIER, 2019). It is reported from the early 2000s as present in Pakistan; possibly arriving through the Nala Baien River tributary from India or via flooding events (Ali et al., 2018). It is reported as cultivated in Fiji without further details (PIER, 2019).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Pakistan India 2016 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes No Ali et al. (2018) Possibly entering Pakistan through a river tributary from India

Risk of Introduction

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M. hastata is an aquatic herb with a medium to high risk of introduction into tropical areas worldwide. It is apparently confined to tropical areas, and it is not spreading into subtropical or temperate regions. Boonkerd et al. (1993) reports it as being unable to survive winter temperatures in subtropical areas.

M. hastata could be introduced to suitable areas through its use as an ornamental, flooding events and interconnected waterways (Ali et al., 2018; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). Because of its presence as a weed of rice and the possible detrimental effects on agriculture, M. hastata is listed as a noxious weed in the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2019). Although it has not been reported as a contaminant of rice products, its spread through cultivation practices needs more research.

Habitat

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M. hastata is a tropical aquatic herb reported from freshwater pools, mudflats in rivers, ditches, rice fields, canal banks, sluggish streams, silted-up meanders, swamps, open drains and very wet soils (Reiner and Robbins, 1964; Boonkerd et al., 1993; Kosaka et al., 2013; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019; PIER, 2019; The DNA of Singapore, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). It grows from sea level to 700 m altitude (PIER, 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterReservoirs Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterPonds Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. hastata is reported as a weed of rice fields, but with very little information available (PIER, 2019). Boonkerd et al. (1993) report that at high population densities, M. hastata is competitive and can reduce rice yields considerably.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    The chromosome numbers reported for M. hastata are n=17, 40, 42 (Eckenwalder and Barrett, 1986). There are no germplasm collections or breeding programmes reported for the species (Boonkerd et al., 1993).

    Patwary et al. (1989) collected four distinct morphological types of M. hastata and M. vaginalis; two from each species. According to the authors, M. vaginalis type II is an allotetraploid derived from the M. hastata type I × M. vaginalis type I and that M. hastata type II is an autoallohexaploid hybrid of M. vaginalis type II × M. hastata type I.

    Reproductive Biology

    M. hastata reproduction is by seeds and vegetatively by rhizome fragmentation (Boonkerd et al., 1993; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). Anthesis takes place during the morning and the flowers are self-compatible (Boonkerd et al., 1993; Huelsenbeck et al., 2003). In India the flowers are foraged for pollen by Apis mellifera (Pal and Karmakar, 2013). The seeds are produced in abundance and the germination is underwater (Ali et al., 2018). For cultivation, the seeds should be sown as soon as they are mature (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

    Physiology and Phenology

    M. hastata is a fast-growing perennial aquatic herb that can grow either rooted in wet soil or floating in water (Boonkerd et al., 1993; Ali et al., 2018). The Inflorescences and leaf blades are always borne above the water level. It is reported as flowering from March to August in India (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

    Longevity

    M. hastata is a perennial aquatic herb (Boonkerd et al., 1993). It is also reported as an annual by Hakim et al. (2013), but this probably refers to the plants dying if fields dry out (Boonkerd et al., 1993).

    Population Size and Structure

    Plants of M. hastata usually grow in clumps (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

    Associations

    Vibrio cholera-O1 has been found in the roots of M. hastata in Bangladesh (Islam et al., 1994). Endophytic fungi of the genera Curvularia, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Fusarium are reported from the leaves of M. hastata by Chowdhury et al. (2016).

    Environmental Requirements

    M. hastata is a tropical aquatic herb growing best in sunny areas with temperatures of 25- 35°C, tolerating 16-38°C. It prefers an annual rainfall of 1500-2000 mm, tolerating 1000-4000 mm. It can grow in very wet soils and in water, becoming a floating plant in deeper water. It prefers fertile, medium to heavy soils with a pH range of 5 to 6.5, tolerating pH 4 to 7 (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    28 18

    Air Temperature

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    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 16
    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 16 38

    Rainfall

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    ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
    Mean annual rainfall10004000mm; lower/upper limits

    Rainfall Regime

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    Bimodal
    Summer
    Uniform
    Winter

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • impeded
    • seasonally waterlogged

    Soil reaction

    • acid
    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • heavy
    • medium

    Natural enemies

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    Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
    Hippotion echeclus Herbivore Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
    Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Herbivore Plants|Leaves not specific

    Notes on Natural Enemies

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    The insects Hippotion echeclus and Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae have been reported as herbivores of M. hastata (Encyclopedia of Life, 2019).

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    M. hastata is water dispersed, with the seeds and plants spreading by flooding and interconnected waterways (Ali et al., 2018).

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Crop productionWeed of rice fields. No information available, but possible from rice cultivation practices Yes Yes Boonkerd et al. (1993)
    Flooding and other natural disastersAs a possible way of getting into Pakistan Yes Yes Ali et al. (2018)
    ForageForaged locally for food Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
    Garden waste disposalNo information available, but possible as it is used occasionally as an ornamental Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
    HitchhikerNo information available, but possible from rice cultivation practices Yes
    HorticultureNo information available, but possible as it is used occasionally as an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
    Interconnected waterwaysAs a possible way for entering Pakistan Yes Yes Ali et al. (2018)
    Live food or feed tradeSold at local markets Yes Boonkerd et al. (1993)
    Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
    Ornamental purposesOccasionally used as an ornamental Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
    People foragingIt is foraged locally for food Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Clothing, footwear and possessionsNo information available, but possible from rice cultivation practices Yes
    Debris and waste associated with human activitiesNo information available, but possible from rice cultivation and its use for food Yes
    Floating vegetation and debrisDispersed by interconnected waterways and flooding Yes Yes Ali et al. (2018)
    WaterDispersed by interconnected waterways and flooding Yes Yes Ali et al. (2018)

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Cultural/amenity Positive
    Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
    Environment (generally) Positive and negative
    Human health Positive

    Economic Impact

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    M. hastata is a weed of rice fields although there is limited information on its impact on rice crops. Boonkerd et al. (1993) reports that at high population densities, M. hastata is competitive and can reduce rice yields considerably.

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Invasive in its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Long lived
    • Fast growing
    • Has high reproductive potential
    • Gregarious
    • Reproduces asexually
    Impact outcomes
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Hybridization
    • Rapid growth
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

    Uses

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    Economic Value

    M. hastata is sold in local markets in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, mainly for medicinal purposes (Boonkerd et al., 1993). It is also sold in some countries as a vegetable (Kays and Silva Dias, 1995; You-kai et al., 2004). Various Monochoria species are used as ornamentals (Boonkerd et al., 1993).

    Social Benefit

    M. hastata is used as a vegetable in its native range (Patwary et al., 1989; Maikhuri and Gangwar, 1993; Ogle et al., 2003; Ali et al., 2018; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). The plants are usually foraged from natural populations (Boonkerd et al., 1993). It is also used as fodder for cattle (Patwary et al., 1989) and occasionally as an ornamental (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

    The medicinal uses reported for M. hastata include treatment of nausea, toothache, itching, asthma, coughs, cold, fever, stomach and liver problems, general debility, haemorrhage, hepatitis, anaemia, scurvy and diabetes (Bhowmik et al., 2012; Chowdhury et al., 2016; The DNA of Singapore, 2019). It is used in Ayurveda traditional medicine to treat wounds, general oedema, papules, as a diuretic, blood purifier and to reduce pitta dosha (Institute of Ayurveda, 2019).

    Environmental Services

    M. hastata can be used for the phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with heavy metals (Hazra et al., 2015; Ali et al., 2018).

    Uses List

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    Animal feed, fodder, forage

    • Fodder/animal feed

    Environmental

    • Amenity

    General

    • Sociocultural value

    Human food and beverage

    • Vegetable

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Traditional/folklore

    Ornamental

    • garden plant

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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    Monochoria hastata is similar to M. vaginalis (Ali et al., 2018; PIER, 2019). The rhizome in M. vaginalis is short while in M. hastata it is longer and branched. The leaves of M. hastata usually have a sagittate or hastate base whereas in M. vaginalis they are obtuse, rounded or truncate-cordate. M. hastata usually has more flowers per raceme than M. vaginalis. The flowers of M. hastata do not open simultaneously and the pedicels are unequal in length, being longer at the base of the raceme.

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Warning Systems

    M. hastata is included in the USA Federal Noxious Weed List, with the importation of plant parts, seeds or products being prohibited (Coile, 1996; USDA-NRCS, 2019).

    Chemical Control

    Although no specific information is available, the use of herbicides in rice fields reduces the incidence of weeds in general (Boonkerd et al., 1993).

    Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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    Research is required on the impact of M. hastata on rice fields, and also on natural habitats and biodiversity.

    References

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    Boonkerd T, Na Songkhla B, Thephuttee W, 1993. Monochoria K.B. Presl. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 8: Vegetables, [ed. by Siemonsma JS, Piluek K]. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation. www.prota4u.org/prosea

    Chowdhury, N. S., Sohrab, M. H., Rony, S. R., Suriya Sharmin, Begum, M. N., Rana, M. S., Hasan, C. M., 2016. Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi from Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 45(1), 187-193. http://www.bdbotsociety.org/journal/journal_issue/2016%20March/25.pdf

    Coile NC, 1996. Invasion of the South: the ecological impact and control of exotic weeds in the southeastern United States. Symposium given at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 20 April 1995. Castanea, 61(3), 209-319.

    Eckenwalder, J. E., Barrett, S. C. H., 1986. Phylogenetic systematics of Pontederiaceae. Systematic Botany, 11, 373-391.

    Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

    Flora do Brasil, 2019. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Greenwood, W., 1949. Notes on some Fijian weeds and introduced plants. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 30, 75-84.

    Hakim, M. A., Juraimi, A. S., Ismail, M. R., Hanafi, M. M., Selamat, A., 2013. A survey on weed diversity in coastal rice fields of Sebarang Perak in Peninsular Malaysia. JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23(2), 534-542. http://www.thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-23-2/33.pdf

    Huelsenbeck JP, Nielsen R, Bollback JP, 2003. Stochastic mapping of morphological characters. Systematic Biology, 52(2), 131-158.

    India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Institute of Ayurveda, 2019. Monochoria hastata. In: Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants of Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka: http://www.instituteofayurveda.org/plants/plants_detail.php?i=1080&s=Family_name

    Islam, M. S., Drasar, B. S., Sack, R. B., 1994. The aquatic flora and fauna as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae: a review. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, 12(2), 87-96.

    Kays, S. J., Dias, J. C. S., 1995. Common names of commercially cultivated vegetables of the world in 15 languages. Economic Botany, 49(2), 115-152. doi: 10.1007/BF02862917

    Kosaka, Y., Xayvongsa, L., Vilayphone, A., Chanthavong, H., Takeda, S., Kato, M., 2013. Wild edible herbs in paddy fields and their sale in a mixture in Houaphan Province, the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Economic Botany, 67(4), 335-349. doi: 10.1007/s12231-013-9251-6

    Maikhuri, R. K., Gangwar, A. K., 1993. Ethnobiological notes on the Khasi and Garo tribes of Meghalaya, northeast India. Economic Botany, 47(4), 345-357. doi: 10.1007/BF02907348

    Moushumi Hazra, Kirti Avishek, Gopal Pathak, 2015. Phytoremedial potential of Typha latifolia, Eichornia crassipes and Monochoria hastata found in contaminated water bodies across Ranchi city (India). International Journal of Phytoremediation, 17(9), 835-840. doi: 10.1080/15226514.2014.964847

    Mubarak Ali, Asad Shabbir, Iram Mujahid, 2018. First record of Monochoria hastata: a new alien weed of rice in Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 20(1), 165-168. http://www.fspublishers.org/published_papers/32054_..pdf

    Ogle, B. M., Ho Thi Tuyet, Hoang Nghia Duyet, Nguyen Nhut Xuan Dung, 2003. Food, feed or medicine: the multiple functions of edible wild plants in Vietnam. Economic Botany, 57(1), 103-117. doi: 10.1663/0013-0001(2003)057[0103:FFOMTM]2.0.CO;2

    Pal PK, Karmakar P, 2013. Pollen analysis in understanding the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera in Gangetic West Bengal. Geophytology, 42(2), 93-114.

    Patwary, M. U., Haque, M. M., Zaman, M. A., 1989. Polyploidy in Monochoria hastata Solms. and M. vaginalis Prest. grown in Bangladesh. Cytologia, 54(3), 505-511. doi: 10.1508/cytologia.54.505

    PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    Reiner EJ, Robbins RG, 1964. The Middle Sepik Plains, New Guinea: a physiographic study. Geographical Review, 54(1), 20-44.

    Somnath Bhowmik, Datta, B. K., Saha, A. K., 2012. Determination of mineral content and heavy metal content of some traditionally important aquatic plants of Tripura, India using atomic absorption spectroscopy. International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(4), 1475-1484. http://www.ijat-aatsea.com/pdf/v8_n4_12_July/28_IJAT_2012_8_4__Somnath_BHOWMIK-Plant_Science-accepted1.pdf

    Steenis CGGJ van, 1947. Notes on a number of New Guinean species. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 28(4), 419-423.

    The DNA of Singapore, 2019. The Digital Nature Archive (DNA) of Singapore. Singapore: Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum.https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/585

    USDA-NRCS, 2019. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

    Useful Tropical Plants, 2019. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

    World Flora Online, 2019. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org

    Xu, Y. K., Tao, G. D., Liu, H. M., Yan, K. L., Dao, X. S., 2004. Wild vegetable resources and market survey in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. Economic Botany, 58(4), 647-667. doi: 10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0647:WVRAMS]2.0.CO;2

    Distribution References

    EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Hakim M A, Juraimi A S, Ismail M R, Hanafi M M, Selamat A, 2013. A survey on weed diversity in coastal rice fields of Sebarang Perak in Peninsular Malaysia. JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 23 (2), 534-542. http://www.thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-23-2/33.pdf

    India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Mubarak Ali, Asad Shabbir, Iram Mujahid, 2018. First record of Monochoria hastata: a new alien weed of rice in Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 20 (1), 165-168. http://www.fspublishers.org/published_papers/32054_..pdf

    PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    Tagore JK, Jansirani P, Soosairaj S, 2019. A report on additions to the flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11 (8), 14080-14082.

    Contributors

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    31/10/19 Original text by:

    Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 

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